John Williams

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John Williams
John Williams tux.jpg
Williams at the Avery Fisher Hall in 2007
Background information
Birth name John Towner Williams
Born (1932-02-08) February 8, 1932 (age 83)
Floral Park, New York, U.S.
Genres Film score, contemporary classical music, post-romanticism, jazz
Occupation(s) Composer, conductor, pianist
Years active 1952–present
Notable instruments
Piano

John Towner Williams (born February 8, 1932) is an American composer, conductor, and pianist. In a career spanning over six decades, Williams has composed some of the most popular and recognizable film scores in cinematic history, including the Star Wars series, the first two Jaws films, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, the Indiana Jones series, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Superman, the first two Home Alone films, Hook, the first two Jurassic Park films, Schindler's List, Saving Private Ryan, the first three Harry Potter films, Catch Me If You Can, Memoirs of a Geisha, War Horse, and Lincoln. He has had a long association with director Steven Spielberg, composing the music for all of Spielberg's feature films but The Color Purple and Bridge of Spies.

Other notable works by Williams include theme music for four Olympic Games, NBC Sunday Night Football, the NBC Nightly News, the Statue of Liberty's rededication, the television series Lost in Space and Land of the Giants, and the original, not as well known calypso-based theme song to Gilligan's Island. Williams has also composed numerous classical concerti and other works for orchestral ensembles and solo instruments, and he served as the Boston Pops Orchestra's principal conductor from 1980 to 1993; he is now the orchestra's conductor laureate.

Williams has won five Academy Awards, four Golden Globe Awards, seven British Academy Film Awards, and 22 Grammy Awards. With 49 Academy Award nominations, Williams is the second most-nominated individual, after Walt Disney.[1] Williams was honored with the annual Richard Kirk award at the 1999 BMI Film and TV Awards, recognizing his contribution to film and television music.[2] Williams was inducted into the Hollywood Bowl Hall of Fame in 2000, and was a recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors in 2004.

Movie and TV Scores[edit]

Film scores[edit]

The following list consists of select films for which John Williams wrote the score and/or songs.

1950s[edit]

Year Title Director Studio(s) Notes
1954 You Are Welcome[3][4]  ? Tourist Development for Newfoundland Promotional film for the tourist information office of Newfoundland
1958 Daddy-O Lou Place American International Pictures John Williams' feature film debut

1960s[edit]

Year Title Director Studio(s) Notes
1960 I Passed for White Fred M. Wilcox Allied Artists Pictures
Because They're Young Paul Wendkos Columbia Pictures
1961 The Secret Ways Phil Karlson
Richard Widmark
Universal Pictures
1962 Bachelor Flat Frank Tashlin
Budd Grossman
20th Century Fox
1963 Diamond Head Guy Green Columbia Pictures
Gidget Goes to Rome Paul Wendkos Columbia Pictures
1964 The Killers Don Siegel Universal Pictures
1965 None but the Brave Frank Sinatra Warner Bros. Pictures
John Goldfarb, Please Come Home! J. Lee Thompson 20th Century Fox
1966 The Rare Breed Andrew V. McLaglen Universal Pictures
How to Steal a Million William Wyler 20th Century Fox
The Plainsman David Lowell Rich Universal Pictures
Not with My Wife, You Don't! Norman Panama Warner Bros. Pictures
Penelope Arthur Hiller Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
1967 A Guide for the Married Man Gene Kelly 20th Century Fox
Valley of the Dolls Mark Robson 20th Century Fox Oscar nomination (songs written by André and Dory Previn)
Fitzwilly Delbert Mann United Artists
Heidi Delbert Mann NBC TV movie
1969 Daddy's Gone A-Hunting Mark Robson National General Pictures
Goodbye, Mr. Chips Herbert Ross Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Oscar nomination
The Reivers Mark Rydell National General Pictures Oscar nomination

1970s[edit]

Year Title Director Studio(s) Notes
1970 Storia di una donna Leonardo Bercovici Universal Pictures His only score written for a foreign movie
Jane Eyre Delbert Mann NBC TV movie
1971 Fiddler on the Roof Norman Jewison United Artists Oscar winner (score adaptation)
1972 The Cowboys Mark Rydell Warner Bros. Pictures N/A
The Screaming Woman Jack Smight Universal Television
ABC
TV movie
Images Robert Altman Columbia Pictures Oscar nomination
The Poseidon Adventure Ronald Neame 20th Century Fox Golden Globe and Oscar nominations
Pete 'n' Tillie Martin Ritt Universal Pictures N/A
1973 The Long Goodbye Robert Altman United Artists Also title song (with Johnny Mercer)
Tom Sawyer Don Taylor United Artists Golden Globe and Oscar nominations shared with Robert B. Sherman and Richard M. Sherman
The Man Who Loved Cat Dancing Richard C. Sarafian Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer N/A
The Paper Chase James Bridges 20th Century Fox N/A
Cinderella Liberty Mark Rydell 20th Century Fox Golden Globe and Oscar nominations
1974 Conrack Martin Ritt 20th Century Fox N/A
The Sugarland Express Steven Spielberg Universal Pictures First of many collaborations with Steven Spielberg
Earthquake Mark Robson Universal Pictures Golden Globe nomination
The Towering Inferno John Guillerman 20th Century Fox Oscar nomination
1975 The Eiger Sanction Clint Eastwood Universal Pictures N/A
Jaws Steven Spielberg Universal Pictures Grammy, Golden Globe, BAFTA, and Oscar winner
1976 Family Plot Alfred Hitchcock Universal Pictures N/A
The Missouri Breaks Arthur Penn United Artists N/A
Midway Jack Smight Universal Pictures N/A
1977 Black Sunday John Frankenheimer Paramount Pictures N/A
Star Wars George Lucas 20th Century Fox Oscar, Golden Globe, and BAFTA winner, 4 Grammy nominations including 3 wins
Close Encounters of the Third Kind Steven Spielberg Columbia Pictures Golden Globe and Oscar nominations, 3 Grammy nominations including 2 wins
1978 The Fury Brian De Palma 20th Century Fox N/A
Jaws 2 Jeannot Szwarc Universal Pictures N/A
Superman Richard Donner Warner Bros. Pictures Golden Globe and Oscar nominations, 3 Grammy nominations including 2 wins
1979 Dracula John Badham Universal Pictures N/A
1941 Steven Spielberg Universal Pictures
Columbia Pictures
N/A

1980s[edit]

