List of college bowl games

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Rose Bowl Game, played at Rose Bowl stadium (shown), is the oldest operating bowl game—first played in 1902, it has been played annually since 1916.

This is a list of college football bowl games, including those proposed and defunct. Three bowl games are part of the College Football Playoff, a selection system that creates bowl matchups involving four of the top-ranked teams in the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS). There are also a number of other college football postseason invitationals, as well as several all-star games.

For nearly a century, bowl games were the purview of only the very best teams, but a steady proliferation of new bowl games required more teams, with 70 participating teams by the 2010–11 bowl season, then 80 participating teams by the 2015–16 bowl season. As a result, the NCAA has steadily relaxed the criteria for bowl eligibility. Teams with a non-winning record (6–6) were allowed starting in 2010. Requirements were further reduced to allow teams with outright losing records (5–7) to be invited since 2012, with the team with the best Academic Progress Rate score (among teams with 5–7 records) to be chosen first.[1] While inviting teams without winning records to bowl games has become more commonplace, there were several losing teams who played in bowl games before the last decade's changes in bowl eligibility: 1946 Gator Bowl, South Carolina (2–3–3); 1963 Sun Bowl, SMU (4–6); 1970 Tangerine Bowl, William & Mary (5–6); and the 2001 New Orleans Bowl, North Texas (5–6).[2] For the 2016–17 bowl season, 25% of the bowl participants (20 teams) did not have a winning record.

The tables (College Football Playoff games, Other current Division I FBS bowl games) reflect changes for the 2022–23 bowl season.

Bowl games are not limited to the Bowl Subdivision; teams in the three lower divisions of the NCAA—the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS), Division II, and Division III—are also allowed to participate in bowl games. The playoff structure in those three divisions discourages most high-caliber teams from participating in bowl games, as teams would rather contest for their division's national championship than play in a bowl game. The same basic guidelines for bowl eligibility apply for those contests. As of 2017, one bowl game (the Celebration Bowl) exists for FCS, four bowls serve Division II, and ten exist for teams in Division III (not including the Stagg Bowl, which is the name for the NCAA Division III Football Championship game).

Community college bowl games, not sanctioned by the NCAA, are also listed.

College Football Playoff games[edit]

Six major bowl games, known as the New Year's Six, rotate the hosting of the two semifinal games which determine the teams that play in the final College Football Playoff National Championship game.[3] The New Year's Six includes six of the ten oldest bowl games (missing the Sun, Gator, Citrus and Liberty bowls), continuing their original history of pitting the very best teams in the country against each other. These six games focus on the top 12 teams in the rankings, with only five teams ranked lower than 12th (all five were still ranked in the top 20) having ever played in the New Year's Six since the College Football Playoff system was inaugurated.

Name First
Game
Venue
(Permanent Seating)
City Most Recent
Per Team
Payout
(+ Revenue Pool)[4]
Title
Sponsor[5]
Previous Name(s)[5]
Rose Bowl Game 1902

(annual since 1916)
Rose Bowl
(92,542)
Pasadena, California* $4,000,000 Prudential Tournament East-West football game; Rose Bowl, Rose Bowl Game presented by: AT&T^, Sony PlayStation 2^, Citi^, Vizio^, Northwestern Mutual^, Capital One^
Orange Bowl 1935 Hard Rock Stadium
(64,767)
Miami Gardens, Florida $6,000,000
(as semifinal)
Capital One Orange Bowl, FedEx Orange Bowl, Discover Orange Bowl
Sugar Bowl 1935 Caesars Superdome
(73,208)
New Orleans, Louisiana $4,000,000 Allstate Sugar Bowl, USF&G Sugar Bowl, Nokia Sugar Bowl
Cotton Bowl Classic 1937 AT&T Stadium
(80,000)
Arlington, Texas $6,000,000
(as semifinal)
Goodyear Cotton Bowl, Mobil Cotton Bowl, Cotton Bowl, Southwestern Bell Cotton Bowl Classic, SBC Cotton Bowl Classic, AT&T Cotton Bowl Classic
Peach Bowl 1968 Mercedes-Benz Stadium
(71,000)
Atlanta, Georgia $4,000,000 Chick-fil-A Peach Bowl, Chick-fil-A Peach Bowl, Chick-fil-A Bowl
Fiesta Bowl 1971 State Farm Stadium
(63,400)
Glendale, Arizona $4,000,000 Vrbo Fiesta Bowl, Sunkist Fiesta Bowl, Fiesta Bowl, IBM OS/2 Fiesta Bowl, Tostitos Fiesta Bowl, Vizio Fiesta Bowl, BattleFrog Fiesta Bowl, PlayStation Fiesta Bowl

^ The Rose Bowl did not add a sponsor to its name until the 1998 season. Unlike other bowls, which give the sponsor's name precedence ahead of the bowl's name (effectively changing the title of the game), the Rose Bowl adds the sponsor as "presented by", after the words Rose Bowl.
* Two-time move, due to World War II travel restrictions after the attack on Pearl Harbor moving the 1942 game to Duke Stadium in Durham, NC, as well as the COVID-19 pandemic moving the 2021 game to AT&T Stadium in Arlington, TX.
† One-time move, due to damage to the Superdome from Hurricane Katrina, moving the 2006 game to the Georgia Dome in Atlanta, GA.

Other current Division I FBS bowl games[edit]

Besides the six bowl games that are part of the College Football Playoff, there are a number of other postseason invitationals. Generally, two conferences will agree to send teams of a particular standing to a game beforehand. For instance, the Rose Bowl traditionally features the Big Ten and Pac-12 conference champions. Generally, the payout to the participating teams in a bowl game is closely correlated to its prestige. By comparison, each of the former BCS bowls (including the national championship game) had a payout of $18 million.

