List of concurrent and parallel programming languages

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This article lists concurrent and parallel programming languages, categorizing them by a defining paradigm. A concurrent programming language is defined as one which uses the concept of simultaneously executing processes or threads of execution as a means of structuring a program. A parallel language is able to express programs that are executable on more than one processor. Both types are listed, as concurrency is a useful tool in expressing parallelism, but it is not necessary. In both cases, the features must be part of the language syntax and not an extension such as a library.

The following categories aim to capture the main, defining feature of the languages contained, but they are not necessarily orthogonal.

Actor model[edit]

Coordination languages[edit]

Dataflow programming[edit]

Distributed computing[edit]

Event-driven and hardware description[edit]

Functional programming[edit]

Logic programming[edit]

Monitor-based[edit]

Multi-threaded[edit]

Object-oriented programming[edit]

Partitioned global address space (PGAS)[edit]

Message passing[edit]

CSP based[edit]

APIs/frameworks[edit]

These application programming interfaces support parallelism in host languages.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Threads - The Rust Programming Language". doc.rust-lang.org. Retrieved 2017-09-15.
  2. ^ "Message Passing - The Rust Programming Language". doc.rust-lang.org. Retrieved 2017-09-15.
  3. ^ "Crystal Programming Language - Concurrency". Retrieved 10 August 2018.