Year Title Director Studio(s) Notes
1980 The Empire Strikes Back Irvin Kershner 20th Century Fox Golden Globe and Oscar nominations, BAFTA winner, 5 Grammy nominations including 2 wins
1981 Raiders of the Lost Ark Steven Spielberg Paramount Pictures Grammy winner, Oscar nomination
Heartbeeps Allan Arkush Universal Pictures N/A
1982 E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial Steven Spielberg Universal Pictures Golden Globe, Oscar, and BAFTA winner, 5 Grammy nominations including 3 wins
Yes, Giorgio Franklin J. Schaffner Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Music composed by Michael J. Lewis; song only – "If We Were In Love" Oscar and Golden Globe nomination
Monsignor Frank Perry 20th Century Fox N/A
1983 Return of the Jedi Richard Marquand 20th Century Fox Grammy and Oscar nominations
1984 Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom Steven Spielberg Paramount Pictures Oscar nomination
The River Mark Rydell Universal Pictures Golden Globe and Oscar nominations
1986 SpaceCamp Harry Winer 20th Century Fox
ABC Motion Pictures
N/A
1987 The Witches of Eastwick George Miller Warner Bros. Pictures Grammy and Oscar nominations
Empire of the Sun Steven Spielberg Warner Bros. Pictures Grammy, Golden Globe, and Oscar nominations, BAFTA winner
Superman IV: The Quest for Peace Sidney J. Furie Warner Bros. Pictures Adapted and conducted by Alexander Courage, Three new themes
1988 The Accidental Tourist Lawrence Kasdan Warner Bros. Pictures Golden Globe and Oscar nominations
1989 Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade Steven Spielberg Paramount Pictures Grammy and Oscar nominations
Born on the Fourth of July Oliver Stone Universal Pictures Grammy, Golden Globe, and Oscar nominations
Always Steven Spielberg Universal Pictures N/A

1990s[edit]

Year Title Director Studio(s) Notes
1990 Stanley & Iris Martin Ritt Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer N/A
Presumed Innocent Alan J. Pakula Warner Bros. Pictures N/A
Home Alone Chris Columbus 20th Century Fox Grammy and double Oscar nominations
1991 Hook Steven Spielberg TriStar Pictures Oscar and double Grammy nominations
JFK Oliver Stone Warner Bros. Pictures Oscar nominations
1992 Far and Away Ron Howard Universal Pictures N/A
Home Alone 2: Lost in New York Chris Columbus 20th Century Fox N/A
1993 Jurassic Park Steven Spielberg Universal Pictures Grammy nomination
Schindler's List Steven Spielberg Universal Pictures Golden Globe, Oscar, Grammy, and BAFTA winner
1995 Sabrina Sydney Pollack Paramount Pictures Grammy, Golden Globe, and double Oscar nominations
Nixon Oliver Stone Hollywood Pictures Oscar nomination
1996 Sleepers Barry Levinson Warner Bros. Pictures Oscar nomination
1997 Rosewood John Singleton Warner Bros. Pictures N/A
The Lost World: Jurassic Park Steven Spielberg Universal Pictures Grammy nomination
Seven Years in Tibet Jean-Jacques Annaud TriStar Pictures Grammy and Golden Globe nominations
Amistad Steven Spielberg DreamWorks Pictures Grammy and Oscar nominations
1998 Saving Private Ryan Steven Spielberg DreamWorks Pictures Golden Globe, Grammy, and Oscar nominations
Stepmom Chris Columbus Columbia Pictures N/A
1999 Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace George Lucas 20th Century Fox Grammy nomination
Angela's Ashes Alan Parker Paramount Pictures Grammy winner, Golden Globe and Oscar nominations

2000s[edit]

Year Title Director Studio(s) Notes
2000 The Patriot Roland Emmerich Columbia Pictures Oscar nomination
2001 A.I.: Artificial Intelligence Steven Spielberg DreamWorks Pictures Golden Globe, Grammy, and Oscar nominations
Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone Chris Columbus Warner Bros. Pictures Oscar nomination and double Grammy nominations,Sorcerer's Stone in U.S.A.
2002 Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones George Lucas 20th Century Fox N/A
Minority Report Steven Spielberg DreamWorks Pictures N/A
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets Chris Columbus Warner Bros. Pictures Grammy nomination/Adapted and conducted by William Ross
Catch Me If You Can Steven Spielberg DreamWorks Pictures Grammy and Oscar nominations
2004 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban Alfonso Cuarón Warner Bros. Pictures Grammy and Oscar nominations
The Terminal Steven Spielberg DreamWorks Pictures N/A
2005 Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith George Lucas 20th Century Fox Double Grammy nominations
War of the Worlds Steven Spielberg Paramount Pictures Grammy nomination
Memoirs of a Geisha Rob Marshall Columbia Pictures Oscar nomination, Golden Globe and BAFTA winner, double Grammy nominations including one win. First time approaching filmmakers to do the score.
Munich Steven Spielberg DreamWorks Pictures Oscar nomination, Grammy for Best Instrumental Composition; and Grammy nomination for Best Score Soundtrack Album
2008 Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull Steven Spielberg Paramount Pictures At the 51st Grammy Awards, John Williams won an award for "The Adventures of Mutt," with a nomination in Best Score Soundtrack Album For A Motion Picture, Television Or Other Visual Media

2010s[edit]

Year Title Director Studio(s) Notes
2011 The Adventures of Tintin Steven Spielberg Paramount Pictures Grammy and Oscar nominations, Annie Award winner. Williams's first score for an animated film.
War Horse Steven Spielberg DreamWorks Pictures Oscar, Golden Globe, and BAFTA nominations
2012 Lincoln Steven Spielberg DreamWorks Pictures Oscar, Golden Globe, BAFTA, and Grammy nominations
2013 The Book Thief Brian Percival 20th Century Fox Oscar, Golden Globe and BAFTA nominations. Grammy for Best Instrumental Composition.
2015 Star Wars: The Force Awakens J.J. Abrams Walt Disney Pictures First J.J. Abrams theatrical film without his long-time composer Michael Giacchino. Also, the first film Williams will be scoring under the Walt Disney Pictures banner.
2016 The BFG Steven Spielberg Walt Disney Pictures N/A

The Olympics[edit]

Theme music for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles

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Williams has composed music for four Olympic Games:

  • "Olympic Fanfare and Theme" – 1984 Summer Olympics, Los Angeles
    Written specifically for the opening ceremonies. In a 1996 re-release, the opening trumpet fanfare was replaced with "Bugler's Dream", a previous Olympic Theme written by Leo Arnaud. This recording has been used as the theme for NBC's Olympic coverage ever since. Williams received a Grammy for Best Instrumental Composition.
  • "The Olympic Spirit" – 1988 Summer Olympics, Seoul
    Commissioned by NBC Sports for their television coverage. Williams received a Grammy nomination for Best Instrumental Composition.
  • "Summon the Heroes" – 1996 Summer Olympics, Atlanta, Georgia
    Written in commemoration of the Centennial of the Modern Olympic Games. Premiering on July 19, 1996, the piece features heavy use of the brass and wind sections and is approximately six minutes in length. Principal Boston Pops trumpeter Timothy Morrison played the opening solo on the album recording. It has been arranged for various types of ensembles, including wind ensembles. This theme is now used prevalently by NBC for intros and outros to commercial breaks of the Olympics.
  • "Call of the Champions" – 2002 Winter Olympics, Salt Lake City, Utah