Name Season
Started
Venue
(Permanent Seating)
City Total Payout
[4]
Title Sponsor(s)[5] Previous Name(s)[5]
Sun Bowl 1935 Sun Bowl Stadium
(51,500)
El Paso, Texas $3,447,568 Tony the Tiger[a] Sun Bowl, John Hancock Sun Bowl, John Hancock Bowl, Norwest Bank Sun Bowl, Norwest Corporation Sun Bowl, Wells Fargo Sun Bowl, Vitalis Sun Bowl, Brut Sun Bowl, Hyundai Sun Bowl
Gator Bowl 1945 EverBank Stadium
(76,867)
Jacksonville, Florida $3,168,292 TaxSlayer Gator Bowl, Mazda Gator Bowl, Outback Gator Bowl, Toyota Gator Bowl, Konica Minolta Gator Bowl, Progressive Gator Bowl, TaxSlayer.com Gator Bowl, TaxSlayer Bowl
Citrus Bowl 1946 Camping World Stadium
(60,219)
Orlando, Florida $8,550,000 Cheez-It[b] Tangerine Bowl, Florida Citrus Bowl, CompUSA Florida Citrus Bowl, Ourhouse.com Florida Citrus Bowl, Capital One Florida Citrus Bowl, Capital One Bowl, Buffalo Wild Wings Citrus Bowl, Citrus Bowl presented by Overton's, Vrbo Citrus Bowl
Liberty Bowl 1959 Simmons Bank Liberty Stadium
(58,325)
Memphis, Tennessee $4,294,681 AutoZone Liberty Bowl, St. Jude Liberty Bowl, AXA Liberty Bowl
Independence Bowl 1976 Independence Stadium
(53,000)
Shreveport, Louisiana $1,248,280 Radiance Technologies Independence Bowl, Poulan Independence Bowl, Poulan Weed Eater Independence Bowl, Sanford Independence Bowl, MainStay Independence Bowl, PetroSun Independence Bowl, AdvoCare V100 Independence Bowl, AdvoCare V100 Bowl, Duck Commander Independence Bowl, Camping World Independence Bowl, Walk-On's Independence Bowl
Holiday Bowl 1978 Petco Park
(40,209)
San Diego, California $6,326,258 DIRECTV Holiday Bowl, Sea World Holiday Bowl, Thrifty Car Rental Holiday Bowl, Plymouth Holiday Bowl, Culligan Holiday Bowl, Pacific Life Holiday Bowl, Bridgepoint Education Holiday Bowl, National University Holiday Bowl, National Funding Holiday Bowl, San Diego County Credit Union Holiday Bowl
ReliaQuest Bowl 1986 Raymond James Stadium
(65,908)
Tampa, Florida $6,350,000 ReliaQuest Hall of Fame Bowl, Outback Bowl
Guaranteed Rate Bowl 1989 Chase Field
(48,519)
Phoenix, Arizona $1,037,118 Guaranteed Rate Copper Bowl, Domino's Pizza Copper Bowl, Weiser Lock Copper Bowl, Insight.com Bowl, Insight Bowl, Buffalo Wild Wings Bowl, TicketCity Cactus Bowl, Motel 6 Cactus Bowl, Cheez-It Bowl[b]
Pop-Tarts Bowl[c] 1990 Camping World Stadium
(60,219)
Orlando, Florida $5,800,000 Pop-Tarts[c] Sunshine Classic, Blockbuster Bowl, Carquest Bowl, MicronPC Bowl, MicronPC.com Bowl, Visit Florida Tangerine Bowl, Mazda Tangerine Bowl, Champs Sports Bowl, Russell Athletic Bowl, Camping World Bowl, Cheez-It Bowl[b]
Las Vegas Bowl 1992 Allegiant Stadium
(65,000)
Paradise, Nevada $2,760,000 SRS Distribution Las Vegas Bowl, Las Vegas Bowl presented by Reno Air, EA Sports Las Vegas Bowl, Sega Sports Las Vegas Bowl, Pioneer PureVision Las Vegas Bowl, Pioneer Las Vegas Bowl, MAACO Bowl Las Vegas, Royal Purple Las Vegas Bowl, Las Vegas Bowl presented by GEICO, Mitsubishi Las Vegas Bowl
Alamo Bowl 1993 Alamodome
(65,000)
San Antonio, Texas $7,975,000 Valero Builders Square Alamo Bowl, Sylvania Alamo Bowl, Alamo Bowl Presented By MasterCard, MasterCard Alamo Bowl, Alamo Bowl
Famous Idaho Potato Bowl 1997 Albertsons Stadium
(37,000)
Boise, Idaho $950,000 Idaho Potato Commission[d] Sports Humanitarian Bowl, Humanitarian Bowl, Crucial.com Humanitarian Bowl, MPC Computers Bowl, Roady's Humanitarian Bowl, uDrove Humanitarian Bowl
Music City Bowl 1998 Nissan Stadium
(69,143)
Nashville, Tennessee $5,650,000 TransPerfect Music City Bowl, American General Music City Bowl, homepoint.com Music City Bowl, Gaylord Hotels Music City Bowl, Gaylord Hotels Music City Bowl presented by Bridgestone, Franklin American Mortgage Music City Bowl
68 Ventures Bowl 1999 Hancock Whitney Stadium
(25,450)
Mobile, Alabama $1,500,000 68 Ventures Mobile Alabama Bowl, GMAC Mobile Alabama Bowl, GMAC Bowl, GoDaddy.com Bowl, GoDaddy Bowl, Dollar General Bowl, LendingTree Bowl
New Orleans Bowl 2001 Caesars Superdome
(73,208)
New Orleans, Louisiana $925,000 R+L Carriers New Orleans Bowl, Wyndham New Orleans Bowl
Hawaiʻi Bowl 2002 Clarence T. C. Ching Athletics Complex
(15,194)
Honolulu, Hawaii $1,000,000 EasyPost ConAgra Foods Hawai'i Bowl, Sheraton Hawai'i Bowl, SoFi Hawai'i Bowl
Duke's Mayo Bowl 2002 Bank of America Stadium
(73,778)
Charlotte, North Carolina $4,505,556 Duke's Mayonnaise Queen City Bowl, Continental Tire Bowl, Meineke Car Care Bowl, Belk Bowl
Armed Forces Bowl 2003 Amon G. Carter Stadium
(45,000)
Fort Worth, Texas $900,000 Lockheed Martin PlainsCapital Fort Worth Bowl, Fort Worth Bowl, Bell Helicopter Armed Forces Bowl
Texas Bowl 2006 NRG Stadium
(71,054)
Houston, Texas $6,300,000 TaxAct Texas Bowl, Meineke Car Care Bowl of Texas, AdvoCare V100 Texas Bowl, Academy Sports + Outdoors Texas Bowl, Mercari Texas Bowl
Birmingham Bowl 2006 Protective Stadium
(47,100)
Birmingham, Alabama $1,650,000 76 Birmingham Bowl, Papajohns.com Bowl, BBVA Compass Bowl, Jared Birmingham Bowl, TicketSmarter Birmingham Bowl
New Mexico Bowl 2006 University Stadium
(39,224)
Albuquerque, New Mexico $1,050,000 Isleta New Mexico Bowl, Gildan New Mexico Bowl, PUBG New Mexico Bowl
Military Bowl 2008 Navy–Marine Corps Memorial Stadium
(34,000)
Annapolis, Maryland $2,066,990 Go Bowling Congressional Bowl, EagleBank Bowl, Military Bowl presented by Northrop Grumman, Military Bowl presented by Perspecta, Military Bowl presented by Peraton
Gasparilla Bowl 2008 Raymond James Stadium
(65,890)
Tampa, Florida $1,133,735 Union Home Mortgage St. Petersburg Bowl, magicJack St. Petersburg Bowl, Beef 'O' Brady's St. Petersburg Bowl, Beef 'O' Brady's Bowl, Bitcoin St. Petersburg Bowl, St. Petersburg Bowl, Bad Boy Mowers Gasparilla Bowl
Pinstripe Bowl 2010 Yankee Stadium
(54,251)
Bronx, New York $4,300,000 Bad Boy Mowers New Era Pinstripe Bowl
First Responder Bowl 2010 Gerald J. Ford Stadium
(32,000)
Dallas, Texas $1,667,000 Servpro Dallas Football Classic, TicketCity Bowl, Heart of Dallas Bowl presented by PlainsCapital Bank, Zaxby's Heart of Dallas Bowl
Bahamas Bowl 2014 Thomas Robinson Stadium
(15,023)
Nassau, Bahamas $225,000 HomeTown Lenders Popeyes Bahamas Bowl, Makers Wanted Bahamas Bowl
Boca Raton Bowl 2014 FAU Stadium
(29,419)
Boca Raton, Florida $1,000,000 RoofClaim.com Boca Raton Bowl, Marmot Boca Raton Bowl, Cheribundi Boca Raton Bowl
Camellia Bowl 2014 Cramton Bowl
(25,000)
Montgomery, Alabama $250,000 None Raycom Media Camellia Bowl, Camillia Bowl, TaxAct Camellia Bowl
Quick Lane Bowl 2014 Ford Field
(65,000)
Detroit, Michigan $750,000 Ford Motor Company[e] de facto replacement for Little Caesars Pizza Bowl which ran from 1997 to 2013
Cure Bowl 2015 FBC Mortgage Stadium
(44,206)
Orlando, Florida $573,125 Avocados from Mexico AutoNation Cure Bowl, FBC Mortgage Cure Bowl, Tailgreeter Cure Bowl, Duluth Trading Company Cure Bowl
Arizona Bowl 2015 Arizona Stadium
(56,029)
Tucson, Arizona $412,920 Barstool Sports NOVA Home Loans Arizona Bowl, Offerpad Arizona Bowl
Frisco Bowl 2017 Toyota Stadium
(20,500)
Frisco, Texas $750,000 Scooter's Coffee de facto replacement for the Miami Beach Bowl, which was sold to ESPN Events and relocated to Frisco, Texas.

