List of conflicts by duration

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The following list ranks wars and times of war by their duration, including both historical and ongoing wars.

Series of conflicts[edit]

War Start date End date Duration
Reconquista 718/722 1492 774 years[1]
Anglo-French Wars 1193 1898 705 years
Roman–Persian Wars 54 BC 628 681 years[citation needed]
Germanic Wars 113 BC 569 681 years
Byzantine-Bulgarian wars 680 1355 675 years
Ottoman wars in Europe 1265 1918 653 years
Bulgarian-Ottoman conflict (wars) 1304 1914 610 years
Serbian–Ottoman conflict (wars) 1312 1918 606 years
Croatian–Ottoman wars 1443 1878 435 years
Arab–Byzantine wars 634 1050 416 years
Mexican Indian Wars 1519 1933 414 years
Spanish–Moro conflict 1500 1900 400 years
Byzantine–Arab wars (780–1180) 780 1180 400 years
Yaqui Wars 1533 1929 396 years
Polish–Russian Wars 1558 1939 381 years
Philippine revolts against Spain 1521 1898 377 years
Yemeni–Ottoman conflicts 1538 1911 373 years
Moroccan–Portuguese conflicts 1415 1769 354 years
Russo-Turkish wars 1568 1918 350 years
Arauco War 1536 1883 347 years
Dano-Swedish wars 1470 1814 344 years
Apache–Mexico Wars 1600 1915 315 years
Russo–Swedish Wars 1495 1809 314 years
Ottoman–Persian Wars 1514 1823 309 years
Burmese–Siamese wars 1547 1855 308 years
American Indian Wars 1622 1924 302 years[citation needed]
Ottoman–Venetian Wars 1422 1718 296 years
Hispano-Moroccan wars 1681 1958 277 years
Viking invasions of England 793 1066 273 years
Navajo Wars 1600 1866 266 years
Ottoman–Habsburg wars 1526 1791 265 years
Byzantine–Seljuq wars 1048 1308 260 years[citation needed]
Polish–Ottoman Wars 1443 1699 256 years
Ottoman–Portuguese conflicts 1481 1718 237 years
Chechen–Russian conflict 1785 Ongoing 234 years
Warring States Period 453 BC 223 BC 230 years
Anglo-Spanish Wars 1585 1808 223 years
Byzantine–Ottoman Wars 1265 1479 214 years[citation needed]
Polish–Teutonic War 1308 1521 213 years
Franco-Moroccan conflicts 1765 1958 193 years
Cossack uprisings 1591 1775 184 years
Russo-Persian Wars 1651 1828 177 years
Spanish conquest of Guatemala 1521 1697 176 years
Spanish conquest of Chiapas 1523 1695 172 years
Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars 1368 1537 169 years
Russian conquest of Siberia 1580 1747 167 years
Fitnas 656 819 163 years
Ottoman–Hungarian Wars 1366 1526 160 years
Polish–Swedish wars 1563 1721 158 years
Anglo-Dutch Wars 1652 1810 158 years
Australian frontier wars 1788 1934 146 years
Hook and Cod wars 1350 1490 140 years
Mongol invasions and conquests 1206 1337 131 years
Early Muslim conquests 622 750 128 years
Second Hundred Years' War 1689 1815 126 years
Mughal-Sikh Wars 1635 1753 118 years
Hundred Years' War 1337 1453 116 years[2]
Russo-Kazan Wars 1438 1552 114 years
Norwegian civil wars 1130 1240 110 years
Jin–Song Wars 1125 1234 109 years
Seleucid–Parthian wars 238 BC 129 BC 109 years
Georgian–Seljuk wars 1099 1203 104 years
Russo-Circassian War 1763 1864 101 years
Xhosa Wars 1779 1889 110 years
Tuareg rebellion 1916 Ongoing 103 years
Hephthalite–Persian Wars 459 562 103 years
Kurdish separatism in Iran 1918 Ongoing 101 years
Kurdish rebellions in Turkey 6 March 1921 Ongoing 98 years, 8 months and 6 days
Afghan–Sikh Wars 1751 1837 86 years
Iraqi–Kurdish conflict 1918 2003 85 years
Dagohoy Rebellion 24 January 1744 31 August 1829 85 years, 7 months and 1 week
Anglo-Afghan War 1839 1919 80 years
Eighty Years' War 1568 1648 80 years[3]
Spanish conquest of Petén 1618 1697 79 years
Muslim conquest of Transoxiana 673 751 78 years
Anglo-Ashanti wars 1823 1900 77 years
Umayyad conquest of Hispania 711 788 77 years
Muslim conquest of Sicily June 827 August 902 75 years and 2 months
Apache Wars 1849 1924 75 years
