List of computer system manufacturers

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A computer system is a nominally complete computer that includes the hardware, operating system (main software), and the means to use peripheral equipment needed and used for full or mostly full operation. Such systems may constitute personal computers (including desktop computers, portable computers, laptops, all-in-ones, and more), mainframe computers, minicomputers, servers, and workstations, among other classes of computing. The following is a list of notable manufacturers and sellers of computer systems, both present and past.

Current[edit]

Name Parent company Country of origin Year of market entry Note(s)/
ref(s).
Acer Inc. Taiwan 1976
ACube Systems Srl Italy 2007
Advanced Battlestations Newegg United States 2000
AG Neovo Taiwan 1978
Aigo China 1993
Aleutia United Kingdom 2006
Alienware Dell (since 2006) United States 1996
AOpen Acer Inc. Taiwan 1996
Aorus Gigabyte Technology Taiwan 2016
Apple Inc. United States 1976
ASRock Pegatron (since 2010) Taiwan 2002
Asus Taiwan 1989
BenQ Qisda Corporation Taiwan 1984
Biostar Taiwan 1986
Brother Industries Japan
Chassis Plans United States 1997
Chip PC Technologies Israel 2000
Cisco Systems United States 1984
Clevo Taiwan 1983
Compal Electronics Taiwan 1984
Cray Hewlett Packard Enterprise (since 2019) United States 1972
CyberPowerPC United States 1998
Dell United States 1984
DFI Taiwan 1981
Digital Storm United States 2002
Dynabook Inc. Sharp Corporation (since 2020) Japan 1954
Elitegroup Computer Systems Taiwan 1987
Epson Japan 1982 [a]
Falcon Northwest United States 1992
Founder Technology China 1986
Foxconn China 1974
Fujitsu Japan 1954
Fujitsu Technology Solutions Fujitsu Japan 1999
Gigabyte Technology Taiwan 1986
Google Alphabet Inc. (since 2016) United States 2011 [1]
Gradiente IGB Eletrônica Brazil 1964
Groupe Bull Atos France
Grundig Arçelik Germany
Hasee China 1995
HCLTech India 1975
Hewlett Packard Enterprise United States 2015
Hisense China 1994
HP Inc. United States 2015
Huawei China 1987
Hyundai Technology Hyundai Group South Korea 1986
IBM United States 1952
IGEL Technology Germany 2001
Intel United States 1968
Inventec Taiwan 1975
Itautec Itaúsa Brazil 1979
Kontron Germany 1959
Lanix Mexico 1990
Lanner Electronics Taiwan 1986
Lenovo China 1984
LG Corporation South Korea 1983
Lite-On Taiwan 1975
Maingear United States 2002
Medion Lenovo (since 2011) Germany 1983
Mesh Computers United Kingdom 1987
Micro Center Micro Electronics, Inc. United States 1979
Microsoft United States 2012
Micro-Star International Taiwan 1986
MiTAC Taiwan 1982
Motorola Mobility Lenovo (since 2014) United States 2011
NComputing United States 2003
NCR Corporation United States 1953
NEC Japan 1954
Nvidia United States 1993
NZXT United States 2004
Olidata Acer Inc. (since 2009) Italy 1982
Oracle Corporation United States 1977
Origin PC Corsair Gaming (since 2019) United States 2009
Panasonic Japan 1958
Positivo Tecnologia Grupo Positivo Brazil 1989
Puget Systems United States 2000
Quanta Computer Taiwan 1988
Razer Inc. Singapore 1998
RCA American Future Technology Corporation United States
Samsung Electronics South Korea 1982
Sapphire Technology Hong Kong 2001
Shuttle Inc. Taiwan 1983
Síragon Venezuela 2004
Sony Japan 1982
Stratus Technologies United States 1980
Supermicro United States 1993
System76 United States 2005
TabletKiosk United States 2003
Tatung Company Taiwan 1984
T-Platforms Russia 2002
Tyan MiTAC (since 2007) Taiwan 1989
Unisys United States 1986
Vaio Japan 1996 [b]
Valve Corporation United States 2015
Velocity Micro United States 1997
VIA Technologies Taiwan 1987
Viglen United Kingdom 1975
Vizio United States 2002
Walton Group Bangladesh 1977
Wistron Taiwan 2001
Wortmann Germany 1986
Xiaomi China 2010
Zoostorm VIP Group United States 1993
ZOTAC Hong Kong 2006
zSpace United States 2007

Inactive[edit]

Name Parent company Country of origin Year of market entry Year of market exit Fate Note(s)/
ref(s).