DXL Frisco Bowl, Tropical Smoothie Cafe Frisco Bowl
Myrtle Beach Bowl 2020 Brooks Stadium
(20,000)
Conway, South Carolina TBD None None previous
Fenway Bowl 2021 Fenway Park
(37,755)
Boston, Massachusetts TBD Wasabi None previous
LA Bowl 2021 SoFi Stadium
(70,240)
Inglewood, California TBD Starco Brands
Rob Gronkowski
Jimmy Kimmel LA Bowl presented by Stifel
Famous Toastery Bowl 2023 Jerry Richardson Stadium
(15,314)
Charlotte, North Carolina TBD Famous Toastery One year substitution for the Bahamas Bowl
  1. ^ Advertising character for Frosted Flakes, a cereal brand produced by Kellogg's.
  2. ^ a b c Cheez-It is a brand of cheese crackers produced by Kellogg's.
  3. ^ a b Pop-Tarts is a brand of toaster pastries produced by Kellogg's.
  4. ^ "Famous Idaho Potato" is an advertising slogan and trademark of the Idaho Potato Commission.
  5. ^ Quick Lane is Ford's brand name for its dealers' express service business.

Non-FBS bowl games[edit]

Division I FCS bowls[edit]

Name First
Game
Venue
(Permanent Seating)
City Most Recent
Per Team
Payout
(+ Revenue Pool)
Title Sponsor Previous Name(s)
Celebration Bowl
(HBCU National Championship)
2015 Mercedes-Benz Stadium
(71,000)
Atlanta, Georgia $1,000,000 Cricket Wireless Pelican Bowl (1972–75)
Heritage Bowl (1991–99)
Legacy Bowl (proposed 2010)
Air Force Reserve Celebration Bowl

Division II bowls[edit]

NOTE: These games are similar to the National Invitation Tournament in Division I college basketball, for teams in conferences that did not make the NCAA Division II tournament.

Name First
Game
Venue
(Permanent Seating)
City Title Sponsor Previous Name(s)
Live United Bowl 2013 Razorback Stadium Texarkana, Arkansas Farmers Bank and Trust
United Way
Agent Barry Live United Bowl
Texarkana Bowl
(Replaced Kanza Bowl, which ran from 2009 to 2012)
Heritage Bowl 2017 Tiger Stadium (10,001) Corsicana, Texas Fun Town RV Corsicana Bowl (2017–2018)
America's Crossroads Bowl 2019[6][7] Brickyard Stadium Hobart, Indiana Indiana South Shore Convention & Visitors Authority None
Florida Beach Bowl 2023 DRV PNK Stadium Fort Lauderdale, Florida Amerant Bank None

Division III bowls[edit]

Name First
Game
Venue
(Permanent Seating)
City Title Sponsor Previous Name(s)
ECAC Bowl Series
  • Asa S. Bushnell Bowl
  • Clayton Chapman Bowl
  • Scotty Whitelaw Bowl
  • James Lynah Bowl
2015 Varies (campus sites) ECAC ECAC Bowl (1983–2003)
Regional ECAC bowl games (1983-2014)[8]
Centennial-MAC Bowl Series
  • 3 unnamed bowls
2015 Centennial & MAC None
New England Bowl Series
  • 2 unnamed bowls
2016 ECFC, MASCAC,
CCC Football, & NEWMAC
None
Culver's Isthmus Bowl 2021 Bank of Sun Prairie Stadium Sun Prairie, Wisconsin WIAC & CCIW None
Cousins Subs Lakefront Bowl 2022 Raabe Stadium Wauwatosa, Wisconsin MWC & NACC None
Chesapeake Bowl Challenge
  • Cape Charles Bowl
  • Cape Henry Bowl
2023 Varies (campus sites) Landmark & ODAC None

