List of companies founded by MIT alumni

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This is a list of companies founded by Massachusetts Institute of Technology alumni, including attendees who enrolled in degree-programs at MIT but did not eventually graduate. This list is not exhaustive, as it only includes notable companies of which the founding and development history is well recorded by reliable sources. In particular, subsidiaries are listed with their owners in parentheses.

MIT is one of the leading universities worldwide in attracting funding for start-up companies, and its alumni have founded numerous companies.[1][2][3][4] According to PitchBook, from 2006 to 2017, MIT produced 907 company founders as alumni or current students, creating 780 companies, third most among all universities in the world.[5][6] In addition, according to a report of MIT Sloan School of Management in 2015, some 30,000 companies founded by MIT alumni were active, employing 4.6 million people and producing annual revenues of $1.9 trillion, roughly equivalent to the 10th-largest economy in the world (2014).[1][7] Approximately 40% of MIT founders are serial entrepreneurs, starting multiple companies, and 23% of MIT alumni’s new companies are founded outside the United States.[1]

In this list, founders of a company which merged with other companies to form a new company are counted as founders of the new company. However, founders of a company which later dissolved into several successor companies are not counted as founders of those successor companies; this same rule applies to spin-off companies. Finally, a defunct company is a company that stopped functioning completely (e.g., bankrupt) without dissolving, merging or being acquired.

Top companies by revenues[edit]

Fortune Global 500 (2017)[edit]

This list shows companies in Fortune Global 500 founded or co-founded by MIT alumni. The cut-off revenue for 2017 Fortune Global 500 companies is $21,609M in 2016.[8]

Company Region Fortune Global 500

(2017)[8]

Revenue in US$ millions

(2016)[8]

Type Category Year founded Comments
Koch Industries* United States 54 100,000 Private Conglomerate 1940 Equivalently[9]
1 Boeing** United States 60 94,571 Public Aerospace 1921 (Douglas Aircraft Company)

1939 (McDonnell Aircraft)

2 Intel United States 144 59,387 Public Semiconductor 1968
3 HP Inc. United States 194 48,238 Public Technology 1939
4 TSMC Taiwan 369 29,388 Public Semiconductor 1987
5 Raytheon United States 449 24,069 Public Weapons/Defense 1922
6 Qualcomm United States 460 23,554 Public Technology 1985

*: Koch Industries is not listed in Fortune Global 500. Its revenue is provided by Forbes.

**: Merger of different companies, at least one of which was founded by MIT alumni.

Fortune 1000 (2017)[edit]

This list shows companies in Fortune 1000 (only for companies within the U.S.) founded or co-founded by MIT alumni. The cut-off revenue for 2017 Fortune 1000 companies is $1,791M in 2016.[10]

Company Fortune 1000

(2017)[10]

Revenue in US$ millions

(2016)[10]

Type Category Year founded Comments
Koch Industries* 23 100,000 Private Conglomerate 1940 Equivalently[9]
1 Boeing** 24 94,571 Public Aerospace 1921 (Douglas Aircraft Company)

1939 (McDonnell Aircraft)

2 Intel 47 59,387 Public Semiconductor 1968
3 HP Inc. 61 48,238 Public Technology 1939
4 Raytheon 116 24,069 Public Weapons/Defense 1922
5 Qualcomm 119 23,554 Public Technology 1985
6 Thermo Fisher Scientific** 154 18,274 Public Technology 1956 (Thermo Electron)
7 Texas Instruments 206 13,370 Public Semiconductor 1930
8 BlackRock 255 11,155 Public Investment Management 1988
9 Lam Research 440 5,886 Public Semiconductor 1980
10 Blackstone Group 503 5,126 Public Financial Services 1985
Bose Corporation* 608 3,800 Private Electronics/Technology 1964 Equivalently[9]
11 Analog Devices 660 3,421 Public Semiconductor 1965
12 Gartner (Group), Inc. 821 2,445 Public IT Journalism 1979
13 Cabot Corporation 829 2,411 Public Chemicals 1882
14 Akamai Technologies 851 2,340 Public Internet/Technology 1998
15 E-Trade 930 2,026 Public Finance 1982

*: Koch Industries and Bose Corporation are not listed in Fortune 1000. Their revenues are given by Forbes.