Acorn Computers United Kingdom 1978 1998 Acquired by Morgan Stanley and reorganized as Element 14
Adage, Inc. United States 1957 1994 Acquired by Systems & Computer Technology Corporation
Advanced Logic Research United States 1984 1997 Acquired by Gateway, Inc.
Alliant Computer Systems United States 1982 1992 Bankruptcy
Alpha Microsystems United States 1977 2018 Dissolution
Altos Computer Systems United States 1977 1990 Acquired by Acer Inc.
AM Jacquard Systems United States Un­known Un­known Un­known
Ambra Computer Corporation IBM United States 1992 1996 Dissolution
Amdahl Corporation United States 1970 1997 Acquired by Fujitsu
American Computer and Peripheral United States 1985 1990 Bankruptcy
Amstrad United States 1984 2007 Acquired by BSkyB
AnyBus Technologies CMS Enhancements United States 1992 1994 Dissolution
Apollo Computer United States 1980 1989 Acquired by Hewlett-Packard
Apricot Computers United Kingdom 1965 1999 Dissolution
Ardent Computer United States 1985 1989 Merged with Stellar Computer to form Stardent Inc.
AST Research Samsung Electronics (1997–1999) United States 1980 1999 Acquired by Samsung Electronics in 1997; division dissolved in 1999
Atari Corporation JT Storage (1996–1998) United States 1984 1996 Acquired by JT Storage; JT in turn sold to Hasbro in 1998
AT&T Computer Systems AT&T Corporation United States 1984 1989 Merged back into AT&T Corporation; previously reorganized as AT&T Information Systems
Averatec TriGem United States 1984 2012 Dissolution
Be Inc. United States 1990 2001 Acquired by Palm, Inc.
Bell & Howell United States 1979 1982 Exited the computer business
Bendix Corporation United States 1956 1963 Sold computer division to Control Data Corporation [2]
BiiN United States 1982 1990 Liquidation
Blue Chip Electronics United States 1981 1989 Acquired by Capewood Limited
Burroughs Corporation United States 1953 1986 Merged with Sperry Corporation to form Unisys
CADO Systems United States 1976 1983 Acquired by Contel Business Systems
Callan Data Systems United States 1980 1985 Bankruptcy
Calma General Electric (1980–1988) United States 1965 1988 Broken up
Canon Computer Systems Canon Inc. United States 1992 1997 Exited the computer business; dissolved in 2001
Canon Inc. Japan 1978 1992 Spun off computer division as Canon Computer Systems
Celerity Computing United States 1983 1988 Acquired by Floating Point Systems
Commodore International United States 1976 1994 Bankruptcy
Compaq United States 1982 2002 Acquired by Hewlett-Packard; defunct as a subsidiary since 2013
CompuAdd United States 1982 1994 Bankruptcy
CompuPro United States 1980 1985 Restructured as Viasyn
Computervision United States 1969 1998 Merged into Prime Computer
Computer Automation United States 1968 1992 Ceased operations in 1992
Computer Control Company United States 1953 1966 Acquired by Honeywell
Computer Research Corporation United States 1950 1953 Acquired by NCR Corporation
Concurrent Computer Corporation United States 1985 2017 Broken up
Control Data Corporation United States 1957 1992 Broken up from 1988 to 1992; remainder is now Ceridian
Convergent Technologies United States 1979 1988 Acquired by Unisys
Convex Computer United States 1982 1995 Purchased by Hewlett-Packard
Corona Data Systems Daewoo (1987–1993) United States 1982 1993 Acquired by Daewoo in 1987; brand phased out in 1993
Corvus Systems United States 1979 1987 Bankruptcy
CPT Corporation United States 1971 Un­known Dissolution
Cray Computer Corporation United States 1989 1995 Bankruptcy
Cromemco United States 1974 1987 Acquired by Dynatech Computer Systems
Cydrome United States 1984 1988 Dissolution
Cumulus Computer Corporation United States 1990 1992 Bankruptcy
Daisy Systems United States 1981 1990 Acquired by Intergraph
Data General United States 1968 1999 Acquired by EMC in 1999