Additionally, NCAA Division III is home to the Amos Alonzo Stagg Bowl (1973–2019; was played in Salem, Virginia). NCAA awarded the 2020 & 2021 games to Canton, OH, 2022 game to Navy-Marine Corp Stadium, 2023 to Salem VA, 2024 game to Humble TX and finally the 2025 game back to Canton. In contrast to other bowl games, the Stagg Bowl operates within the NCAA tournament structure rather than as a stand-alone post-season game; it serves as the Division III national championship game to conclude a 32-team post-season playoff.

NAIA bowl games[edit]

The NAIA's national championship game (which is the conclusion of a 16 team playoff) is currently not named as a bowl, but has held a bowl name in the past. Additionally, from 1970 to 1996, NAIA football was split into two divisions and held a separate tournaments and championships for both divisions; the Division II championship was never named a bowl and as such the past names listed below do not apply to the Division II championship game.

Name First
Game
Venue
(Permanent Seating)
City Title Sponsor Previous Name(s)
NAIA national football championship 1956 Daytona Beach, Florida NAIA
Waste Pro
Aluminum Bowl (1956)
Holiday Bowl (1957–1960)
Camellia Bowl (1961–1963)
Championship Bowl (1964–1976, 1980–1996)
Apple Bowl (1977)
Palm Bowl (1978–1979)

NCCAA bowl games[edit]

Football teams that are a part of the NCCAA may also be members of the NCAA, NAIA, or of neither. Bids to the Victory Bowl are given to NCCAA teams that did not make the NCAA or NAIA playoffs and is treated as the NCCAA Championship Game, but follows no playoff itself.

Name First
Game
Venue
(Permanent Seating)
City Title Sponsor Previous Name(s)
Victory Bowl 1997 Campus site N/A NCCAA None

Proposed games[edit]

The number of bowl games have risen steadily, reaching 41 (including the national championship game) by the 2015 bowl season. To fill the 80 available bowl slots, a record 15 teams with non-winning seasons participated in bowl games—including three with a record of 5–7. This situation led directly to the NCAA Division I Council imposing a three-year moratorium on new bowl games in April 2016.[10]

Since 2010, organizers and boosters have continued to propose other bowl games—some of these proposals have since been dropped, while others are active proposals that have been placed on hold during the NCAA moratorium.

Name Year to start Venue
(permanent seating)
City Payout Sponsor(s) Previous name(s)
Chili Bowl 2023 TQL Stadium
(26,000)
Cincinnati, Ohio TBD TBD None previous
Chicago Bowl TBD Wrigley Field
(41,268)
Chicago, Illinois TBD TBD None previous
Chocolate Bowl[11] TBD Hersheypark Stadium
(15,641)
Hershey, Pennsylvania TBD TBD None previous
Austin Bowl[12] TBD Darrell K Royal–Texas Memorial Stadium
(100,119)
Austin, Texas TBD TBD None previous
Medal of Honor Bowl[13] TBD Johnson Hagood Stadium
(21,000)
Charleston, South Carolina TBD TBD None previous
Little Rock Bowl[14] TBD War Memorial Stadium
(54,120)
Little Rock, Arkansas TBD TBD None previous
Melbourne Bowl TBD Marvel Stadium
(56,347)
Melbourne, Victoria TBD TBD None previous
Dubai bowl game[14] TBD TBD Dubai, United Arab Emirates TBD TBD None previous
Ireland bowl game[14] TBD TBD Ireland (specific city TBD) TBD TBD None previous
Toronto bowl game[14] TBD Rogers Centre
(54,000)
Toronto, Ontario TBD TBD International Bowl
St. Louis bowl game[14][15] TBD TBD St. Louis, Missouri TBD TBD None previous

Two proposed games, the Cure Bowl and Christmas Bowl, were turned down by the NCAA for 2010.[16] The Cure Bowl was eventually added in 2014, for the 2015 bowl season.

In August 2013, the Detroit Lions announced that it would hold a new bowl game at Ford Field beginning in 2014, holding Big Ten and Atlantic Coast Conference tie-ins, despite the existence of the Little Caesars Pizza Bowl.[17][18] While Pizza Bowl organizers attempted to move the game to Comerica Park (a baseball stadium across the street from Ford Field), these plans never came to fruition.[19][20] In August 2014, the Lions announced that the new game would be known as the Quick Lane Bowl, and play its inaugural game on December 26, 2014. In a statement to Crain's Detroit Business, Motor City Bowl co-founder Ken Hoffman confirmed that there would be no Little Caesars Pizza Bowl for 2014.[19][21]

In June 2013, ESPN.com reported that the so-called "Group of Five" conferences—the American Athletic Conference, Conference USA, MAC, Mountain West Conference, and Sun Belt Conference—were considering adding one or more new bowl games once the NCAA's current moratorium on new bowls expires after the 2013 season. This move was driven by a trend for the "Power Five" conferences (ACC, Big Ten, Big 12, Pac-12, and SEC) to play one another in bowl games. The 2013 season, the last of the current four-year bowl cycle, will have 16 bowls that involve two teams from "Power Five" leagues. The 2014 season, the first of a new six-year bowl cycle, will have at least 19, and possibly more, matchups of "Power Five" teams. The "Group of Five" was apparently concerned that this trend would mean that its teams might not have available bowl slots.[14]

According to reports, the 2010 Christmas Bowl proposal would have involved a Mountain West team against an opponent from either the Pac-12 or The American. As for The American, it has suggested a new bowl game, most likely at Marlins Park in Miami. Two other venues of "Group of Five" schools in Florida—Spectrum Stadium (UCF, Orlando) and FAU Stadium (Florida Atlantic, Boca Raton)—are being considered for other potential bowls. A possible bowl in Little Rock would pit C-USA and the Sun Belt. Finally, the director of the current Little Caesars Bowl indicated that he had been in contact with officials from all of the "Group of Five" about starting new bowl games in Ireland (most likely Dublin), Dubai, and either Toronto or Nassau.[14] Recently, though, reports have indicated the proposed games in Ireland and Dubai would be unworkable.[22]

