List of common 3D test models
This is a list of models and meshes commonly used in 3D computer graphics for testing and demonstrating rendering algorithms and visual effects. Their use is important for comparing results, similar to the way standard test images are used in image processing.
Models by year of creation
|Model name||Model image||Year of creation||Creator||Origin||Model size||Creation method||Inspiration||Comments|
|Utah teapot||1975||Martin Newell||University of Utah||28 Bézier patches
(32 with the bottom)
|Modeled[a]||Melitta teapot||Also called the "Newell teapot"|
|Cornell box||1984||Cindy M. Goral, Kenneth E. Torrance, Donald P. Greenberg, Bennett Battaile||Cornell University||5 quads[b]
1 light source
|Modeled||Scene includes multiple models and light source. Many versions exist, but only one of them is considered the standard Cornell box.|
|Stanford bunny||1993-94||Greg Turk, Marc Levoy||Stanford University||69,451 triangles||Scanned||Ceramic rabbit||A test of range scanning physical objects. Originally .ply file.|
|Stanford dragon||1996||Stanford University||1,132,830 triangles||Scanned||Chinese dragon.|
|Wooden Elk Toy||2000||Hans-Peter Seidel||Max-Planck-Institut für Informatik||Photogrammetry||Often used as an example of a non-trivial object with high genus.|
|Suzanne||2002||Willem-Paul van Overbruggen||Blender||500 faces||Modeled||Orangutan from the movie Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back||Chimpanzee head for Blender|
|Phlegmatic Dragon||2007||Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Technical University in Prague||Eurographics 2007 conference||667,214 faces (original)
480,076 faces (smoothed)
|David||2009||Stanford University||~1 billion polygons||Scanned||Michelangelo's 5-meter statue of David||Only available to established scholars and for non-commercial use only.|
|Fertility||2009||AIM@SHAPE Repository (scanned at Utrecht University)||241,607 vertices
|Scanned||Small statue with two joined figures. Laser scanned from a stone sculpture.|
|Crytek Sponza||2010||Frank Meinl||Crytek||262,267 triangles
|Modeled||The colonnaded atrium of the Sponza Palace in Dubrovnik||Used for demonstrating global illumination techniques.  The Crytek version is based on a model created by Marko Dabrović in early 2001 while he was at RNA studio, and donated to a radiosity competition held by CGTechniques.com in early 2002.|
|Spot||2012||Keenan Crane||Caltech||2,930 vertices
|Modeled||A cartoon cow||A spotted cow with Catmull-Clark control mesh, quadrangulation, triangulation, vector texture, and bitmap texture. All meshes are manifold, genus-0 embeddings.|
|3DBenchy||2015||Creative Tools||112,569 verts
|Modeled||A happy little cartoon boat||Specifically designed for testing the accuracy and capabilities of 3D printers|
|The Other Nefertiti||2015||Nora Al-Badri and Jan Nikolai Nelles||~2 million triangles||Scanned||Nefertiti bust||The bust of the Egyptian queen Nefertiti. The mesh was scanned by Nora Al-Badri and Jan Nikolai Nelles from the Nefertiti bust, which was created in 1345 BC by Thutmose.|
- One of the first models not to be measured.
- Note that the color is important of the left and right walls.
- Standard test image, a digital image file to test image processing and compression
- Catmull's hand, one of the original 3D models
- Sutherland's Volkswagen, another early 3D model
- "The Utah Teapot". www.holmes3d.net. Retrieved 2020-10-28.
- "The Stanford 3D Scanning Repository". Stanford University. 22 Dec 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- Greg Turk (2000). "The Stanford Bunny". Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- Michael Goesele; Wolfgang Heidrich; Hendrik P. A. Lensch; Hans-Peter Seidel. "Building a Photo Studio for Measurement Purposes, January 2000". Computer Graphics Group, Max-Planck-Institut fur Informatik. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
- by clicking Add → Mesh → Monkey
- "EG 2007 Phlegmatic Dragon". Eurographics 2007. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- Levoy, Marc (August 11, 2009). "The Digital Michelangelo Project". Stanford University. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Levoy, Marc (August 19, 2014). "The Digital Michelangelo Project Archive of 3D Models". Stanford University. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Levoy, Marc (November 27, 1998). "The Stanford Large Statue Scanner". Stanford University. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- Morgan McGuire. "McGuire Computer Graphics Archive".
- Jennifer O'Connor (1 July 2010). Mastering mental ray: Rendering Techniques for 3D and CAD Professionals. John Wiley & Sons. p. 175. ISBN 0470563850.
The Sponza Palaze atrium scene has become a classic demonstration model for indirect illumination techniques in a wide variety of applications
- Robert McMillan (24 September 2014). "Nvidia Proves We Walked on the Moon—Not That It Needed To". Wired.
It cooked up a demo using a standard graphics simulation called the Sponza Atrium, a computer-generated stroll through a renaissance-style hallway.
- Matt Pharr; Greg Humphreys (26 August 2010). Physically Based Rendering: From Theory to Implementation. Morgan Kaufmann. p. 493. ISBN 0123750792.
- Jaroslav Krivanek; Pascal Gautron (2009). Practical Global Illumination with Irradiance Caching. Morgan & Claypool Publishers. p. 85. ISBN 1598296442.
- Abecassis, Laurent. "On The Web – RNA studio's GI architectural renderings". CGPress. Archived from the original on 4 June 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
- "Sponza Atrium - Hatch Studios". Hatch Studios. Archived from the original on 4 June 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 3D test models.|
- Standard test models
- The Stanford 3D Scanning Repository hosted by the Stanford University
- Large Geometric Models Archive hosted by the Georgia Institute of Technology
- Other repositories
- The Utah 3D Animation Repository, a small collection of animated 3D models
- scene collection, by Physically Based Rendering Toolkit: a number of interesting scenes to render with global illumination
- MGF Example Scenes, a small collection of some indoor 3D scenes
- archive3D, a collection of 3D models
- Hum3D, a collection of vehicle 3D models
- 3DBar, a collection of free 3D models
- NASA 3D Models, NASA 3D models to use for educational or informational purposes
- VRML Models from ORC Incorporated, 3D models in VRML format
- 3dRender.com: Lighting Challenges, regularly held lighting challenges, complete with scene and models for each challenge
- MPI Informatics Building Model, a virtual reconstruction of the Max Planck Institute for Informatics building in Saarbrücken
- Princeton shape-based 3D model search engine
- Keenan's 3D Model Repository hosted by the Carnegie Mellon University
- HeiCuBeDa Hilprecht – Heidelberg Cuneiform Benchmark Dataset for the Hilprecht Collection a collection of almost 2.000 cuneiform tablets for bulk-download acquired with a high-resolution 3D-scanner. Available under a CC BY license and quotable by digital object identifiers. Datasets cleaned using the GigaMesh Software Framework.
- HeiCu3Da Hilprecht – Heidelberg Cuneiform 3D Database - Hilprecht Collection browsable version of HeiCuBeDa allowing to download and quote single 3D models.