List of concurrent and parallel programming languages
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)
This article lists concurrent and parallel programming languages, categorizing them by a defining paradigm. Concurrent and parallel programming languages involve multiple timelines. Such languages provide synchronization constructs whose behavior is defined by a parallel execution model. A concurrent programming language is defined as one which uses the concept of simultaneously executing processes or threads of execution as a means of structuring a program. A parallel language is able to express programs that are executable on more than one processor. Both types are listed, as concurrency is a useful tool in expressing parallelism, but it is not necessary. In both cases, the features must be part of the language syntax and not an extension such as a library (libraries such as the posix-thread library implement a parallel execution model but lack the syntax and grammar required to be a programming language).
The following categories aim to capture the main, defining feature of the languages contained, but they are not necessarily orthogonal.
- E (also object-oriented)
- Joule (also distributed)
- LabView (also synchronous)
- Lustre (also synchronous)
- Preesm (also synchronous)
- Signal (also synchronous)
- Oz - Multi-paradigm language with particular support for constraint and distributed programming.
Event-driven and hardware description
- Esterel (also synchronous)
- Verilog-AMS - math modeling of continuous time systems
- Cilk Plus
- Concurrent Pascal
- Fork – programming language for the PRAM model.
- C++ AMP
- D programming language
- Eiffel SCOOP (Simple Concurrent Object-Oriented Programming)
- Join Java - A Java-based language with features from the join-calculus.
Partitioned global address space (PGAS)
- Ateji PX - An extension of Java with parallel primitives inspired from pi-calculus.
- Smalltalk: p.17 Part IV, see table following fig. 11–29
- Axum - a domain-specific language being developed by Microsoft.
- Dart - using Isolates
- Elixir (runs on BEAM, the Erlang virtual machine)
- Pony (programming language)
- Scala/Akka (toolkit)
- LabVIEW - Labview Actor Framework
- Limbo (also distributed)
- Occam-π – a derivative of Occam that integrates features from the pi-calculus
- XC – a C-based language, integrating features from Occam, developed by XMOS
These application programming interfaces support parallelism in host languages.
- Apache Hadoop
- Apache Spark
- Apache Flink
- Apache Beam
- OpenMP for C, C++, and Fortran (shared memory and attached GPUs)
- Message Passing Interface for C, C++, and Fortran (distributed computing)
- Thom Frühwirth (9 July 2009). Constraint Handling Rules. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87776-3.
- "Threads - The Rust Programming Language". doc.rust-lang.org. Retrieved 2017-09-15.
- Documentation » The Python Standard Library » Concurrent Execution
- "Message Passing - The Rust Programming Language". doc.rust-lang.org. Retrieved 2017-09-15.
- Alan Kay The Early History Of Smalltalk
- "Crystal Programming Language – Concurrency". Retrieved 10 August 2018.