The first new bowl to be confirmed for 2014 was the Camellia Bowl, a game created by ESPN and played in Montgomery, Alabama. It secured tie-ins with the MAC and Sun Belt, and an initial contract to run through the 2019 season. ESPN was also reported to be in negotiations to take over ownership of the existing Heart of Dallas Bowl and establish a new bowl game in Boca Raton.[23]

Another ownership group interested in starting a Montgomery-based bowl at New ASU Stadium reportedly switched focus to Charleston, South Carolina. In the face of obstacles related to an NCAA ban on playing postseason games at predetermined locations in South Carolina due to the Confederate battle flag being flown at a civil war monument on the State House grounds, the ownership group instead chose to stage the Medal of Honor Bowl all-star game at Johnson Hagood Stadium beginning in 2014.[24] However, with the Confederate flag's removal from the State House grounds on July 10, 2015, the NCAA lifted its ban that day.[25] As such, on August 27 of that year, the Medal of Honor Bowl announced their plans to become a traditional postseason bowl game beginning on December 18, 2016, pending NCAA approval. The all-star game format was not played that year as a result.[26] However, in April 2016, the NCAA announced a moratorium on new bowl games;[10] organizers had subsequently announced plans to hold the bowl (as an all-star game again) in January 2018;[27] however, no further editions of the Medal of Honor Bowl have been played.

Map of Division I bowl games[edit]

Number of current FBS bowl games by state[edit]

State Number Bowls
Florida 8 Orange*, Boca Raton, Citrus, Cure, Gasparilla, Gator, Outback, Pop-Tarts
Texas 7 Cotton*, Alamo, Armed Forces, First Responder, Frisco, Sun, Texas
Alabama 3 Birmingham, Camellia, LendingTree
Arizona Fiesta*, Arizona, Guaranteed Rate
California Rose*, Holiday, LA
Louisiana Sugar*, Independence, New Orleans
Tennessee 2 Liberty, Music City
Georgia 1 Peach*
Hawaii Hawaii
Idaho Famous Idaho Potato
Maryland Military
Massachusetts Fenway
Michigan Quick Lane
Nevada Las Vegas
New Mexico New Mexico
New York Pinstripe
North Carolina Duke's Mayo
South Carolina Myrtle Beach

* Bowl is a College Football Playoff semifinal, once every three seasons, in rotation under current CFP format

Outside U.S.[edit]

Country Number Bowls
Bahamas 1 Bahamas Bowl

All-Star games[edit]

FBS all-star games[edit]

All-star games predominantly featuring players from the FBS-level (or historical equivalents, such as Division I-A).[28]

Name Status Years City Notes
East–West Shrine Bowl Active 1925–present San Francisco, California (1925–1941)
multiple locations (1942–2011)
St. Petersburg, Florida (2012–2019)
Paradise, Nevada (2021–present)
has invited Canadian players since 1985
NFLPA Collegiate Bowl Active 2012–2023 Pasadena, California
Senior Bowl Active 1950–present Jacksonville, Florida (1950)
Mobile, Alabama (1951–present)
Two separate venues in Mobile: Ladd–Peebles Stadium (1951–2020) and Hancock Whitney Stadium (2021–future)
Hula Bowl Active 1960–2008
2020–present
Honolulu, Hawaii (1960–97, 2006–08, 2020–present)
Wailuku, Hawaii (1998–2005)
started with non-collegiate players in 1947
Medal of Honor Bowl Defunct 2014–2015 Charleston, South Carolina
Blue–Gray Football Classic Defunct 1939–2001
2003
Montgomery, Alabama
Troy, Alabama
Casino del Sol College All-Star Game Defunct 2011–2013 Tempe, Arizona (2011)
Tucson, Arizona (2012–13)
Eastham Energy College All-Star Game in 2011
Challenge Bowl Defunct 1978–1979 Seattle, Washington Pac-8 all-stars vs. Big Ten all-stars (1978)
Pac-10 all-stars vs. Big Eight all-stars (1979)[29]
Chicago College All-Star Game Defunct 1934–1976 Chicago, Illinois (1934–42, 1945–76)
Evanston, Illinois (1943–44)
college all-stars vs. NFL champions
College All-Star Bowl Defunct 2013–2014 Greenville, South Carolina
Gridiron Classic Defunct 1999–2005 Orlando, Florida (1999–2003)
The Villages, Florida (2004–05)
Japan Bowl Defunct 1976–1993 Tokyo, Japan (1976–79, 1992–93)
Yokohama, Japan (1980–91)
Las Vegas All-American Classic Defunct 2002–2006 Saint George, Utah (2002–03)
Las Vegas, Nevada (2004–06)
played as the Paradise Bowl in Utah
Magnolia Gridiron All-Star Classic Defunct 2005–2006 Jackson, Mississippi Division I-A vs. Division I-AA/II/III
North–South All-Star Classic Defunct 2007 Houston, Texas also known as the Inta-Juice All-Star Classic
North–South Shrine Game Defunct 1948–1973
1976
Miami, Florida
Pontiac, Michigan
started with high school teams in 1946
Players All-Star Classic Defunct 2012 Little Rock, Arkansas
Raycom All-Star Classic Defunct 2013 Montgomery, Alabama
Texas vs The Nation Defunct 2007–2011
2013
El Paso, Texas (2007–10)
San Antonio, Texas (2011)
Allen, Texas (2013)

Other all-star games[edit]

Name Status Years City Notes
National Bowl Game Active 2011–present Allentown, Pennsylvania (2011–2012)
Miami, Florida (2013–2015)
Daytona Beach, Florida (2016–present)
Division II/III and NAIA
FCS Bowl Active 2014–present Miami, Florida (2014–2015)
Daytona Beach, Florida (2016–present)
FCS
Dream Bowl Active 2016-present Roanoke, Virginia (2016-2019)
Salem, Virginia (2020-2023)
Little Elm, Texas (2024–present)
Division II/III and FCS[30]
Cactus Bowl Defunct 1994–2011 Fargo, North Dakota (1994–2000)
Kingsville, Texas (2001–2011)
played as the Snow Bowl in Fargo
Division II
USA College Football Bowl Defunct 1996–2015 multiple locations (1996–2014)
Jackson, Mississippi (2015)
initially Division III, later all levels[31]
2016 game was cancelled[32]
East Coast Bowl Defunct 2001–2009 Petersburg, Virginia Division II/III and NAIA
Epson Ivy Bowl Defunct 1988–1996 Yokohama, Japan
Tokyo, Japan
Nishinomiya, Japan
Three years in Yokohama, three years in Tokyo, two years in Nishinomiya