Datapoint United States 1968 2000 Bankruptcy
Decision Data United States 1969 1988 Acquired by Onset Corporation
DeskStation Technology United States 1989 2000 Acquired by Samsung Electronics in 1998; division dissolved in 2000 [3]
Digital Equipment Corporation United States 1957 1998 Acquired by Compaq
The Digital Group United States 1975 1979 Bankruptcy
DTK Computer Datatech Enterprises Taiwan 1981 2009 Dissolution; Dubai subsidiary is active as of November 2022
Durango Systems Corporation United States 1977 1984 Merged with Molecular Systems in 1982; Molecular went bankrupt in 1984
Dynalogic United States 1982 1983 Acquired by Bytec
Eagle Computer United States 1978 1986 Dissolution
Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation United States 1946 1950 Acquired by Remington Rand
EduQuest IBM United States 1992 1995 Discontinued computer lineup after reorganizing as IBM K–12 Education
Egenera United States 2000 2006 Exited the computer business
Eldorado Electrodata United States 1968 1976 Dissolution
ElectroData Corporation United States 1954 1956 Acquired by Burroughs Corporation
Electronic Associates United States 1945 Un­known Un­known
Elonex United Kingdom 1986 Un­known Exited the computer business; currently sells tablets
Elxsi United States 1979 1989 Acquired by Tata Group
eMachines Gateway, Inc. (2004–2007)
Acer Inc. (2007–2013)
United States 1998 2013 Acquired by Gateway, Inc., in 2004, in turn acquired by Acer Inc.; brand discontinued by Acer in 2013
Encore Computer United States 1983 1998 Acquired by Gores Technology Group and renamed to Encore Real Time Computing
Engineering Research Associates United States 1946 1952 Acquired by Remington Rand
English Electric LEO Company English Electric United Kingdom 1963 1967 Acquired by International Computers Limited
Escom AG Germany 1986 1996 Bankruptcy
ETA Systems Control Data Corporation United States 1983 1989 Dissolution
Evans & Sutherland United States 1986 1989 Exited the computer business
Everex Formosa Plastics Group (1993–2009) United States (1983–1993)
Taiwan (1993–2009)
1983 2009 Dissolution
Evesham Technology United Kingdom 1983 2008 Liquidation; assets purchased by Time Group
First International Computer Taiwan 1979 Un­known Exited the computer business
Floating Point Systems United States 1970 1991 Acquired by Cray
Foonly United States 1976 1989 Dissolution
Franklin Computer Corporation United States 1981 1986 Exited the computer business; reorganized into Franklin Electronic Publishers
Gateway, Inc. United States 1985 2007 Acquired by Acer; brand revived in the United States in 2020
General Automation United States 1968 Un­known Un­known
General Computer Corporation United States 1981 2015 Dissolution
General Electric United States 1954 1970 Sold computer division to Honeywell
Genisco Technology United States 1983 1997 Bankruptcy
Gericom Austria 1990 2008 Acquired by Quanmax AG and merged with Systemhaus mit Eigentechnologie (S&T)
GO Corporation United States 1987 1994 Dissolution
Gould Electronics Germany 1981 1988 Sold computer division to Nippon Mining; division in turn sold to Encore Computer in 1988
HAL Computer Systems Fujitsu 1993–2001 United States 1990 2001 Dissolution
Handspring, Inc. United States 1998 2003 Acquired by Palm, Inc.
Harris Corporation United States 1967 1994 Spun off computer division as Harris Computer Systems in 1994, itself acquired by Concurrent Computer Corporation in 1996
Hazeltine Corporation United States 1970 1986 Acquired by Emerson Electric
Hewlett-Packard United States 1966 2015 Broken up into Hewlett Packard Enterprise and HP Inc.
Hitachi Japan 1958 2007 Exited the computer business [4]
Honeywell United States 1957 1991 Sold computer division to Groupe Bull
HTC Taiwan 1997 2017 Sold computer division to Alphabet Inc.