Television themes[edit]

Concerti[edit]

Composition Year Title Premiere Date Premiere Performers Notes
1969 Concerto for Flute and Orchestra 1981 Leonard Slatkin/Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra – Saint Louis
1976 Concerto for Violin and Orchestra 1981-01-29 Leonard Slatkin/Saint Louis Symphony – Mark Peskanov, Violin – Saint Louis Composed at the suggestion of Barbara Ruick, first wife of the composer. Begun in 1974, shortly after Ruick's death, and completed in 1976
1985 Concerto for Tuba and Orchestra 1985-05-08 John Williams/Boston Pops – Chester Schimtz, Tuba – Boston Composed in 1985 for the Centennial of the Boston Pops
1991 Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra 1991-04-13 John Williams/Riverside County Philharmonic – Michele Zukovsky, Clarinet – Los Angeles Composed in 1991 for Michele Zukovsky, principal clarinet of the LA Philharmonic[7]
1993 Concerto for Bassoon and Orchestra (The Five Sacred Trees) 1995-04-15 Kurt Masur/New York Philharmonic – Judith LeClair, Basoon Composed in 1993 for the 150th celebration of the New York Philharmonic
1994 Concerto for Cello and Orchestra 1994-07-07 John Williams/Boston Symphony – Yo-Yo Ma, Cello – Tanglewood Composed in 1994 for the opening of the Seiji Osawa Hall in Tanglewood
1996 Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra 1996-10 Christoph von Dohnányi/Cleveland Orchestra – Michael Sachs on Trumpet Composed in 1996 for Michael Sachs, first trumpet of the Cleveland Orchestra
1997 rev. 2002 Elegy for Cello and Piano Premiered by John Williams, piano and John Waltz, cello. Later arranged for Cello and Orchestra Composed in 1997 for a memorial service in Los Angeles. Based on a secondary theme from Seven Years in Tibet
2000 TreeSong for Violin and Orchestra 2000-07-08 John Williams/Boston Symphony – Gil Shaham, Violin Composed in 2000 for Gil Shaham
2001 Heartwood: Lyric Sketches for Cello and Orchestra 2002-08-04 John Williams/Boston Symphony – Yo-Yo Ma, Cello – Boston Composed in 2001 for Yo-Yo Ma
2003 Concerto for Horn and Orchestra 2003-11-29 John Williams/Chicago Symphony Orchestra – Dale Clevenger, Horn – Chicago Composed for the Chicago Symphony Orchestra's principal horn Dale Clevenger
2007 Duo Concertante for Violin and Viola 2007-08-17 John Williams/Boston Pops – Victor Romanul, Violin – Michael Zaretsky, Viola – Tanglewood Composed for Michael Zaretsky
2009 Concerto for Viola and Orchestra 2009-05-26 John Williams/Boston Symphony – Boston Composed for Cathy Basrak. Unreleased
2009 On Willows and Birches (Concerto for Harp and Orchestra) 2009-09-23 John Williams/Boston Symphony – Boston Composed for Ann Hobson Pilot
2011 Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra 2011-05-25 John Williams/Boston Pops – Keisuke Wakao, Oboe – Boston Composed for Keisuke Wakao

Early life and family[edit]

John Towner Williams was born on February 8, 1932 in Floral Park, New York, the son of Esther (née Towner) and Johnny Williams.[8] His father was a jazz percussionist who played with the Raymond Scott Quintet. His brother Donald is a percussionist and conductor, and his brother Jerry is a studio percussionist as well.[9]

In 1948, the Williams family moved to Los Angeles where John attended North Hollywood High School graduating in 1950. He later attended the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and studied privately with the Italian composer Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco.[10] In 1952, Williams was drafted into the U.S. Air Force, where he conducted and arranged music for The U.S. Air Force Band as part of his assignments.

After his Air Force service ended in 1955, Williams moved to New York City and entered The Juilliard School, where he studied piano with Rosina Lhévinne.[10] During this time, Williams worked as a jazz pianist in New York's many clubs and eventually studios, most notably for composer Henry Mancini. His fellow session musicians included Rolly Bundock on bass, Jack Sperling on drums, and Bob Bain on guitar—the same lineup featured on the Mr. Lucky television series. Williams was known as "Little Johnny Love" Williams during the early 1960s, and he served as music arranger and bandleader for a series of popular music albums with the singer Frankie Laine.

Film and television scoring[edit]

Williams at the Boston Symphony Hall after conducting the Boston Pops, May 2006

While skilled in a variety of 20th century compositional idioms, Williams' most familiar style may be described as a form of neoromanticism,[11] inspired by the late 19th century's large-scale orchestral music—in the style of Tchaikovsky or Richard Wagner's compositions and their concept of leitmotif—that inspired his film music predecessors.[12]

After his studies at Juilliard, and the Eastman School of Music, Williams returned to Los Angeles, where he began working as an orchestrator at film studios. Among other composers, Williams worked with Franz Waxman, Bernard Herrmann, and Alfred Newman, and also with his fellow orchestrators Conrad Salinger and Bob Franklyn.[13] Williams was also a studio pianist, performing on film scores by composers such as Jerry Goldsmith, Elmer Bernstein, and Henry Mancini. Williams recorded with Henry Mancini the film scores of 1959's Peter Gunn, 1962's Days of Wine and Roses, and 1963's Charade. (Williams actually played the well-recognized opening riff to Mancini's Peter Gunn theme.[14][15]) Williams (often credited as "Johnny Williams" i.e., John Goldfarb, Please Come Home (1965)) also composed the music for various TV programs in the 1960s: The pilot episode of Gilligan's Island,[16] Bachelor Father (1959-1960), the Kraft Suspense Theatre, Lost in Space (1965–68), The Time Tunnel (1966–67), and Land of the Giants (the last three created by the prolific TV producer, Irwin Allen).