Regular season games called bowls[edit]

Bowl games played outside of the US[edit]

Junior college bowl games[edit]

Defunct[edit]

Source: NJCAA[33]

Defunct bowl games[edit]

Defunct major-college bowl games[edit]

Bowl name Years played Location Notes
Alamo Bowl 1947 San Antonio, Texas Not to be confused with the modern Alamo Bowl
All-American Bowl 1977–1990 Birmingham, Alabama Known as the Hall of Fame Classic through 1985.
Aloha Bowl 1982–2000 Honolulu, Hawaii
Aviation Bowl 1961 Dayton, Ohio
Bacardi Bowl 1907, 1909, 1911–1912, 1921, 1936, 1946 Havana, Cuba Last game in 1946, Southern Mississippi defeated Havana University, 55-0
Bluebonnet Bowl 1959–1987 Houston, Texas Known as the Astro-Bluebonnet Bowl whenever the game was played in the Astrodome.
Bluegrass Bowl 1958 Louisville, Kentucky
California Bowl 1981–1991 Fresno, California Superseded by the Las Vegas Bowl.
Cherry Bowl 1984–1985 Pontiac, Michigan
Delta Bowl 1947–1948 Memphis, Tennessee
Dixie Bowl 1947–1948 Birmingham, Alabama
Dixie Classic 1921, 1924, 1933 Dallas, Texas Forerunner to the current Cotton Bowl Classic
Fort Worth Classic 1920 Fort Worth, Texas
Freedom Bowl 1984–1994 Anaheim, California
Frisco Football Classic 2021 Frisco, Texas Created to accommodate all bowl-eligible teams for the 2021 College football season[34]
Garden State Bowl 1978–1981 East Rutherford, New Jersey
Gotham Bowl 1961–1962 New York City, New York
Great Lakes Bowl 1947 Cleveland, Ohio
Harbor Bowl 1946–1948 San Diego, California
Houston Bowl 2000–2005 Houston, Texas Called the galleryfurniture.com Bowl in 2000–2001
International Bowl 2006–2009 Toronto, Ontario
Little Caesars Pizza Bowl[35] 1997–2013 Detroit, Michigan
(1997–2001: Pontiac, Michigan)
Also known as the Ford Motor City Bowl and the Motor City Bowl. Was replaced by the Quick Lane Bowl in 2014.
Los Angeles Christmas Festival 1924 Los Angeles, California
Mercy Bowl 1961, 1971 Los Angeles, California
Miami Beach Bowl 2014–2016 Miami, Florida Sold and moved to Frisco, Texas
Montgomery Bowl 2020 Montgomery, Alabama One-season substitute for the Fenway Bowl.
Oahu Bowl 1998–2000 Honolulu, Hawaii
Oil Bowl 1943, 1945–1946 Houston, Texas
Pasadena Bowl 1967–1971 Pasadena, California
Poinsettia Bowl 2005–2016 San Diego, California The Holiday Bowl management folded the Poinsettia Bowl.[36]
Presidential Cup Bowl 1950 College Park, Maryland
Raisin Bowl 1945–1949 Fresno, California
Salad Bowl 1947–1951 Phoenix, Arizona Precursor to current Fiesta Bowl
San Diego East-West Christmas Classic 1921–1922 San Diego, California
San Francisco Bowl 2002-2019 San Francisco Bay Area, California
Seattle Bowl 2001–2002 Seattle, Washington Continuation of the Oahu Bowl.
Shrine Bowl 1948–1949 Little Rock, Arkansas
Silicon Valley Football Classic 2000–2004 San Jose, California

Defunct Division I-AA bowl games[edit]

Defunct Division II bowl games[edit]

Defunct Division III bowl games[edit]

Defunct NAIA bowl games[edit]

[37]

Defunct regular-season games known as bowl games[edit]

Name Seasons Active City Notes
Harvest Bowl 1958–1969 Roanoke, Virginia
Mirage Bowl 1976–1993 Tokyo, Japan A regular season matchup, originally at Korakuen Stadium, later at Olympic Stadium, and finally at the Tokyo Dome
Oyster Bowl 1948–1995 Norfolk, Virginia A regular season game called a "bowl", now a home game for Old Dominion University to raise money for the Kedive Shriner's charities
Patriot Bowl 2007–2009 Cleveland, Ohio A regular season game called a "bowl" that featured a team from the Mid-American Conference and (originally) one of the United States service academies
Tobacco Bowl 1935–1941, 1948–1984 South Boston, Virginia
Richmond, Virginia

Defunct minor-college or unofficial bowl games[edit]

[37]