IMLAC United States 1968 1979 Acquired by Hazeltine Corporation
IMS Associates, Inc. United States 1973 1979 Bankruptcy
Inacom United States 1991 2000 Bankruptcy
Ithaca Intersystems United States 1976 1986 Dissolution
International Computers and Tabulators United Kingdom 1959 1968 Acquired by International Computers Limited
International Computers Limited United Kingdom 1968 2002 Acquired by Fujitsu
Jetta International United States 1991 Un­known Dissolution
Kaypro Non-Linear Systems United States 1981 1992 Bankruptcy
Kendall Square Research United States 1986 1994 Bankruptcy
Kohjinsha Japan 2004 Un­known Dissolution
LanSlide Gaming PCs United States 2005 2011 Dissolution
Leading Edge Hardware Products Daewoo (1989–1995)
Manuhold Investment AG (1995–1997)
United States 1980 1997 Acquired by Daewoo; division in turn sold to Manuhold Investment AG; brand phased out in 1997
Librascope Singer Corporation (until 1992) United States 1956 1992 Acquired by Loral Space & Communications
Librex Computer Systems Nippon Steel Corporation United States 1990 1993 Dissolution
Lisp Machines United States 1979 1987 Bankruptcy
Luxor AB Sweden 1978 1986 Sold computer division to Nokia in 1985; brand phased out in 1986
Magnavox Philips United States 1972 1991 Magnavox-branded computers discontinued in 1992
Magnuson Computer Systems United States 1977 1983 Bankruptcy
MASSCOMP United States 1981 1988 Acquired by Concurrent Computer Corporation
MasPar United States 1987 1999 Acquired by Accrue Software
Maxdata Germany 1987 2008 Dissolution; warranty claims taken over by Swiss Belinea AG, itself acquired by Bluechip Computer
Meebox Mexico 2009 Un­known Dissolution
Metaphor Computer Systems United States 1982 1994 Acquired by IBM
Micro Craft United States 1981 1987 Dissolution; restructured as Dimension Electronics in 1987
Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems United States 1969 1977 Acquired by Pertec Computer
Microdata Corporation United States 1969 1983 Acquired by McDonnell Douglas
Micron Technology United States 1991 2001 Spun off computer division as MPC Corporation
Micromation United States 1978 1983 Un­known
MicroOffice United States 1981 1985 Acquired by Telxon Corporation in 1985
Micros Systems United States 1978 2014 Acquired by Oracle Corporation
Midwest Scientific Instruments United States 1972 1985 Dissolution
Mitsubishi Electric Mitsubishi Group Japan 1960 1990 Exited the computer business
Modcomp United States 1970 Un­known Exited the computer business; survives today as CSPi Technology Solutions, a systems integrator
Mohawk Data Sciences Corporation United States 1964 1988 Acquired by Decision Data; previously restructured as Qantel Corporation
Monorail Inc. United States 1995 2005 Dissolution
Motion Computing United States 2001 2015 Acquired by Xplore Technologies
MPC Corporation United States 2001 2008 Bankruptcy
Multiflow United States 1984 1990 Dissolution
nCUBE United States 1983 2005 Acquired by C-COR
Neoware United States 1992 2007 Acquired by Hewlett-Packard
Network Computing Devices United States 1987 2004 Dissolution
NeXT United States 1985 1997 Acquired by Apple Computer
Nixdorf Computer West Germany 1952 1990 Acquired by Siemens; renamed Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme AG
Northgate Computer Systems United States 1987 1997 Acquired by Lan Plus, after filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 1994
North Star Computers United States 1976 1989 Dissolution
Olivetti S.p.A. Italy 1955 1997 Exited the computer business
Onyx Systems United States 1979 1985 Acquired by Corvus Systems
Osborne Computer Corporation United States 1980 1985 Dissolution; assets and name sold to Mikrolog Ltd, of Finland
Otrona United States 1981 1984 Bankruptcy
Pacific Cyber/Metrix United States 1975 2001 Dissolution
Packard Bell United States 1986 2008 Majority stake purchased by NEC in 1995; stake relinquished in 1999; eventually acquired by Acer Inc. in 2008
Packard Bell Computer Corporation Packard Bell Corporation United States 1957 1964 Acquired by Raytheon Company
Pandigital, Inc. United States 1998 2012 Bankruptcy
Parasitic Engineering United States 1976 1983 Dissolution
Pencept United States 1980 Un­known Un­known
Pertec Computer United States 1967 1987 Acquired by Triumph-Adler [de]
Philco United States 1954 1961 Exited the computer business before being acquired by Ford Motor Company
Philips Netherlands 1953 1991 Sold computer division to Digital Equipment Corporation [5]
PolyMorphic Systems United States 1976 Un­known Un­known
Poqet Computer Corporation United States 1989 1992 Acquired by Fujitsu [6]
Power Computing Corporation United States 1993 1998 Acquired by Apple Computer
Prime Computer United States 1972 1998 Acquired by Parametric Technology Corporation
Processor Technology United States 1975 1979 Dissolution
Psystar Corporation United States 2008 2009 Exited the computer business following permanent injunction to stop selling computers with Apple's Mac OS X
Pyramid Technology United States 1981 1995 Acquired by Siemens
Quantex Microsystems United States 1984 2000 Bankruptcy
Quasar Data Products United States 1978 1986 Dissolution
Radio Shack Tandy Corporation United States 1977 1983 Branding subsumed by the Tandy name in 1983 [7]
Raytheon Company United States 1949 1984 Spun off as Raytheon Data Systems in 1971, itself acquired by Telex Corporation in 1984 [8][9]
RCA United States 1956 1971 Exited the computer business in 1971; division sold to Sperry Rand in 1972
Reeves Instrument Corporation United States 1944 1995 Un­known
Remington Rand United States 1950 1955 Acquired by Sperry Corporation to form Sperry Rand
Reply Corporation United States 1988 1997 Acquired by Radius Inc.