Williams's first film composition was for the 1958 B movie Daddy-O, and his first screen credit came two years later in Because They're Young. He soon gained notice in Hollywood for his versatility in composing jazz, piano, and symphonic music. Williams received his first Academy Award nomination for his film score for 1967's Valley of the Dolls, and was nominated again for his score for 1969's Goodbye, Mr. Chips. Williams broke through to win his first Academy Award for his film score in the 1971 film Fiddler on the Roof. In 1972, he composed the score for the Robert Altman–directed psychological thriller Images (recorded in collaboration with noted percussionist Stomu Yamashta) which earned him another nomination in the category Best Music, Original Dramatic Score at the 1973 Academy Awards. During the early 1970s, Williams' prominence grew thanks to his work for now–film producer Irwin Allen's disaster films, composing the scores for 1972's The Poseidon Adventure and 1974's The Towering Inferno. In addition, he scored Universal's 1974 film Earthquake for director Mark Robson, completing a "trinity" of scores for the decade's highest-grossing "disaster films". He also wrote a very memorable score for the 1972 film The Cowboys, a western starring John Wayne and directed by Mark Rydell.

In 1974, director Steven Spielberg approached Williams to compose the music for his feature directorial debut, The Sugarland Express. They teamed up again a year later for Spielberg's second film, Jaws. Widely considered to be a classic suspense film, its film score's ominous, two-note motif has become synonymous with sharks and approaching danger. The score earned Williams his second Academy Award, his first one for an original composition.

Shortly thereafter, Spielberg and Williams began a long collaboration for their next feature film together, Close Encounters of the Third Kind. During their two-year-long collaboration, they crafted its distinctive five-note figure that functions both in the background music and as the communications signal of the film's extraterrestrials. Williams also used a system of musical hand signals in the film that were based on hand signs created by John Curwen and refined by Zoltán Kodály.

During the same period, Spielberg recommended Williams to his friend and fellow director George Lucas, who needed a composer to score his ambitious 1977 space epic film Star Wars. Williams delivered a grand symphonic score in the fashion of Richard Strauss and Golden Age Hollywood composers Max Steiner and Erich Wolfgang Korngold. Its main theme, "Luke's Theme" is among the most widely recognized in film history, and the "Force Theme" and "Princess Leia's Theme" are well-known examples of leitmotif. Both the film and its soundtrack were immensely successful—it remains the highest grossing non-popular music recording of all-time—and Williams won another Academy Award for Best Original Score. In 1980, Williams returned to score The Empire Strikes Back, where he introduced "The Imperial March" as the theme for Darth Vader and the Galactic Empire. The original Star Wars trilogy concluded with the 1983 film Return of the Jedi, for which Williams' score provided most notably the "Emperor's Theme," "Parade of the Ewoks," and "Luke and Leia." Both scores earned him Academy Award nominations.

John Williams conducting the score to Raiders of the Lost Ark in the Avery Fisher Hall.

Williams worked with director Richard Donner to score the 1978 film Superman. The score's heroic and romantic themes, particularly the main march, the Superman fanfare and the love theme, known as "Can You Read My Mind," would appear in the four sequel films. For the 1981 film Raiders of the Lost Ark, created by Lucas and directed by Spielberg, Williams wrote a rousing main theme known as "The Raiders March" to accompany the film's hero, Indiana Jones. He also composed separate themes to represent the Ark of the Covenant, the character Marion, and the story's Nazi villains. Additional themes were featured in his scores to the sequel films Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984), Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989), and Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008). Williams composed an emotional and sensitive score to Spielberg's 1982 fantasy film E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. Williams was awarded a fourth Academy Award for this score.

The 1985 film The Color Purple is one of two Steven Spielberg-directed theatrical features for which Williams did not serve as composer, the other being Bridge of Spies. The film's producer, Quincy Jones, wanted to personally arrange and compose the project's music. Williams also did not score Twilight Zone: The Movie, but Spielberg had directed only one of the film's four segments; the film's lead director and producer, John Landis, selected Jerry Goldsmith as composer. The Spielberg-Williams collaboration resumed with the director's 1987 film Empire of the Sun, and has continued to the present, spanning genres from science fiction thrillers (1993's Jurassic Park), to somber tragedies (1993's Schindler's List, 2005's Munich), to Eastern-tinged melodramas (2005's Memoirs of a Geisha, directed by Rob Marshall), to dramatic war films (1998's Saving Private Ryan). Spielberg has said, "I call it an honorable privilege to regard John Williams as a friend."[17]

In 1999, George Lucas launched the first of a series of prequels to the original Star Wars trilogy. Williams was asked to score all three films, starting with The Phantom Menace. Along with themes from the previous films, Williams created new themes to be used as leitmotifs in 2002's Attack of the Clones and 2005's Revenge of the Sith. Most notable of these was "Duel of the Fates," an aggressive choral movement utilizing harsh Sanskrit lyrics that broadened the style of music used in the Star Wars films. Also of note was "Anakin's Theme," which begins as an innocent childlike melody and morphs insidiously into a quote of the sinister "Imperial March." For Episode II, Williams composed "Across the Stars," a love theme for Padmé Amidala and Anakin Skywalker (mirroring the love theme composed for The Empire Strikes Back). The final installment combined many of the themes created for the series' previous films, including "The Emperor's Theme," "The Imperial March," "Across the Stars," "Duel of the Fates," "The Force Theme," "Rebel Fanfare," "Luke's Theme," and "Princess Leia's Theme," as well as new themes for General Grievous and the film's climax, entitled "Battle of the Heroes."

In the new millennium, Williams was asked to score the film adaptations of J. K. Rowling's widely successful book series, Harry Potter. He went on to score the film franchise's first three installments. As with his Superman theme, the most important theme from Williams' scores for the Harry Potter films, dubbed "Hedwig's Theme," has been used in the fourth through the eighth films (Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1 and Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2), scored by Patrick Doyle (Goblet of Fire), Nicholas Hooper (Order of the Phoenix and Half-Blood Prince) and Alexandre Desplat (Deathly Hallows). Like the main themes from Jaws, Star Wars, Superman, and Indiana Jones, fans have come to identify the Harry Potter films with Williams' original compositions. Williams was asked to return to score the film franchise's final installment, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2, but director David Yates stated that "their schedules simply did not align" as he would have had to provide Williams with a rough cut of the film sooner than was possible. He also wrote the key Sonata for Beyonce Knowles' hit 2003 song Crazy in Love

In 2006, Superman Returns was completed under Bryan Singer's direction, best known for directing the first two films in the X-Men series. Although Singer did not request Williams to compose a score for the intentionally Donner-esque film, he employed the skills of X2 composer John Ottman to incorporate Williams' original Superman theme, as well as those for Lois Lane, Krypton and Smallville. In 2011, the "Main Title Theme" and elements of "Can You Read My Mind" were notably used in the final scene of "Finale," the series finale of the WB/CW television series Smallville.[18] Don Davis performed a similar role for Jurassic Park III, recommended by Williams himself to the producers.

In 2008, Williams returned to the Indiana Jones series to score the fourth film—Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. He received a Grammy nomination for his work on the film. Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull was also the only film score from the Indiana Jones film series not to be nominated for an Academy Award. During 2008, he also composed music for two documentaries, Warner at War,[19] and A Timeless Call,[20] the latter of which was directed by Steven Spielberg.