Name Seasons Active City Notes
Angel Bowl 1946 Los Angeles, California Florida A&M vs. Wiley
Azalea Bowl 1945 Orlando, Florida Florida Memorial University vs. Knoxville College
Azalea Classic 1971, 1974 Mobile, Alabama Featuring HBCUs
Bean Bowl 1949–1950 Scottsbluff, Nebraska
Beaver Bowl 1958 Corry, Pennsylvania Slippery Rock University vs. Pennsylvania Western University
Boardwalk Bowl 1961–1972 Atlantic City, New Jersey A College Division regional final 1968–1972, later a Division II quarterfinal.
Botany Bowl 1955 Shenandoah, Iowa Nebraska-Kearney vs. Northern State
Boy's Ranch Bowl 1947 Abilene, Texas Missouri Valley College vs. McMurry University
Burley Bowl 1945–1956 Johnson City, Tennessee Played on Thanksgiving Day each year
Cajun Bowl 1947 Lake Charles, Louisiana
Cattle Bowl 1947–1948 Fort Worth, Texas
Camellia Bowl 1964–1972 Sacramento, California A College Division regional final 1964–1972, later a playoff game in I-AA and D-II. Not to be confused with the current Camellia Bowl in FBS.
Cement Bowl 1962 Allentown, Pennsylvania Hofstra Pride vs. West Chester Golden Rams
Charity Bowl 1937 Los Angeles, California Fresno State vs. Central Arkansas
Chocolate Bowl[39] 1935 Tyler, Texas Texas College Steers vs. Alabama State Hornets
Christmas Bowl 1958–1959 Natchitoches, Louisiana
Cigar Bowl 1946–1954 Tampa, Florida
Coconut Bowl 1946 Miami, Florida Bethune-Cookman vs. Albany State
Corn Bowl 1947–1955 Bloomington, Illinois
Cosmopolitan Bowl 1951 Alexandria, Louisiana McNeese State vs. Louisiana College
Cotton-Tobacco Bowl 1946–1947 Greensboro, North Carolina
Eastern Bowl 1963 Allentown, Pennsylvania Northeastern Huskies vs. East Carolina Pirates
Elks Bowl 1953–1954 Greenville, North Carolina
Raleigh, North Carolina
Both games were played in calendar year 1954.
Festival of Palms Bowl 1932–1933 Miami, Florida Hosted by University of Miami, it become the Orange Bowl for the 1934 season[40]
Fish Bowl (Texas) 1948 Corpus Christi, Texas University of Corpus Christi vs. Southwestern University
Fish Bowl (Virginia) 1948 Norfolk, Virginia Hampton Pirates vs. Central State Marauders
Flower Bowl 1942–1948 Jacksonville, Florida Featuring HBCUs
Fruit Bowl 1947–1948 San Francisco, California 1948 game was the first inter-racial college bowl game
Furniture Bowl[41] 1950 Martinsville, Virginia Maryland State Hawks vs. Bluefield State Big Blues
Glass Bowl 1946–1949 Toledo, Ohio Hosted by University of Toledo
Golden Isles Bowl 1962 Brunswick, Georgia McNeese State University vs. Samford University
Grantland Rice Bowl 1964–1972 Murfreesboro, Tennessee
Baton Rouge, Louisiana
A College Division regional final for nine years; later a Division II playoff game.
Grape Bowl 1947–1948 Lodi, California
Great Lakes Bowl 1948 Cleveland, Ohio John Carroll Blue Streaks vs. Canisius Golden Griffins. Played in 1947 as a major bowl game
Hoosier Bowl 1946 Evansville, Indiana Evansville Purple Aces vs. Northern Illinois Huskies
Iodine Bowl 1949–1951, 1953 Charleston, South Carolina Hosted by Allen University. Featuring HBCUs.
Kickapoo Bowl 1947 Wichita Falls, Texas Midwestern State Mustangs vs. Central Arkansas Bears
Knute Rockne Bowl 1969–1972 Bridgeport, Connecticut
Atlantic City, New Jersey
A College Division regional final for four years; later a Division II playoff game.
Lions Bowl 1946–1947, 1949–1952 Ruston, Louisiana Hosted by Grambling State University, featuring HBCUs
Mirza Shrine Bowl 1950 Pittsburg, Kansas Pittsburg State Gorillas vs. Central Missouri Mules
Missouri-Kansas Bowl 1948 Kansas City, Missouri Emporia State Hornets vs. Southwest Missouri State Bears
National Bowl[42] 1947 Washington, D.C. Shaw Bears vs. South Carolina State Bulldogs
National Classic 1954 Greensboro, North Carolina North Carolina College vs. Tennessee A&I
New Year's Classic 1933–1934 Honolulu, Hawaii Hosted by University of Hawaii
Oleander Bowl 1949 Galveston, Texas McMurry University vs. Missouri Valley College
Optimist Bowl 1946 Houston, Texas College of the Pacific was coached by Amos Alonzo Stagg.
Orange Blossom Classic 1933–1978 Miami, Florida Hosted by Florida A&M, featuring HBCUs. The name is now used for a regular season game.
Palmetto Shrine Bowl 1955 Columbia, South Carolina Lenoir-Rhyne Bears vs. Newberry Wolves
Paper Bowl 1948–1950 Pensacola, Florida Hosted by Jacksonville State University
Peach Blossom Classic 1939–1942, 1947, 1949 Atlanta, Georgia
Columbus, Georgia
Macon, Georgia
Hosted by Morris Brown College, featuring HBCUs
Peanut Bowl 1968 Dothan, Alabama West Alabama Tigers vs. Ouachita Baptist Tigers
Pear Bowl 1946–1951 Ashland, Oregon
Medford, Oregon
Pecan Bowl 1946–1947
1964–1967
1968–1970
Orangeburg, South Carolina
Abilene, Texas
Arlington, Texas
HBCU matchup in 1940s, then a College Division regional final
Pelican Bowl 1972
1974–1975
Durham, North Carolina
New Orleans, Louisiana
Peninsula Bowl 1950 Charleston, South Carolina Allen Yellow Jackets vs. South Carolina State Bulldogs
Phillips Field Bowl 1951 Tampa, Florida Tampa Spartans vs. Brandeis Judges
Piedmont Tobacco Bowl 1946 Fayetteville, North Carolina Fayetteville State Broncos vs. Allen Yellow Jackets
Pioneer Bowl 1971–1972 Wichita Falls, Texas A College Division regional final for two years; later a playoff game in DI-AA and DII.
Pineapple Bowl 1940–1941, 1947–1952 Honolulu, Hawaii Hosted by University of Hawaii
Poi Bowl 1936–1939 Honolulu, Hawaii Hosted by University of Hawaii
Prairie View Bowl 1928–1960 Houston, Texas First bowl game for HBCUs, hosted by Prairie View A&M.
Pretzel Bowl 1951 Reading, Pennsylvania West Chester Golden Rams vs. Albright Rams
Pythian Bowl 1949–1951 Salisbury, North Carolina First bowl game that was played in North Carolina. Known in 1952 as the Lions Bowl.
Refrigerator Bowl 1948–1956 Evansville, Indiana
Rice Bowl 1957–1958, 1960 Stuttgart, Arkansas
Rocket Bowl 1960 Huntsville, Alabama Millsaps Majors vs. Maryville Scots
Shrimp Bowl 1952 Galveston, Texas Sam Houston State Bearkats vs. Northeastern State RiverHawks
Smoky Mountain Bowl 1949 Bristol, Tennessee Western Carolina Catamounts vs. West Liberty Hilltoppers
Space City Bowl 1966–1967 Huntsville, Alabama
Texhoma Bowl 1948–1949 Denison, Texas
Textile Bowl 1974 Spartanburg, South Carolina Wofford Terriers vs. South Carolina State
Tobacco Bowl 1946 Lexington, Kentucky Muhlenberg College vs. St. Bonaventure University
Tropical Bowl 1951–1953 Jacksonville, Florida Featuring HBCUs
Vulcan Bowl 1941–1948, 1951 Birmingham, Alabama Featuring HBCUs
West Virginia Bowl 1960–1961 Clarksburg, West Virginia
Will Rogers Bowl 1947 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Pepperdine University vs. Nebraska Wesleyan University
Yam Bowl 1946–1947 Dallas, Texas Featuring HBCUs