**: Merger of different companies, at least one of which was founded by MIT alumni.

Former Fortune-listed companies[edit]

For each company, only the latest rankings (up to three years) are shown in this list.

Company Fortune Global 500 Fortune 1000 Type Category Year founded
1 Digital Equipment Corporation 331 (1998) 275 (1997) 279 (1996)[11] 118 (1998) 78 (1997) 77 (1996)[12] Acquired Computer Hardware 1957
2 EMC 436 (2016) 487 (2015)[13] - 113 (2016) 121 (2015) 128 (2014)[14] Acquired Computer Hardware 1979
3 Gillette 491 (2000) 442 (1999) 454 (1998)[11] 215 (2005) 215 (2004) 218 (2003)[15] Acquired Consumer Products 1901
4 Apollo Computer - - - 423 (1989) 454 (1988)[16] - Acquired Hardware 1980
International Data Group* - - - 613 (2016)*[17][18] - - Acquired Media/Technology 1964
5 Teradyne - - - 824 (2005) 921 (2004) 941 (2003)[19] Public Electronics 1960
6 3Com - - - 827 (2003) 596 (2002) 294 (2000)[20] Acquired Technology 1979
7 LinkedIn - - - 945 (2015)[21] - - Acquired Social Media 2002
8 Fairchild Semiconductor - - - 984 (2008) 963 (2007) 886 (2005)[22] Acquired Semiconductor 1957

*: "International Data Group" is not listed in Fortune 1000. Its revenue ($3,800M, 2015) is given by Forbes, making it equivalent to the 613th position in Fortune 1000 (2016).

Timeline[edit]

Index[edit]

This index also contains companies listed in section "Notable defunct & dissolved".

Year Companies founded
2012 Coursera Onshape
2009 Ginkgo Bioworks
2008 Clover Food Lab
2007 Dropbox
2006 Buzzfeed HubSpot Khan Academy
2005 Eye-Fi HuffPost
2004 FireEye Grubhub
2003 Kiva Systems
2002 Coverity LinkedIn PhillyCarShare

(Enterprise CarShare)

2001 OkCupid Two Sigma
2000 Zipcar
1999 Cambridge Innovation Center Coatue Management SparkNotes
1998 Akamai Technologies VMware
1997 E Ink
1996 Alexa Internet Inktomi Internet Archive ITA Software Kurzweil Educational Systems PlanetAll
Sohu
1995 Constant Contact Harmonix
1994 Infoseek Vermeer Technologies
1993 SolidWorks
1992 Boston Dynamics Macsyma, Inc. Wildfire Communications
1991 Art Technology Group
1990 Electronic Frontier Foundation iRobot
1988 BlackRock Cambridge SoundWorks
1987 Avid TSMC
1986 Frame Technology Corp.
1985 Blackstone Group Computervision Free Software Foundation Qualcomm
1983 Encore Computer Thinking Machines Corporation
1982 E*Trade Kurzweil Music Systems Lotus Development Corporation Renaissance Technologies
1980 Apollo Computer Lam Research Stellar Computer

(Stardent Inc.)

1979 3Com EMC Gartner (Group), Inc. Infocom Lisp Machines Software Arts
1978 InterSystems Personal Software/Visicorp

(Paladin Software)

1976 Genentech
1972 Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers Prime Computer
1969 Applicon SofTech
1968 Evans & Sutherland Intel
1967 Advent Corporation Analogic Corporation Psychology Today
1965 Analog Devices Boston Phoenix

(Boston After Dark)

1964 Bose Corporation International Data Group
1960 Teradyne
1957 Digital Equipment Corporation Fairchild Semiconductor KLH Adage, Inc.
1956 Thermo Electron

(Thermo Fisher Scientific)

1954 Acoustic Research
1940 Koch Industries
1939 HP Inc.

(Hewlett-Packard)

McDonnell Aircraft

(Boeing)

1932 Draper Laboratory
1930 Texas Instruments
1926 Sprague Electric
1922 Raytheon
1921 Douglas Aircraft Company

(Boeing)

1901 Gillette
1889 Stone & Webster
1886 Arthur D. Little Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge
1882 Cabot Corporation
1877 Samuel Cabot Incorporated

2000–present[edit]

