List of concurrent and parallel programming languages
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This article lists concurrent and parallel programming languages, categorizing them by a defining paradigm. A concurrent language is defined as one which uses the concept of simultaneously executing processes or threads of execution as a means of structuring a program. A parallel language is able to express programs that are executable on more than one processor. Both types are listed as concurrency is a useful tool in expressing parallelism, but it is not necessary. In both cases, the features must be part of the language syntax and not an extension such as a library.
The following categories aim to capture the main, defining feature of the languages contained, but they are not necessarily orthogonal.
- 1 Actor model
- 2 Coordination languages
- 3 Dataflow programming
- 4 Distributed computing
- 5 Event-driven and hardware description
- 6 Functional programming
- 7 Logic programming
- 8 Monitor-based
- 9 Multi-threaded
- 10 Object-oriented programming
- 11 Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS)
- 12 Message passing
- 13 APIs/Frameworks
- 14 See also
- Axum - a domain-specific language being developed by Microsoft.
- Elixir (runs on the Erlang VM)
- Scala/Akka (toolkit)
- E (also object-oriented)
- Joule (also distributed)
- LabView (also synchronous)
- Lustre (also synchronous)
- Preesm (also synchronous)
- Signal (also synchronous)
- Oz - Multi-paradigm language with particular support for constraint and distributed programming.
Event-driven and hardware description
- Esterel (also synchronous)
- Verilog-AMS - math modeling of continuous time systems
- Cilk Plus
- Fork - Programming language for the PRAM model.
- C++ AMP
- D Programming Language
- Eiffel SCOOP (Simple Concurrent Object-Oriented Programming)
- Emerald (also distributed)
- Join Java - A Java-based language with features from the join-calculus.
Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS)
- Limbo (also distributed)
- Occam-π - A derivative of Occam that integrates features from the pi-calculus
- XC - A C-based language, integrating features from Occam, developed by XMOS
These application programming interfaces support parallelism in host languages.
- Apache Hadoop
- Apache Spark
- OpenMP for C, C++, and Fortran (shared memory and attached GPUs)