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kirk, Jason (22 December 2016). "Dec. 26 has the worst schedule in bowl history". SBNation.com. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  2. ^ "College Football Teams Which Played in Bowl Games Despite Losing Records". thesportsseer.com. December 30, 2013. Archived from the original on November 13, 2017 – via Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ Cooper, Ryan (2016-12-04). "College football bowls: New Year's Six matchups announced". National Collegiate Athletic Association. Retrieved 2016-12-18.
  4. ^ a b "2022 Bowl Schedule". CollegeFootballPoll.com.
  5. ^ a b c d "Bowl/All Star Game Records" (PDF). NCAA.org. Retrieved December 4, 2022.
  6. ^ "G-MAC, GLVC Partner up on America's Crossroads Bowl Event in December". 9 April 2019.
  7. ^ "America's Crossroads Bowl | Hobart, Indiana".
  8. ^ a b c "ECAC Bowls at RPI History".
  9. ^ "College Division/Minor Bowl Games". College Football Data Warehouse. Archived from the original on March 25, 2016 – via Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ a b McMurphy, Brett (April 11, 2016). "NCAA approves three-year halt to new bowl games". ESPN. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
  11. ^ "Would a Hershey-hosted college football 'Chocolate Bowl' be a good idea?". PA Penn Live. 13 December 2012. Retrieved 2022-12-14.
  12. ^ "Austin's bowl game hopes delayed to 2016". Austin Business Journal. Retrieved 2015-05-26.
  13. ^ Hartsell, Jeff (August 27, 2015). "Medal of Honor Bowl now a 'traditional' bowl game". PostandCourier.com. The Post and Courier. Retrieved August 29, 2015.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g McMurphy, Brett (June 11, 2013). "'Group of Five' look to add bowls". ESPN. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
  15. ^ "Group envisions bowl game in St. Louis". Retrieved May 2, 2012.
  16. ^ Keeley, Sean (2010-04-23). "What The Hell Was The Cure Bowl & The Christmas Bowl?". Troy Nunes Is An Absolute Magician. Retrieved 2012-12-03.
  17. ^ "Report: Detroit Lions to host bowl game with Big Ten tie-in, Pizza Bowl getting dumped". MILive.com. 21 May 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
  18. ^ "Detroit Lions announce agreement with ACC for Bowl Game at Ford Field". detroitlions.com. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
  19. ^ a b "Little Caesars Pizza Bowl at Ford Field canceled". Crain's Detroit Business. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
  20. ^ "Little Caesars Pizza Bowl organizers open to playing outside; Detroit Lions bowl interest confirmed". MILive.com. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
  21. ^ "Quick Lane Bowl Announced". Big Ten Conference. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
  22. ^ Fowler, Jimmy (August 13, 2013). "Careful, bowl games: You could be without a team". CBS Sports. Retrieved September 6, 2013.
  23. ^ McMurphy, Brett (August 19, 2013). "Bowl created for MAC, Sun Belt". ESPN.com. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
  24. ^ Hartsell, Jeff (August 10, 2013). "New effort to bring bowl game to Charleston faces familiar obstacles: Confederate flag, NAACP, NCAA". Charleston Post & Courier. Retrieved September 6, 2013.
  25. ^ Emmert, Mark (July 10, 2015). "Statement from NCAA president on removal of Confederate flag in South Carolina". NCAA. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
  26. ^ Hartsell, Jeff (August 27, 2015). "Medal of Honor Bowl now a 'traditional' bowl game". The Post and Courier. Retrieved August 29, 2015.
  27. ^ "Medal of Honor Bowl on hold". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. September 15, 2016. Retrieved May 20, 2017 – via newspapers.com.
  28. ^ Mahler, Melissa; Draft Insider (September 5, 2014). "Is the College Football ALL-STAR Game Pecking Order Shifting?". Pro Player Insiders. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
  29. ^ "College Football at the Kingdome » FootballGeography.com". www.footballgeography.com. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  30. ^ "'Dream' Scenario - News, Sports, Jobs - Post Journal". Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  31. ^ "USA College Football Bowl". Retrieved June 28, 2017.
  32. ^ Tuso, Cristina (January 18, 2016). "Players, parents want money back after USA College Football Bowl canceled". WTOC-TV. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
  33. ^ "NJCAA Football Record Book" (PDF). NJCAA. National Junior College Athletic Association. 2019. pp. 6–11. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
  34. ^ "North Texas, Miami (Ohio) Meet In Inaugural Frisco Football Classic". Retrieved December 5, 2021.
  35. ^ "Pizza Bowl At Ford Field Is History". CBS Detroit. August 19, 2014. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
  36. ^ "SAN DIEGO BOWL GAME ASSOCIATION ANNOUNCES PLANS FOR THE FUTURE". Retrieved January 25, 2017.
  37. ^ a b http://fs.ncaa.org/Docs/stats/football_records/2022/Bowls.pdf
  38. ^ The Nation's Home for NAIA Football Archived 2008-05-03 at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ "The Spokesman-Review - Google News Archive Search".
  40. ^ "FedEx Orange Bowl >> OB". www.orangebowl.org. Archived from the original on November 3, 2006.
  41. ^ "Alabama Tribune 01 Dec 1950, page 7".
  42. ^ Fred Leigh (December 13, 1947). "Shaw Rips S.C. State In D.C.: Bears' 2nd Quarter Tallies Decide Tilt, CIAA Champs Fizzle On Early Drives Then Fight Gallanty to Hold Lead". Baltimore Afro-American (p. 17).

Further reading[edit]

  • Oriard, Michael (2009). Bowled Over: Big-Time College Football from the Sixties to the BCS Era. The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-3329-2.