Company Type Stock Category Year founded Total founders Founder/co-founder from MIT
Buzzfeed Private Online Media 2006 2[23]
  1. Co-founder Jonah Peretti (M.S)[23]
Clover Food Lab Private Restaurant 2008 1[24][25]
  1. Ayr Muir (B.S, M.S)[25]
Coursera Private Education/Technology 2012 2[26]
  1. Co-founder Andrew Ng (M.S)[27]
Coverity (NASDQ: SNPS) Security/Technology 2002 3[28]
  1. Co-founder Dawson Engler (PhD)[29]
Dropbox Private Web Service 2007 2[30]
  1. Drew Houston (B.S)[31]
  2. Arash Ferdowsi (undergraduate attendee)[32]
Eye-Fi Private Computer hardware 2005 4[33]
  1. Co-founder Yuval Koren (B.S)[34]
FireEye Public NASDAQ: FEYE Security/Technology 2004 1[35]
  1. Ashar Aziz (B.S)[36]
Ginkgo Bioworks Private Biotechnology 2009 5[37]
  1. Jason Kelly (B.S, PhD)[38]
  2. Reshma Shetty (PhD)
  3. Barry Canton (PhD)
  4. Austin Che (PhD)[39]
  5. Tom Knight (B.S, M.S, PhD)
Grubhub Public NYSE: GRUB Delivery services 2004 2[40]
  1. Co-founder Michael Evans (B.S, M.S)[41]
HubSpot Public NYSE: HUBS Software 2006 2[42][43]
  1. Brian Halligan (M.B.A)[42]
  2. Dharmesh Shah (M.S)[43]
HuffPost Private Online Media 2005 4[44]
  1. Co-founder Jonah Peretti (M.S)[45]
Khan Academy Non-profit Education 2006 1[46]
  1. Sal Khan (B.S, M.S)[47]
Kiva Systems (NASDAQ: AMZN) Technology 2003 3[48]
  1. Co-founder Mick Mountz (B.S)[49]
  2. Co-founder Pete Wurman (B.S)[50]
LinkedIn (NASDAQ: MSFT) Social Media 2002 5[51]
  1. Co-founder Eric Ly (M.S)[52]
OkCupid (NASDAQ: IAC) Dating service 2001[53] 4[54]
  1. Co-founder Max Krohn (PhD)[55]
Onshape Private Software 2012 6[56]
  1. Co-founder Jon Hirschtick (B.S, M.S)[57]
  2. Co-founder Michael Lauer (PhD)[56]
PhillyCarShare

/Enterprise CarShare

(Enterprise Holdings) Car sharing 2002 5[58]
  1. Co-founder Clayton Lane (M.S)[59]
Two Sigma Private Finance 2001 3[60]
  1. Co-founder David Siegel (PhD)[60][61]
Zipcar (NASDAQ: CAR) Car Rental 2000 2[62]
  1. Co-founder Robin Chase (M.B.A)[63]

1980–1999[edit]

