List of concurrent and parallel programming languages
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This article lists concurrent and parallel programming languages, categorizing them by a defining paradigm. A concurrent programming language is defined as one which uses the concept of simultaneously executing processes or threads of execution as a means of structuring a program. A parallel language is able to express programs that are executable on more than one processor. Both types are listed, as concurrency is a useful tool in expressing parallelism, but it is not necessary. In both cases, the features must be part of the language syntax and not an extension such as a library.
The following categories aim to capture the main, defining feature of the languages contained, but they are not necessarily orthogonal.
- E (also object-oriented)
- Joule (also distributed)
- LabView (also synchronous)
- Lustre (also synchronous)
- Preesm (also synchronous)
- Signal (also synchronous)
- Oz - Multi-paradigm language with particular support for constraint and distributed programming.
Event-driven and hardware description
- Esterel (also synchronous)
- Verilog-AMS - math modeling of continuous time systems
- Cilk Plus
- Concurrent Pascal
- Fork – programming language for the PRAM model.
- C++ AMP
- D programming language
- Eiffel SCOOP (Simple Concurrent Object-Oriented Programming)
- Join Java - A Java-based language with features from the join-calculus.
Partitioned global address space (PGAS)
- Ateji PX - An extension of Java with parallel primitives inspired from pi-calculus.
- Smalltalk:p.17 Part IV, see table following fig. 11–29
- Axum - a domain-specific language being developed by Microsoft.
- Dart - using Isolates
- Elixir (runs on BEAM, the Erlang virtual machine)
- Pony (programming language)
- Scala/Akka (toolkit)
- LabVIEW - Labview Actor Framework
- Limbo (also distributed)
- Occam-π – a derivative of Occam that integrates features from the pi-calculus
- XC – a C-based language, integrating features from Occam, developed by XMOS
These application programming interfaces support parallelism in host languages.
- Apache Hadoop
- Apache Spark
- Apache Flink
- Apache Beam
- OpenMP for C, C++, and Fortran (shared memory and attached GPUs)
- Message Passing Interface for C, C++, and Fortran (distributed computing)
- Thom Frühwirth (9 July 2009). Constraint Handling Rules. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87776-3.
- "Threads - The Rust Programming Language". doc.rust-lang.org. Retrieved 2017-09-15.
- "Message Passing - The Rust Programming Language". doc.rust-lang.org. Retrieved 2017-09-15.
- Alan Kay The Early History Of Smalltalk
- "Crystal Programming Language – Concurrency". Retrieved 10 August 2018.