Korean conflict 15 August 1945 Ongoing 74 years, 2 months and 4 weeks
Jewish–Roman wars 66 136 70 years
Dzungar–Qing Wars 1687 1758 71 years
Indo-Pakistani wars 22 October 1947 Ongoing 72 years and 3 weeks
Rohingya insurgency 1947 Ongoing 72 years
Internal conflict in Myanmar 2 April 1948 Ongoing 71 years, 7 months, 1 week and 3 days
Israeli–Palestinian conflict 1948 Ongoing 71 years
Israeli–Lebanese conflict 14 May 1948 Ongoing 71 years, 5 months, 4 weeks and 1 day
Arab–Israeli conflict 15 May 1948 Ongoing 71 years, 5 months and 4 weeks
Balochistan conflict 1948 Ongoing 71 years
Pacification of Algeria 1835 1903 68 years
Kashmir conflict 22 October 1948 Ongoing 71 years and 3 weeks
Afghanistan–Pakistan skirmishes 1949 Ongoing 70 years
Karen conflict 1949 Ongoing 70 years[4]
Argentine Civil Wars 1814 1880 66 years
Italian Wars 1494 1559 65 years
Ethnic conflict in Nagaland 1954 Ongoing 65 years
Xinjiang conflict 1954 Ongoing 64 years and 11 months
Sudanese Civil Wars 18 August 1955 Ongoing 64 years, 2 months, 3 weeks and 4 days
Darfurs Civil War 1722 1786 64 years
Muslim conquest of the Maghreb 647 709 62 years
Sixty Years' War 1754 1814 60 years
Dutch–Portuguese War 1601 1661 60 years
Lelantine War 710 BC 650 BC 60 years
Italian unification 1815 1871 56 years
South Thailand insurgency 1960 Ongoing 59 years
Texas–Indian wars 1820 1875 55 years
Papua conflict 1962 Ongoing 57 years
Moro attacks on Sabah 1962 Ongoing 57 years
Insurgency in Northeast India 1963 Ongoing 56 years
Colombian Conflict 27 May 1964 2016 55 years, 5 months, 2 weeks and 2 days
Insurgency in Manipur 24 November 1964 Ongoing 54 years, 11 months, 2 weeks and 5 days
Basque conflict 31 July 1959 20 October 2011 52 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 6 days
Bulgarian–Ottoman wars 1344 1396 52 years
Galicia–Volhynia Wars 1340 1392 52 years
Communist insurgency in Myanmar 1939 1989 50 years
Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria 968 1018 50 years
Greco-Persian Wars 499 BC 449 BC 50 years[5]
Naxalite–Maoist insurgency 18 May 1967 Ongoing 52 years, 5 months, 3 weeks and 4 days
Comanche–Mexico Wars 1821 1870 49 years
Wars of the Diadochi 322 BC 275 BC 47 years[6]
Civil conflict in the Philippines 29 March 1969 Ongoing 50 years, 7 months and 2 weeks
CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion 29 March 1969 Ongoing 50 years, 7 months and 2 weeks
Moro conflict 29 March 1969 Ongoing 50 years, 7 months and 2 weeks
Caucasian War 1817 1864 47 years
Western Sahara conflict 1970 Ongoing 49 years
Chadian Civil Wars 1965 2010 45 years
Cold War (Indirect War) 1947 1991 44 years
Kongo Civil War 1665 1709 44 years
Sino-Dutch conflicts 1620 1662 42 years
Thirty-Eight Years' War 770 811 41 years[citation needed]
Cabinda War 8 November 1975 Ongoing 44 years and 4 days
Insurgency in Laos 3 December 1975 Ongoing 43 years, 11 months, 1 week and 2 days
Bab al-Tabbaneh–Jabal Mohsen conflict 1976 Ongoing 43 years
Polish–Czechoslovak border conflicts 1918 1958 40 years
Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire 1532 1572 40 years
Chichimeca War 1550 1590 40 years
Umayyad invasion of Gaul 719 759 40 years
Comanche Wars 1836 1875 39 years
War in Afghanistan (1978–present) 27 April 1978 Ongoing 41 years, 6 months, 2 weeks and 2 days[citation needed]
Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present) 27 November 1978 Ongoing 40 years, 11 months, 2 weeks and 2 days
Assam separatist movements 1979 Ongoing 40 years
Internal conflict in Peru 17 May 1980 Ongoing 39 years, 5 months, 3 weeks and 5 days
Maoist insurgency in Turkey 12 September 1980 Ongoing 39 years and 2 months
Guatemalan Civil War 13 November 1960 29 December 1996 36 years, 1 month, 2 weeks and 2 days[7]
French Wars of Religion 1562 1598 36 years
Banana Wars 1898 1934 36 years