Company Type Stock Category Year founded Total founders Founder/co-founder from MIT
Akamai Technologies Public NASDAQ: AKAM Internet/Technology 1998 4[64]
  1. Co-founder Tom Leighton (PhD)[65]
  2. Co-founder Daniel Lewin (M.S)[66]
  3. Co-founder Jonathan Seelig (M.B.A Attendee)[64]
Alexa Internet (NASDAQ: AMZN) Web Analytics 1996 2[67]
  1. Brewster Kahle (B.S)[68]
  2. Bruce Gilliat (Unknown)[69]
Apollo Computer (NYSE: HPQ) Hardware 1980 1[70]
  1. William Poduska (B.S, M.S, Sc.D)[71]
Art Technology Group (NYSE: ORCL) Computer software 1991 2[72]
  1. Jeet Singh (B.S)[73]
  2. Joseph T. Chung (B.S, M.S)[74]
Avid Public NASDAQ: AVID Computer Software 1987 1[75]
  1. William J. Warner (B.S)[76]
BlackRock Public NYSE: BLK Investment Management 1988 8[77]
  1. Co-founder Ben Golub (B.S, M.S, PhD)[78]
Blackstone Group Public NYSE: BX Financial Services 1985 2[79]
  1. Co-founder Peter Peterson (undergraduate attendee)[80]
Cambridge Innovation Center Private Real Estate 1999 2[81]
  1. Timothy Rowe (M.B.A)[82]
  2. Andrew Olmsted (M.B.A)[83]
Cambridge SoundWorks Private Electronics 1988 2[84]
  1. Co-founder Henry Kloss (undergraduate attendee)[84][85]
Coatue Management Private Hedge Fund 1999 1[86]
  1. Philippe P. Laffont (B.S, M.S)[86]
Computervision (NASDAQ: PTC) Software 1985 2[87]
  1. Co-founder Philippe Villers (M.S)[88]
Constant Contact (NASDAQ: EIGI) Web Services 1995 1[89][90]
  1. Randy Parker (B.S)[89]
E Ink Private Technology 1997 5[91]
  1. Co-founder J.D. Albert (B.S)[92]
  2. Co-founder Barrett Comiskey (B.S)[92]
  3. Co-founder Joseph Jacobson (PhD)[92]
E*Trade Public NASDAQ: ETFC Finance 1982 2[93]
  1. Co-founder William A. Porter (M.B.A)[94]
Electronic Frontier Foundation Non-profit Civic 1990 3[95]
  1. Co-founder Mitch Kapor (M.B.A. Attendee)[96]
Encore Computer (COMPRO Computer Services) Parallel Computing 1983 3[97]
  1. Co-founder Gordon Bell (B.S, M.S)[98]
Frame Technology Corp. (NASDAQ: ADBE) Computer software 1986 1[99]
  1. Steve Kirsch (B.S, M.S)[100]
Free Software Foundation Non-profit Computer software 1985 1[101]
  1. Richard Stallman (Graduate Attendee)[101]
Harmonix Private Video Game 1995 2[102]
  1. Alex Rigopulos (B.S., M.S)[102]
  2. Eran Egozy (B.S, M.S)[103]
Infoseek (NYSE: DIS) Web Search 1994 1[104]
  1. Steve Kirsch (B.S, M.S)[100]
Inktomi (NASDAQ: YHOO) Software 1996 2[105]
  1. Co-founder Eric Brewer (M.S, PhD)[106]
Internet Archive Non-profit Digital library 1996 1[107]
  1. Brewster Kahle (B.S)[108]
iRobot Public NASDAQ: IRBT Technology 1990 3[109]
  1. Co-founder Colin Angle (B.S, M.S)[110]
  2. Co-founder Helen Greiner (B.S, M.S)[111]
ITA Software (NASDAQ: GOOG) Software 1996 3[112]
  1. Jeremy Wertheimer (PhD)[113]
  2. Carl de Marcken (B.S, PhD)[114]
  3. Dave Baggett (M.S)[115]
Kurzweil Music Systems (KRX: 012630) Musical hardware 1982 2[116]
  1. Co-founder Raymond Kurzweil (B.S)[116]
Kurzweil Educational Systems (NASDAQ: ABCD) Software 1996 1[117]
  1. Raymond Kurzweil (B.S)[116]
Lam Research Public NASDAQ: LRCX Semiconductor 1980 1[118]
  1. David K. Lam (M.S, ScD)[119]
Lotus Development Corporation (NYSE: IBM) Software 1982 2[120]
  1. Mitch Kapor (M.B.A Attendee)[121]
  2. Jonathan Sachs (B.S)[122]
Macsyma, Inc. (Symbolics) Software 1992 2[123]
  1. Co-founder Richard Petti (B.S)[124]
Qualcomm Public NASDAQ: QCOM Technology 1985 7[125]
  1. Co-founder Irwin M. Jacobs (M.S, PhD)[126]
  2. Co-founder Andrew Viterbi (B.S, M.S)[127]
  3. Co-founder Andrew Cohen (PhD)[128][129]
Renaissance Technologies Private Finance 1982 1[130]
  1. James Simons (PhD)[130]
Sohu Public NASDAQ: SOHU Online Services 1996 1[131]
  1. Charles Zhang (PhD)[132]
SolidWorks (Euronext: DSY) Software 1993 2[133]
  1. Co-founder Jon Hirschtick (B.S, M.S)[57]
SparkNotes (NYSE: BKS) Publisher 1999 4[134][135]
  1. Co-founder Max Krohn (PhD)[136]
TSMC Public NYSE: TSM Semiconductor 1987 1[137]
  1. Morris Chang (B.S, M.S)[137]
Vermeer Technologies (NASDQ: MSFT) Software 1994 2[138]
  1. Charles Ferguson (PhD)[138]
  2. Randy Forgaard (B.S, M.S)[139]
VMware Public NYSE: VMW Technology 1998 5[140][141]
  1. Co-founder Diane Greene (M.S)[142]
Wildfire Communications (Euronext: ORA) Technology 1992 4[143]
  1. Co-founder William J. Warner (B.S)[76]