After a three-year absence from film scoring, Williams composed the scores for Spielberg's The Adventures of Tintin and War Horse in 2011. Both scores received overwhelmingly positive reviews,[21][22][23][24][25][26] with both scores earning Oscar nominations,[27] and the latter being nominated for a Golden Globe.[28] The Oscar nominations are Williams' 46th and 47th, making him the most nominated musician in Academy Awards history (having previously been tied with Alfred Newman's 45 nominations), and the second most nominated overall, following Walt Disney. Williams won an Annie Award for his score for The Adventures of Tintin in 2012. In 2012, Williams scored Spielberg's film Lincoln and subsequently received his 48th Academy Award nomination.[29]

In February 2013, Williams conducted the Young Musician's Foundation Debut Orchestra and also expressed his interest in working in the Star Wars sequel trilogy, stating: "Now we’re hearing of a new set of movies coming in 2015, 2016... so I need to make sure I’m still ready to go in a few years for what I hope would be continued work with George."[30] In May 2013, he confirmed that he will score Star Wars: The Force Awakens.[31] He also scored the 2013 film The Book Thief,[32] which marked his first collaboration with a director other than Spielberg since 2005. The score earned him Academy Award, Golden Globe and BAFTA nominations and earned him a Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Composition. It is his 44th nomination for Best Original Score (and 49th overall), setting a new record for the most nominations in that category (he previously tied Alfred Newman's record of 43 nominations in 2013).

Williams was set to write the score for Bridge of Spies, which would have been his 27th collaboration with director Steven Spielberg.[33] However, in March 2015, it was announced that Thomas Newman would replace Williams for the film, as Williams' schedule was interrupted by a minor health issue and he became unavailable to score the film.[34] This is the first Spielberg film since The Color Purple (1985) not scored by Williams.[35]

Conducting and performing[edit]

Williams signing an autograph after a concert

From 1980 to 1993, Williams succeeded Arthur Fiedler as the Boston Pops Orchestra's Principal Conductor. Williams never met Fiedler in person but spoke with him by telephone. His arrival as the Pops' new leader in the spring of 1980 allowed him to devote part of the Pops' first PBS broadcast of the season to presenting his new compositions for The Empire Strikes Back, in addition to conducting many Fiedler audience favorites.

Williams almost ended his tenure with the Pops in 1984.[36] Considered a customary practice of opinion, some players hissed while sight-reading a new Williams composition in rehearsal; Williams abruptly left the session and turned in his resignation. He initially cited mounting conflicts with his film composing schedule, but later admitted a perceived lack of discipline in and respect from the Pops' ranks, culminating in this latest instance. After entreaties by the management and personal apologies from the musicians, Williams withdrew his resignation and continued as principal conductor for nine more years.[37] In 1995, he was succeeded by Keith Lockhart, the former associate conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra and Cincinnati Pops Orchestra.

Williams is now the Pops' Laureate Conductor, thus maintaining his affiliation with its parent, the Boston Symphony Orchestra (BSO). Williams leads the Pops on several occasions each year, particularly during their Holiday Pops season and typically for a week of concerts in May. He conducts an annual Film Night at both Boston Symphony Hall and Tanglewood, where he frequently enlists the Tanglewood Festival Chorus, the BSO's official chorus.

Williams has written many concert pieces, including a symphony; a Concerto for Horn written for Dale Clevenger, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra's Principal Hornist; a Concerto for Clarinet written for Michele Zukovsky (the Los Angeles Philharmonic's Principal Clarinetist) in 1991;[38] a sinfonietta for wind ensemble; a cello concerto premiered by Yo-Yo Ma and the Boston Symphony Orchestra at Tanglewood in 1994; concertos for the flute and violin recorded by the London Symphony Orchestra; and a trumpet concerto, which was premiered by The Cleveland Orchestra and their principal trumpet Michael Sachs in September 1996. His bassoon concerto, "The Five Sacred Trees," which was premiered by the New York Philharmonic and principal bassoon player Judith LeClair in 1995, was recorded for Sony Classical by Williams with LeClair and the London Symphony Orchestra. He is also an accomplished pianist, as can be heard in various scores in which he provides solos, as well as a handful of European classical music recordings.

Williams was the subject of an hour-long documentary for the BBC in 1980, and was featured in a story for ABC's newsmagazine 20/20 in 1983.[39]

Stanley Donen (left) and John Williams at Avery Fisher Hall

In 1985, Williams was commissioned by NBC to compose a television news music package for various network news spots. The package, which Williams named "The Mission," consists of four movements, two of which are still used heavily by NBC today for Today, NBC Nightly News, and Meet the Press. Williams also composed the "Liberty Fanfare" for the Statue of Liberty's rededication, "We're Lookin' Good!" for the Special Olympics in celebration of the 1987 International Summer Games, and themes for the 1984, 1988, 1996, and 2002 Olympic Games. His most recent concert work, "Seven for Luck," for soprano and orchestra, is a seven-piece song cycle based on the texts of former U.S. Poet Laureate Rita Dove. "Seven for Luck" was given its world premiere by the Boston Symphony under Williams with soprano Cynthia Haymon.

Williams conducting at Hollywood Bowl.

Williams makes annual appearances with the Los Angeles Philharmonic at the Hollywood Bowl, and took part as conductor and composer in the orchestra's opening gala concerts for the Walt Disney Concert Hall in 2003.

In 2004, Williams both served as the Grand Marshal for the Rose Parade, and directed "The Star Spangled Banner" at the Rose Bowl's beginning.

In April 2005, Williams and the Boston Pops performed the "Throne Room Finale" from Star Wars at opening day in Fenway Park as the Boston Red Sox, having won their first World Series championship since 1918, received their championship rings. For Game 1 of the 2007 World Series, Williams conducted a brass-and-drum ensemble through a new dissonant arrangement of the "Star Spangled Banner."[39]

In February 2004, April 2006, and September 2007, he conducted the New York Philharmonic at Avery Fisher Hall in New York City. The initial program was intended to be a one-time special event, and featured Williams' medley of Oscar-winning film scores first performed at the previous year's Academy Awards.[40] Its unprecedented popularity led to two concerts in 2006: fundraising gala events featuring personal recollections by film directors Martin Scorsese and Steven Spielberg.[41][42] Continuing demand fueled three more concerts in 2007, which all sold out. These featured a tribute to the musicals of film director Stanley Donen, and had the distinction of serving as the New York Philharmonic season's opening event.[43][44] After a three-season absence, Williams conducted the Philharmonic once again in October 2011.[45]

Maestro Williams also conducted the National Symphony Orchestra, the U.S. Army Herald Trumpets, the Joint Armed Forces Chorus, and the Choral Arts Society of Washington performing his new arrangement of "The Star-Spangled Banner" for its 200th anniversary. The performance was held at A Capitol Fourth, an Independence Day celebration concert in Washington, D.C., on July 4, 2014.