Anglo-Powhatan Wars 1610 1646 36 years
Holy Man's Rebellion 1901 1936 35 years
Ayutthaya-Lan Na War 1441 1474 33 years
Wars of the Roses 1455 1487 32 years[8]
First War of Scottish Independence 1296 1328 32 years[9]
Casamance conflict 1982 2014 32 years
Anglo-Mysore Wars 1767 1799 32 years
Libyan resistance movement 1911 1943 32 years
Second Viking Invasion of the British Isles 980 1012 32 years
Aceh War 1873 1904 31 years[10]
Afaqi Khoja revolts 1826 1857 31 years
The Troubles 1968 1998 30 years
French conquest of Algeria 1827 1857 30 years
Thirty Years' War 1618 1648 30 years[11]
Eritrean War of Independence 1 September 1961 29 May 1991 29 years, 8 months, 3 weeks and 2 days
Murid War 1830 1859 29 years
Lord's Resistance Army insurgency 1987 Ongoing 32 years
Portuguese Restoration War 1640 1668 28 years[12]
Nagorno-Karabakh conflict 20 February 1988 Ongoing 31 years, 8 months, 3 weeks and 2 days
Insurgency in Aceh 4 December 1976 15 August 2005 28 years, 8 months, 1 week and 4 days
Intercommunal conflict in Mandatory Palestine 1 March 1920 15 May 1948 28 years, 2 months and 2 weeks
Nicaraguan Revolution 1962 1990 28 years
FULRO insurgency against Vietnam 20 September 1964 October 1992 28 years
Communist insurgency in Sarawak December 1962 3 November 1990 27 years, 11 months and 2 days
Peloponnesian War 431 BC 404 BC 27 years[13]
New Zealand Wars 1845 1872 27 years
Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir 1989 Ongoing 30 years
Abkhaz–Georgian conflict 1989 Ongoing 30 years
Georgian–Ossetian conflict 1989 Ongoing 30 years
Sectarianism in Pakistan 1989 Ongoing 30 years
Internal conflict in Bangladesh 1989 Ongoing 30 years
Angolan Civil War 1975 2002 27 years[14]
Russo-Finnish wars 27 January 1918 19 September 1944 26 years, 7 months, 3 weeks and 2 days
DHKP/C insurgency in Turkey 1 April 1990 Ongoing 29 years, 7 months, 1 week and 4 days
Mughal–Maratha Wars September 1681 May 1707 25 years and 8 months
Livonian War 1558 1583 25 years[15]
Somali Civil War May 1991[nb 1] Ongoing 28 years and 6 months
Sri Lankan Civil War 23 July 1983 18 May 2009 25 years, 9 months, 3 weeks and 4 days
Spanish American wars of independence 1808 1833 25 years
Oromo conflict 1992 Ongoing 27 years
Insurgency in Meghalaya 1992 Ongoing 27 years
Indonesian occupation of East Timor 7 December 1975 31 October 1999 23 years, 10 months, 3 weeks and 3 days
South African Border war 26 August 1966 21 March 1990 24 years
First Punic War 264 BC 241 BC 23 years
Silesian Wars 1740 1763 23 years
Laotian Civil War 9 November 1953 2 December 1975 22 years, 3 weeks and 2 days
Second Sudanese Civil War 1983 2005 22 years
Occupation of Araucanía 1861 1883 22 years
Chiapas conflict 1994 Ongoing 25 years
Insurgency in Ogaden 1994 Ongoing 25 years
Norman conquest of England 1066 1088 22 years
Kandyan Wars 1796 1818 22 years
Little War in Hungary 1530 1552 22 years
Communist insurgency in Malaysia (1968–89) 17 June 1968 2 December 1989 21 years, 5 months, 2 weeks and 1 day
Second Afar insurgency 1995 Ongoing 24 years
United States occupation of Nicaragua 1912 1933 21 years
Lazic War 541 562 21 years
Great Northern War 1700 1721 21 years[23]
Ottoman conquest of Habesh 1557 1578 21 years
Muslim conquest of Persia 633 654 21 years
Allied Democratic Forces insurgency 1996 Ongoing 23 years
Eumerella Wars 1840 1860 20 years
War of the Sicilian Vespers 1282 1302 20 years
Somaliland Campaign 1900 1920 20 years
Chittagong Hill Tracts conflict 1977 2 December 1997 20 years
Vietnam War 1 November 1955 30 April 1975 19 years, 5 months, 4 weeks and 1 day[24]
Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591 572 591 19 years
United States occupation of Haiti 28 July 1915 1 August 1934 19 years and 4 days
Miao Rebellion (1854–73) 1854 1873 19 years