ROLM IBM (1984–1998) United States 1969 1998 Acquired by Siemens
Seattle Computer Products United States 1978 Un­known Dissolution
Sanyo Japan 1982 2009 Acquired by Panasonic
Scientific Data Systems United States 1961 1969 Acquired by Xerox
Seattle Computer Products United States 1978 Un­known Dissolution
Sequent Computer Systems United States 1983 1999 Acquired by IBM
Siemens Germany 1955 2009 Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme AG merged with Fujitsu into Fujitsu Siemens Computers in 1999; remaining stake sold to Fujitsu in 2009 [10]
Silicon Graphics International United States 1982 2016 Formerly Rackable Systems, Inc., it acquired Silicon Graphics, Inc. in 2009; acquired by Hewlett Packard Enterprise in 2016
Silicon Graphics, Inc. United States 1981 2009 Acquired by Rackable Systems, Inc., to become Silicon Graphics International
Sinclair Research United Kingdom 1978 1986 Acquired by Amstrad
Sirius Systems Technology United States 1980 1984 Acquired by Datatronic AB
Smoke Signal Broadcasting United States 1977 1991 Dissolution
Solbourne Computer United States 1986 2008 Acquired by Deloitte Consulting
Soyo Group United States 1985 2009 Bankruptcy
Spectravideo United States 1981 1988 Acquired by SpectraVideo plc, unrelated holding company from the United Kingdom
Sperry Corporation United States 1953 1986 Merged with Burroughs to form Unisys; company was formerly Sperry Rand until it dropped Rand from its name in 1978 and continued as Sperry
Sperry Rand United States 1955 1978 Reverted to Sperry Corporation name in 1978
Stardent Inc. United States 1989 1994 Restructured as Kubota Graphics in 1994; dissolved the same year
Sun Microsystems United States 1982 2010 Acquired by Oracle Corporation
Southwest Technical Products Corporation United States 1975 1990 Dissolution
Symbiotic Systems United States 1977 1983 Dissolution
Symbolics United States 1980 1996 Bankruptcy
Systemax United States 1981 2021 Exited the computer business
Systems Engineering Laboratories United States 1959 1981 Acquired by Gould Electronics
Systime Computers United States 1973 1989 Acquired by Control Data Corporation; broken up in 1989
Tadpole Computer United States 1994 2005 Acquired by General Dynamics
Tandon Corporation United States 1975 1993 Dissolution
Tandy Corporation United States 1977 1993 Sold computer division to AST Research; former parent company of Radio Shack
TeleVideo United States 1975 2011 Dissolution
Texas Instruments United States 1979 1997 Sold computer division to Acer Inc. [11]
Thinking Machines Corporation United States 1983 1994 Bankruptcy; hardware and software divisions acquired by Sun Microsystems
Three Rivers Computer Corporation United States 1974 1985 Bankruptcy
Timex Sinclair United States 1982 1984 Dissolution [c]
Tiny Computers United Kingdom 1996 2002 Acquired by Time Group; brand phased out in 2005
Toshiba Japan 1954 2016 Discontinued computer lineup in 2016; computer business restructured as Dynabook Inc. in 2018, with majority of its shares sold to Sharp Corporation the same year; remaining shares sold to Sharp in 2020
TriGem South Korea 1980 2010 Bankruptcy
Trilogy Systems United States 1980 1985 Acquired by Elxsi
TRW Inc. United States 1959 2002 Acquired by Northrop Grumman
Tulip Computers Netherlands 1979 2009 Bankruptcy; previously restructured as Nedfield NV in 2008
Umtech United States 1976 1979 Acquired by Cha Group
V3 Gaming PC United States 2010 2016 Dissolution
Varian Data Machines United States 1967 1977 Acquired by Sperry Rand
Vector Graphic United States 1976 1987 Dissolution
Vestel United States 1984 Un­known Exited the computer business