Personal life[edit]

Williams married Barbara Ruick, an American actress and singer in 1956. Together they had three children: Jennifer, Joseph, who is the lead singer of Toto, and Mark Towner Williams. The two remained married until her death in 1974. In 1980, Williams married Samantha Winslow, a photographer.[46]

Discography[edit]

Awards[edit]

John Williams has been nominated for 49 Academy Awards, winning 5; 6 Emmy Awards, winning 3; 25 Golden Globe Awards, winning 4; 65 Grammy Awards, winning 22; and has received 7 British Academy Film Awards. With 49 Oscar nominations, Williams currently holds the record for the most Oscar nominations for a living person,[47][48] and is the second most nominated person in Academy Awards history behind Walt Disney's 59. Forty-four of Williams' Oscar nominations are for Best Original Score and five are for Best Original Song. He won four Oscars for Best Original Score and one for Best Scoring: Adaptation and Original Song Score (Fiddler on the Roof).

Williams has been inducted into the American Classical Music Hall of Fame and the Hollywood Bowl Hall of Fame. In 2004, he received Kennedy Center Honors. He won a Classic Brit Award in 2005 for his soundtrack work of the previous year.

Notably, Williams has won the Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Composition for his scores for Star Wars, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Superman, The Empire Strikes Back, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Angela's Ashes, Munich, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull and The Book Thief. The competition includes not only composers of film scores, but also composers of instrumental music of any genre, including composers of classical fare such as symphonies and chamber music.

In 2003, the International Olympic Committee accorded Williams its highest individual honor, the Olympic Order.[49]

In 2009, Williams received the National Medal of Arts in the White House in Washington, D.C. for his achievements in symphonic music for films, and "as a pre-eminent composer and conductor [whose] scores have defined and inspired modern movie-going for decades."[50]

Williams was made an honorary brother of Kappa Kappa Psi at Boston University in the late 1980s.[51]

In 2013, Williams was presented with the Ken Burns Lifetime Achievement Award.[52]

AFI[edit]

In 2005, the American Film Institute selected Williams' richly thematic and highly popular score to 1977's Star Wars as the greatest American film score of all time. His scores for Jaws and E.T. also appeared on the list, at No. 6 and No. 14, respectively.[53] He is the only composer to have three scores on the list. Williams' scores for the following films were also nominated for the list:

Academy Awards[edit]

Year Project Category Result
1967 Valley of the Dolls Best Score Adaptation Nominated
1969 Goodbye, Mr Chips Best Score Adaptation Nominated
The Reivers Best Original Score Nominated
1971 Fiddler on the Roof Best Scoring Adaptation and Original Song Score Won
1972 Images Best Original Dramatic Score Nominated
The Poseidon Adventure Best Original Dramatic Score Nominated
1973 Cinderella Liberty Best Original Dramatic Score Nominated
"Nice to Be Around" (from Cinderella Liberty) Best Original Song Nominated
Tom Sawyer Best Score Adaptation Nominated
1974 The Towering Inferno Best Original Score Nominated
1975 Jaws Best Original Dramatic Score Won
1977 Star Wars Best Original Score Won
Close Encounters of the Third Kind Best Original Score Nominated
1978 Superman Best Original Score Nominated
1980 The Empire Strikes Back Best Original Score Nominated
1981 Raiders of the Lost Ark Best Original Score Nominated
1982 E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial Best Original Score Won
"If We Were in Love" (from Yes, Giorgio) Best Original Song Nominated
1983 Return of the Jedi Best Original Score Nominated
1984 Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom Best Original Score Nominated
The River Best Original Score Nominated
1987 Empire of the Sun Best Original Score Nominated
The Witches of Eastwick Best Original Score Nominated
1988 The Accidental Tourist Best Original Score Nominated
1989 Born on the Fourth of July Best Original Score Nominated
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade Best Original Score Nominated
1990 Home Alone Best Original Score Nominated
"Somewhere in My Memory" (from Home Alone) Best Original Song Nominated
1991 JFK Best Original Score Nominated
"When You're Alone" (from Hook) Best Original Song Nominated
1993 Schindler's List Best Original Score Won
1995 Nixon Best Original Dramatic Score Nominated
Sabrina Best Original Musical or Comedy Score Nominated
"Moonlight" (from Sabrina) Best Original Song Nominated
1996 Sleepers Best Original Dramatic Score Nominated
1997 Amistad Best Original Dramatic Score Nominated
1998 Saving Private Ryan Best Original Dramatic Score Nominated
1999 Angela's Ashes Best Original Score Nominated
2000 The Patriot Best Original Score Nominated
2001 A.I. Artificial Intelligence Best Original Score Nominated
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone Best Original Score Nominated
2002 Catch Me If You Can Best Original Score Nominated
2004 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban Best Original Score Nominated
2005 Memoirs of a Geisha Best Original Score Nominated
Munich Best Original Score Nominated
2011 The Adventures of Tintin Best Original Score Nominated
War Horse Best Original Score Nominated
2012 Lincoln Best Original Score Nominated
2013 The Book Thief Best Original Score Nominated

BAFTA Awards[edit]

Year Project Category Result
1975 Jaws Best Film Music Won
1978 Star Wars Best Film Music Won
Close Encounters of the Third Kind Best Film Music Nominated
1980 The Empire Strikes Back Best Film Music Won
1981 Raiders of the Lost Ark Best Film Music Nominated
1982 E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial Best Film Music Won
1988 Empire of the Sun Best Film Music Won
1993 Schindler's List Best Film Music Won
1998 Saving Private Ryan Best Film Music Nominated
2002 Catch Me If You Can Best Film Music Nominated
2005 Memoirs of a Geisha Best Film Music Won
2011 War Horse Best Film Music Nominated
2012 Lincoln Best Film Music Nominated
2013 The Book Thief Best Film Music Nominated

Emmy Awards[edit]

Year Project Category Result
1962 Alcoa Premiere Outstanding Achievement in Original Music Composed for Television Nominated
1963 Alcoa Premiere Outstanding Achievement in Composing Original Music Nominated
1968 Heidi Outstanding Achievement in Musical Composition Won
1971 Jane Eyre Outstanding Achievement in Musical Composition Won
2002 The 74th Academy Awards Outstanding Music Direction Nominated
2009 Great Performances Outstanding Original Main Title Theme Music Won[54]

Golden Globe Awards[edit]