1960–1979[edit]

Company Type Stock Category Year founded Total founders Founder/co-founder from MIT
3Com (NYSE: HPE) Technology 1979 4[144]
  1. Co-founder Robert Metcalfe (B.S)[145]
  2. Co-founder Howard Charney (B.S, M.S)[146]
  3. Co-founder Greg Shaw (B.S)[147]
Analog Devices Public NASDAQ: ADI Semiconductor 1965 2[148]
  1. Ray Stata (B.S, M.S)[149]
  2. Matthew Lorber (B.S, M.S)[150]
Analogic Corporation Public NASDAQ: ALOG Medical Imaging 1967 1[151]
  1. Bernard M. Gordon (B.S, M.S)[152]
Applicon (FWB: SIE) Technology 1969 4[153][154]
  1. Co-founder Richard N. Spann (M.S, PhD)[155]
  2. Co-founder Harry Lee (Unknown)[156]
Bose Corporation Private Electronics/Technology 1964 1[157]
  1. Amar Bose (B.S, M.S, PhD)[158]
Boston Dynamics (TYO: 9984) Robotics 1992 1[159]
  1. Marc Raibert (PhD)[160]
EMC (NYSE: DVMT) Computer Hardware 1979 3[161]
  1. Co-founder Richard Egan (M.S)[162]
Evans & Sutherland Public OTCQB: ESCC Computer Hardware 1968 2[163]
  1. Co-founder Ivan Sutherland (PhD)[164]
Gartner (Group), Inc. Public NYSE: IT IT Journalism 1979 1[165]
  1. Gideon Gartner (B.S, M.S)[166]
Genentech (SIX: ROG) Pharmaceuticals 1976 2[167]
  1. Co-founder Robert A. Swanson (B.S, M.S)[168]
Infocom (NASDAQ: ATVI) Software 1979 10[169]
  1. Co-founder Dave Lebling (M.S)[170]
  2. Co-founder Marc Blank (B.S)[170]
  3. et al.
Intel Public NASDAQ: INTC Semiconductor 1968 2[171]
  1. Co-founder Robert Noyce (PhD)[172]
International Data Group (SSE: 122458) Media/Technology 1964 1[173]
  1. Patrick Joseph McGovern (B.S)[174]
InterSystems Private Software 1978 1[175]
  1. Phillip "Terry" Ragon (B.S)[176]
Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers Private Finance 1972 4[177]
  1. Co-founder Thomas Perkins (B.S)[178]
Personal Software/Visicorp

—> Paladin Software

—> Private (Merged) Technology 1978 (Visicorp) 2 (Visicorp)[179]
  1. Co-founder Dan Fylstra (B.S)[180]
Psychology Today (Sussex Publishers) Magazine 1967 1[181]
  1. Nicholas Charney (B.S)[182]
SofTech Public OTCMKTS: SOFT Software 1969 1[183]
  1. Douglas T. Ross (M.S)[184]
Software Arts (NYSE: IBM) Technology 1979 2[185]
  1. Bob Frankston (B.S)[186]
  2. Daniel Bricklin (B.S)[185]
Teradyne Public NYSE: TER Electronics 1960 2[187]
  1. Alex d'Arbeloff (B.S)[188]
  2. Nick DeWolf (B.S)[189]

1900–1959[edit]

Company Type Stock Category Year founded Total founders Founder/co-founder from MIT
Acoustic Research (NASDAQ: VOXX) Electronics 1954 2[190]
  1. Co-founder Henry Kloss (undergraduate attendee)[85]
Digital Equipment Corporation (NYSE: HPQ) Computer Hardware 1957 2[191]
  1. Co-founder Ken Olsen (B.S, M.S)[192]
Douglas Aircraft Company