Gothic War 535 554 19 years[citation needed]
Al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen 1998 Ongoing 21 years
Communal conflicts in Nigeria 1998 Ongoing 21 years
Jeroboam's Revolt 931 BC 913 BC 18 years
Communist insurgency in Thailand 1965 1983 18 years
Basmachi movement 1916 1934 18 years
Mahdist War 1881 1899 18 years
Second Punic War 218 BC 201 BC 17 years
Ethiopian Civil War 12 September 1974 4 June 1991 16 years, 8 months, 3 weeks and 2 days
First Sudanese Civil War 18 August 1955 27 March 1972 16 years, 7 months, 1 week and 2 days
Bolivian War of Independence 1809 1825 16 years
Chilean War of Independence 1810 1821 or 1826 11–16 years
Polish–Ottoman War (1683–99) 1683 1699 16 years
Western Sahara War 30 October 1975 6 September 1991 15 years, 10 months and 1 week
Great Turkish War 14 July 1683 26 January 1699 15 years, 6 months, 1 week and 5 days
Lebanese Civil War 13 April 1975 13 October 1990 15 years and 6 months
Rhodesian Bush War 4 July 1964 12 December 1979 15 years, 5 months, 1 week and 1 day
War on Terror 11 September 2001 Ongoing 18 years, 2 months and 1 day[25]
Morean War 1684 1699 15 years
Long Turkish War 1591 1606 15 years
Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present) 11 April 2002 Ongoing 17 years, 7 months and 1 day
Cambodian–Vietnamese War 30 April 1977 23 October 1991 14 years, 5 months, 3 weeks and 2 days
Taliban insurgency 2002 Ongoing 17 years
Jewish–Babylonian War 601 BC 586 BC 15 years
Third Indochina War 1978 1992 14 years
Dhofar Rebellion 1962 1976 14 years
Years of Lead (Italy) 1968 1982 14 years
Taiping Rebellion 1850 1864 14 years
Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700) 1686 1700 14 years
Abyssinian–Adal war 1529 1543 14 years
Marcomannic Wars 166 180 14 years
Second Sino-Japanese War 18 September 1931 9 September 1945 13 years, 11 months, 3 weeks and 1 day
War in Darfur 26 February 2003 Ongoing 16 years, 8 months, 2 weeks and 3 days
War in Afghanistan (2001–present) 7 October 2001 Ongoing 18 years, 1 month and 5 days
Portuguese Colonial War 4 February 1961 25 April 1974 13 years, 2 months and 3 weeks
Angolan War of Independence 4 February 1961 25 April 1974 13 years, 2 months and 3 weeks
Darul Islam Rebellion August 1949 September 1962 13 years, 3 weeks and 5 days
War of the Spanish Succession 9 July 1702 11 July 1715 13 years and 2 days
Conflict in the Niger Delta 2003 Ongoing 16 years
Peruvian War of Independence 1811 1824 13 years
Venezuelan War of Independence 1810 1823 13 years
Wars of Alexander the Great 336 BC 323 BC 13 years
War in North-West Pakistan 16 March 2004 Ongoing 15 years, 7 months, 3 weeks and 6 days
Iran–PJAK conflict 1 April 2004 Ongoing 15 years, 7 months, 1 week and 4 days
Napoleonic Wars 18 May 1803 20 November 1815 12 years, 6 months and 2 days[26]
Burundian Civil War 21 October 1993 15 April 2006 12 years, 5 months, 3 weeks and 4 days
Haitian Revolution 21 August 1791 1 January 1804 12 years, 4 months, 1 week and 4 days
Salvadoran Civil War 15 October 1979 16 January 1992 12 years, 3 months and 1 day
Malayan Emergency 16 June 1948 12 July 1960 12 years, 3 weeks and 5 days
Kivu conflict 2004 Ongoing 15 years
Sistan and Baluchestan insurgency 2004 Ongoing 15 years
Iraqi no-fly zones conflict 1991 2003 12 years
Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1639 1651 12 years
Cimbrian War 113 BC 101 BC 12 years
Guinea-Bissau War of Independence 23 January 1963 10 September 1974 11 years, 7 months, 2 weeks and 4 days
Paraguayan People's Army insurgency 27 August 2005 Ongoing 14 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 2 days
Mexican War of Independence 16 September 1810 27 September 1821 11 years, 1 week and 4 days
Dano-Swedish War (1501–12) 1501 1512 11 years