Year Project Category Result
1972 The Poseidon Adventure Best Original Score Nominated
1973 Cinderella Liberty Best Original Score Nominated
Tom Sawyer (with Richard M. Sherman and Robert B. Sherman) Best Original Score Nominated
1974 Earthquake Best Original Score Nominated
1975 Jaws Best Original Score Won
1977 Star Wars Best Original Score Won
Close Encounters of the Third Kind Best Original Score Nominated
1978 Superman Best Original Score Nominated
1980 The Empire Strikes Back Best Original Score Nominated
1982 E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial Best Original Score Won
"If We Were In Love" (with Alan Bergman and Marilyn Bergman) from Yes, Giorgio Best Original Song Nominated
1984 The River Best Original Score Nominated
1987 Empire of the Sun Best Original Score Nominated
1988 The Accidental Tourist Best Original Score Nominated
1989 Born on the Fourth of July Best Original Score Nominated
1993 Schindler's List Best Original Score Nominated
1995 "Moonlight" (with Alan Bergman and Marilyn Bergman) from Sabrina Best Original Song Nominated
1997 Seven Years in Tibet Best Original Score Nominated
1998 Saving Private Ryan Best Original Score Nominated
1999 Angela's Ashes Best Original Score Nominated
2001 A.I. Artificial Intelligence Best Original Score Nominated
2005 Memoirs of a Geisha Best Original Score Won
2011 War Horse Best Original Score Nominated
2012 Lincoln Best Original Score Nominated
2013 The Book Thief Best Original Score Nominated

Grammy Awards[edit]

Year Project Category Result
1962 Checkmate Best Soundtrack Album or Recording or Score from Motion Picture or Television Nominated
1976 Jaws Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture Won
1978 Star Wars Best Pop Instrumental Performance Won
"Main Title" from Star Wars Best Instrumental Composition Won
Star Wars Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture Won
1979 "Theme" from Close Encounters of the Third Kind Best Instrumental Composition Won
Close Encounters of the Third Kind Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture Won
1980 "Main Title Theme from Superman" Best Instrumental Composition Won
Best Pop Instrumental Performance Nominated
Superman Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture Won
1981 "Yoda's Theme" Best Pop Instrumental Performance Nominated
Best Instrumental Composition Nominated
"The Empire Strikes Back" Won
"Imperial March" (Darth Vader's Theme) Nominated
Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture Won
1982 Raiders of the Lost Ark Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture Won
1983 "Adventures on Earth" Best Instrumental Composition Nominated
"Flying" (Theme from E.T.) Won
Best Arrangement on an Instrumental Recording Won
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial Best Pop Instrument Performance Nominated
Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture Won
1984 Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television Nominated
1985 Olympic Fanfare and Theme Best Instrumental Composition Won
1986 Prokofiev: Peter and the Wolf Best Instrumental Composition Nominated
1988 The Witches of Eastwick Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television Nominated
1989 "Olympic Spirit" Best Instrumental Composition Nominated
Empire of the Sun Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television Nominated
1990 Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television Nominated
1991 Born on the Fourth of July Best Arrangement on an Instrumental Recording Nominated
1992 The Star Wars Trilogy Best Pop Instrumental Performance Nominated
"Home Alone Main Title" Best Arrangement on an Instrumental Nominated
"Somewhere in My Memory" (with Leslie Bricusse) from Home Alone Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or for Television Nominated
1993 Hook Best Pop Instrumental Performance Nominated
Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television Nominated
1994 Jurassic Park Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television Nominated
1995 Schindler's List Instrumental Composition for a Motion Picture or Television Won
1997 "Moonlight" (with Alan Bergman and Marilyn Bergman) from Sabrina Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or for Television Nominated
1998 Seven Years in Tibet Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television Nominated
The Lost World: Jurassic Park Nominated
1999 Saving Private Ryan Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television Won
Amistad Nominated
Gershwin Fantasy Best Classical Crossover Album Nominated
2000 Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Nominated
"Stella by Starlight" (from The Uninvited) from: Cinema Serenade 2: The Golden Age Best Instrumental Arrangement Nominated
2001 "Theme" from Angela's Ashes Best Instrumental Composition Won
2002 Artificial Intelligence: A.I. Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Nominated
2003 "Hedwig's Theme" Best Instrumental Composition Nominated
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Nominated
2004 Catch Me If You Can Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Nominated
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets Nominated
2005 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Nominated
2006 Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Nominated
2007 Memoirs of a Geisha Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Won
Munich Nominated
"A Prayer For Peace" (Theme from Munich) Best Instrumental Composition Won
"Sayuri's Theme and End Credits" (Theme from Memoirs of a Geisha) Nominated
2009 Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Nominated
"The Adventures of Mutt" from Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull Best Instrumental Composition Won
2012 The Adventures of Tintin Best Score Soundtrack For Visual Media Nominated
2013 Lincoln Best Score Soundtrack for Visual Media Nominated
2014 "The Book Thief" from The Book Thief Best Instrumental Composition Won

Charting hits (U.S., Billboard)[edit]

  • 1975 – "Theme From Jaws," No. 32
  • 1977 – "Star Wars Theme – Main Title," No. 10
  • 1978 – "Theme From Close Encounters Of The Third Kind," No. 13
  • 1979 – "Theme From Superman," No. 81