& McDonnell Aircraft

—> McDonnell Douglas

—> Boeing

—> Public (Merged) NYSE: BA Aerospace 1921 (Douglas)

1939 (McDonnell)

4[193]
  1. Co-founder Donald Wills Douglas Sr. (B.S)[194]
  2. Co-founder James Smith McDonnell (M.S)[195]
Draper Laboratory Non-profit Defense & Security 1932 1[196]
  1. Charles Stark Draper (B.S, PhD)[196]
Fairchild Semiconductor (NASDAQ: ON) Semiconductor 1957 8[197]
  1. Co-founder Robert Noyce (PhD)[172]
  2. Co-founder Jay Last (PhD)[198]
  3. Co-founder Sheldon Roberts (M.S, PhD)[198]
Gillette (NYSE: PG) Consumer products 1901 2[199]
  1. Co-founder William Emery Nickerson (B.S)[199]
HP Inc./Hewlett-Packard Public NYSE: HPQ Technology 1939 2[200]
  1. Co-founder William R. Hewlett (M.S)[201]
KLH Private Electronics 1957 3[85]
  1. Co-founder Henry Kloss (undergraduate attendee)[85]
Koch Industries Private Conglomerate 1940[202] Unknown
  1. Co-founder Fred C. Koch (B.S)[203]
Raytheon Public NYSE: RTN Defense 1922 3[204]
  1. Co-founder Vannevar Bush (D.Eng)[205]
Sprague Electric (NYSE: VSH) Electronic Components 1926 1[206]
  1. Robert C. Sprague (M.S)[207]
Texas Instruments Public NASDAQ: TXN Electronics 1930 4[208]
  1. Co-founder Cecil Green (B.S, M.S)[209]
Thermo Electron

—> Thermo Fisher Scientific

—> Public (Merged) NYSE: TMO Technology 1956 (Thermo Electron) 2 (Thermo Electron)[210]
  1. Co-founder George Hatsopoulos (B.S, M.S, ScD)[211]

Before 1900[edit]

Company Type Stock Category Year founded Total founders Founder/co-founder from MIT
Arthur D. Little Partnership Management consulting 1886 2[212][213]
  1. Co-founder Arthur D. Little (B.S)[212]
Cabot Corporation Public NYSE: CBT Chemicals 1882 2[214]
  1. Godfrey L. Cabot (undergraduate attendee)[215]
  2. Samuel Cabot IV (B.S)[216]
Samuel Cabot Incorporated (NYSE:VAL) Wood stain 1877 1[217]
  1. Samuel Cabot IV (B.S)[216]
Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge Private Architecture 1886 3[218]
  1. Co-founder George F. Shepley (B.S)[219]
  2. Co-founder Charles A. Coolidge (B.S)[220]
Stone & Webster (NYSE: FTI) Engineering 1889 2[221]
  1. Charles Stone (B.S)[222]
  2. Edwin Webster (B.S)[222]

Notable defunct & dissolved[edit]

Company Type Stock Category Year founded Total founders Founder/co-founder (MIT Alumni)
Adage, Inc. Defunct Computer Graphics Hardware 1957 3[223]
  1. Jim Stockwell (B.S)[223]
  2. Two others (unknown) from MIT
Advent Corporation Defunct Electronics 1967 1[224]
  1. Henry Kloss (undergraduate attendee)[85]
Boston Phoenix / Boston After Dark Defunct Newspapers 1965 1[225]
  1. Joe Hanlon (Unknown)[225]
Lisp Machines, Inc. Defunct Technology 1979 1[226]
  1. Richard Greenblatt (undergraduate attendee)[226]
PlanetAll Defunct Social networking 1996 2[227]
  1. Co-founder Brian Robertson (B.S)[228]
Prime Computer Defunct Computer Hardware 1972 7[229]
  1. Co-founder William Poduska (B.S, M.S, Sc.D)[230]
Stellar Computer

—> Stardent Inc.

Defunct Computer Hardware 1980 1[231]
  1. Co-founder William Poduska (B.S, M.S, Sc.D)[230]
Thinking Machines Corporation Defunct Computer hardware 1983 2[232]
  1. Danny Hillis (B.S, PhD)[233]
  2. Sheryl Handler (PhD)[234]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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