Viasyn United States 1985 1991 Dissolution
Viatron United States 1967 1971 Bankruptcy
ViewSonic United States 2001 2012 Left the computer business; still active in monitor business [12][13]
Vigor Gaming United States 2004 2010 Bankruptcy
VoodooPC United States 1991 2009 Acquired by Hewlett-Packard in 2006; brand retired in 2009
VTech Hong Kong 1976 Un­known Exited the computer business
Walton Group Bangladesh 1977 Un­known Exited the computer business
Wang Laboratories United States 1951 1999 Acquired by Getronics
Wicat Systems United States 1980 1992 Acquired by Jostens
Wipro India 1977 Un­known Exited the computer business
Wyse United States 1981 2012 Acquired by Dell
Xerox United States 1969 2014 Exited the computer business
Xybernaut United States 1990 2005 Bankruptcy
Zenith Data Systems Zenith Electronics (1979–1991)
Groupe Bull (1991–1996)
United States 1979 1996 Acquired by Groupe Bull in 1991; sold to NEC in 1996, who merged it into Packard Bell [14]
Zeos United States 1987 1995 Acquired by Micron Technology
Zonbu United States 2006 Un­known Dissolution

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Formerly a subsidiary of Seiko; now independent
  2. ^ Formerly a brand of Sony; in 2014, Vaio Corporation Inc., a joint venture majority-owned by Japan Industrial Partners and minority-owned by Sony, was formed to buy out the Vaio trademark
  3. ^ Joint venture between Sinclair Research and Timex Corporation

References[edit]

  1. ^ Arthur, Charles (May 11, 2011). "Google targets Microsoft with launch of Chromebook laptop". The Guardian.
  2. ^ Duggan, Dennis (July 8, 1965). "Two More Companies Leave Thorny Computer Market". The Washington Post. Quoted in United States Senate (1973). The Industrial Reorganization Act: The Computer Industry. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 5569 – via Google Books.
  3. ^ LeVota, Meghan (October 31, 2017). "CEO: Infusion Express $13.5M round proves realistic investment can come to KC". Startland News.
  4. ^ Williams, Martyn (October 23, 2007). "Hitachi to exit consumer PC business". Network World. IDG Publications.
  5. ^ Staff writer (1991). "Digital Equipment completes acquisition of Philips Electronics unit". UPI.com. United Press International.
  6. ^ Lee, Yvonne (March 15, 1993). "Fujitsu to debut its first updated Poqet systems". InfoWorld. IDG Publications. 15 (11): 31 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ Staff writer (March 20, 1984). "Tandy's Executive $11 Crystal Ball". PC Magazine. Ziff-Davis. 3 (5): 55 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ "Title unknown". Electronics. McGraw-Hill. 44 (4): 71. 1971 – via Google Books.
  9. ^ Staff writer (August 27, 1984). "Telex buy completed". Computerworld. CW Communications. XVIII (35): 77 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ O'Regan, Gerard (2012). A Brief History of Computing. Springer. p. 97. ISBN 9781447123583 – via Google Books.
  11. ^ McGrath, Rita Gunther; Ian C. MacMillan (2000). The Entrepreneurial Mindset: Strategies for Continuously Creating Opportunity in an Age of Uncertainty. Harvard Business School Press. p. 139. ISBN 9780875848341 – via Google Books.
  12. ^ Williams, Stephen (July 11, 2001). "At PC Expo, Desktops Get Lost in the Shuffle". Newsday: C5 – via ProQuest.
  13. ^ Bent, Kristen (September 19, 2012). "ViewSonic Exits Mainstream Tablet Market, Focuses On Verticals". Computer Retail news. The Channel Company.
  14. ^ Gunset, George (May 5, 1996). "Top May Be Lonely, but Bottom's Miserable". Chicago Tribune: 2. Archived from the original on November 30, 2022. ProQuest 291133824.