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Official Academy Awards Database at www.oscars.org (accessed September 29, 2007)
  2. ^ "BMI Film/Awards:1999". bmi.com. Retrieved November 4, 2010. 
  3. ^ http://www.jwfan.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=23977
  4. ^ http://fpdownload.adobe.com/strobe/FlashMediaPlayback.swf?src=http://collections.mun.ca/videos/extension/image/2603.mp4
  5. ^ John Eggerton,"Are You Ready For Some Gridiron Violins?" in Broadcasting & Cable, August 30, 2006.
  6. ^ Rina Fox et al. "The Tammy Grimes Show". Classic TV Archive. Retrieved February 25, 2013. 
  7. ^ David Blumberg (2011). "Clarinet Concerto recording". Mytempo.com. Retrieved 2011-09-05. 
  8. ^ "John Williams, el compositor de la aventura". Revista Esfinge. Retrieved 2012-04-30. 
  9. ^ Don Williams biography on imdb
  10. ^ a b Sony Classical Williams Biography at the Wayback Machine (archived October 12, 2007) at www.sonybmgmasterworks.com. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
  11. ^ "Romanticism". Retrieved August 25, 2006. 
  12. ^ "Star Wars and Wagner's Ring". Retrieved August 15, 2010. 
  13. ^ Films & Filming, vol.24, 1977, p.32
  14. ^ Tribute to John Williams, ca. 1991.
  15. ^ John Williams Biography at FilmReference.com.
  16. ^ Marooned credits (unaired pilot, October 16, 1962)
  17. ^ Spielberg, Steven (1993). "Back cover". Jurassic Park Audio CD (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack CD) (Media notes). MCA.  "...and I consider it a privilege to call John my Friend."
  18. ^ Al Septien, Turi Meyer, Brian Peterson & Kelly Souders (writers); Greg Beeman & Kevin Fair (directors) (May 13, 2011). "Finale". Smallville. Season 10. Episode 21. The CW. 
  19. ^ Warner at War (2008) (TV) - Full cast and crew
  20. ^ A Timeless Call (2008) - Full cast and crew
  21. ^ "The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn (John Williams)". Filmtracks. Retrieved 2012-04-30. 
  22. ^ "War Horse (John Williams)". Filmtracks. 2011-11-21. Retrieved 2012-04-30. 
  23. ^ "The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn (John Williams) « MovieCues". Moviecues.com. 2011-11-01. Retrieved 2012-04-30. 
  24. ^ "War Horse (John Williams) « MovieCues". Moviecues.com. 2011-12-04. Retrieved 2012-04-30. 
  25. ^ "The Adventures Of Tintin: The Secret Of The Unicorn – John Williams « Movie Music Uk". Moviemusicuk.us. 2011-10-23. Retrieved 2012-04-30. 
  26. ^ "The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn soundtrack review | John Williams". movie-wave.net. Retrieved 2012-04-30. 
  27. ^ "Winners for the 84th Academy Awards | Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences". Oscars.org. Retrieved 2012-04-30. 
  28. ^ Thursday, December 15, 2011 (2011-12-15). "The 69th Annual Golden Globe Awards NOMINATIONS | OFFICIAL WEBSITE of the HFPA and the GOLDEN GLOBE AWARDS". Goldenglobes.org. Retrieved 2012-04-30. 
  29. ^ "2013 Academy Award Nominees Announced". mediaite.com. 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-10. 
  30. ^ "Williams Says He 'Hopes' to Work on New Star Wars Trilogy". jwfan.com. 2013-02-11. Retrieved 2013-02-12. 
  31. ^ "Williams confirms he will score Episode VII". jwfan.com. 2013-05-23. Retrieved 2013-05-23. 
  32. ^ "John Williams to Score ‘The Book Thief’". Film Music Reporter. August 6, 2013. Retrieved August 6, 2013. 
  33. ^ Fischer, Russ (March 3, 2015). "New Steven Spielberg and Tom Hanks Film Titled ‘Bridge of Spies,’ John Williams Confirmed to Score". slashfilm.com. Retrieved March 4, 2015. 
  34. ^ "Thomas Newman Replaces Williams on "Bridge of Spies"". jwfan.com. March 18, 2015. Retrieved March 18, 2015. 
  35. ^ "John Williams won't score a Steven Spielberg film for the first time in 30 years". The Verge. 18 March 2015. Retrieved 8 June 2015. 
  36. ^ Holland, Bernard (June 14, 1984). "Boston Pops Conductor Resigns Abruptly". New York Times. Retrieved September 17, 2007. 
  37. ^ Clendinen, Dudley (May 1, 1985). "At 100, the Boston Still Packs Them In". New York Times. Retrieved September 17, 2007. 
  38. ^ "Concerto for Clarinet". MyTempo.com. 1991. Retrieved September 17, 2007. 
  39. ^ a b "John Williams: Videos" from the John Williams Fan Network, June 2, 2007.
  40. ^ Ecks, Johnny (12 Feb 2004). "John Williams: the Art of the Score (review)". JWFan.com. Retrieved 2013-05-22. 
  41. ^ Kozinn, Allan (26 Apr 2006). "Philharmonic and Film: Sound to Bring Pictures to Life". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-05-22. 
  42. ^ Chris Matthew Sciabarra, "John Williams & the NY Philharmonic" from Notablog, 16 May 2006.
  43. ^ Kozinn, Allan (9 Sep 2007). "Classical: Just in Time for Timeless Melodies". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-05-22. 
  44. ^ Anthony Tommasini, "John Williams: NY Philharmonic (review)" from New York Times, 17 Sep 2007.
  45. ^ Groner, Danny (26 Oct 2011). "John Williams Makes Movie Music Come Alive". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2013-05-22. 
  46. ^ "John Williams Net Worth". TheRichest. 
  47. ^ "Williams, John biography". Retrieved May 6, 2007. 
  48. ^ "John Williams Film Music Box Biography Discography News". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2006. 
  49. ^ "IOC awards the Olympic Order to John Williams". IOC. May 1, 2003. Retrieved 19 December 2011. 
  50. ^ "Remarks by the President at Presentation of the National Humanities Medal and the National Medal of the Arts | The White House". February 25, 2010. Retrieved July 4, 2011. 
  51. ^ "Kappa Kappa Psi Theta Beta at Boston University". 
  52. ^ "Ken Burns Lifetime Achievement Award". 
  53. ^ "AFI 100 Years of Film Scores". Web.archive.org. 2007-10-22. Archived from the original on 2007-10-22. Retrieved 2011-09-05. 
  54. ^ "Great Performances wins Primetime Emmy; John Williams interview". WNET. September 15, 2009. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Audissino, Emilio: John Williams's Film Music. 'Jaws,' 'Star Wars,' 'Raiders of the Lost Ark,' and the Return of the Classical Hollywood Music Style (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 2014), 346 pp. Isbn 978-0-299-29734-3
  • Audissino, Emilio: "Golden Age 2.0: John Williams and the Revival of the Symphonic Film Score". In: Stoppe, Sebastian (2014). Film in Concert. Film Scores and their Relation to Classical Concert Music. Glücksstadt, Germany: VWH Verlag. pp. 109–124. ISBN 978-3-86488060-5. 
  • Paulus, Irena: "Williams versus Wagner—Or an Attempt at Linking Musical Epics". In: Stoppe, Sebastian (2014). Film in Concert. Film Scores and their Relation to Classical Concert Music. Glücksstadt, Germany: VWH Verlag. pp. 63–108. ISBN 978-3-86488060-5. 
  • Moormann, Peter (2010). Spielberg-Variationen: die Filmmusik von John Williams (in German). Baden-Baden: Nomos, Edition Reinhard Fischer. p. 797. ISBN 978-3-8329-5355-3. 
  • Aschieri, Roberto (1999). Over the Moon: La Mứsica de John Williams Para El Cine (in Spanish). Santigo, Chile: Función Privada, sponsored by Universidad Diego Portales. p. 400. ISBN 978-4-89799-246-4. 

External links[edit]

Cultural offices
Preceded by
Arthur Fiedler
Conductor, Boston Pops Orchestra
1980–1993
Succeeded by
Keith Lockhart
Preceded by
 
Laureate Conductor, Boston Pops Orchestra
1993–present
Succeeded by
Incumbent