Pool Department insurgency 1997 2008 11 years
Insurgency in Punjab 1984 1995 11 years
Sino-Vietnamese conflicts 1979–90 1979 1990 11 years
Queen Anne's War 1702 1713 11 years
Sierra Leone Civil War 23 March 1991 18 January 2002 10 years, 9 months, 3 weeks and 5 days
Nepalese Civil War 13 February 1996 21 November 2006 10 years, 9 months, 1 week and 1 day
Houthi insurgency in Yemen 18 June 2004 6 February 2015 10 years, 7 months, 2 weeks and 5 days
Yugoslav Wars 31 March 1991 12 November 2001 10 years, 7 months, 1 week and 5 days
Syrian Civil War March 15, 2011 Ongoing 8 years, 7 months and 4 weeks


Conflicts[edit]

War Start date End date Duration
Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years' War 1651 1986 335 years[27]
Arauco War 1536 1818 or 1825 282 years or 289 years[28]
Islamic conquest of Afghanistan 642 870 228 years
Gaza–Israel conflict June 2006 Ongoing 13 years, 4 months, 2 weeks and 1 day
Mexican Drug War 11 December 2006 Ongoing 12 years, 11 months and 1 day
Algerian Civil War 26 December 1991 8 February 2002 10 years, 1 month, 1 week and 6 days
Herzegovina uprising (1852–62) 1852 1862 10 years
Falklands War 1982 1982 42 days[29]
Insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia 22 January 2001 12 November 2001 9 months and 3 weeks
Football War 14 July 1969 18 July 1969 4 days
Anglo-Zanzibar War 1896 1896 38-45 minutes

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Various start dates have been offered for when the civil war in Somalia began. The Central Bank of Somalia,[16] the United Nations,[17][18] the US Office of the Secretary of Defense,[19] and Necrometrics all assert that the conflict started in 1991, after the ouster of the Siad Barre administration.[20] Political scientist James Fearon argues that the start of the conflict could be dated to 1981, when armed Isaaq clan militias began to launch small-scale attacks against the Barre regime and its Isaaq members, to the razing of the Isaaq majority town of Hargeisa in 1988 by state forces, or to 1991, following the collapse of the Barre administration and the commencement of interclan warfare. For analytical purposes, he settles on 1991 for the start date of a new civil war, on the grounds that the fighting had begun previously, but that a major party to the conflict was defeated.[21] Robinson writes that the "civil war had effectively begun by 1987", referring to Compagnon.[22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ McKitterick, Rosamond; Collins, R. (1990). The New Cambridge Medieval. History 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 289. ISBN 9780521362924. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
  2. ^ Corrigan, Gordon (2014). Great and glorious adventure : a history of the hundred years war and the birth of renaissance... [S.l.]: Pegasus Books. ISBN 978-1605985794.
  3. ^ Hart, Marjolein 't (2011). Dutch wars of independence : the eighty years struggle, 1566–1648. [S.l.]: Longman. ISBN 0582209676.
  4. ^ Charney, Michael W. (2009). A history of modern Burma (1. publ.3. print. ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521617588.
  5. ^ Green, Peter (1996). The Greco-Persian wars ([Repr.]. ed.). Berkeley, Calif.: Univ. of California Press. ISBN 0520205731.
  6. ^ Romm, James (2012). Ghost on the throne : the death of Alexander the Great and the war for crown and empire (1st ed.). New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0307271641.
  7. ^ Chauche, Victor Perera ; photographs by Daniel (1995). Unfinished conquest : the Guatemalan tragedy. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520203496.
  8. ^ Jones, Dan (2014). Wars of the roses : the fall of the plantagenets and the rise of the tudors. [S.l.]: Viking. ISBN 0670026670.
  9. ^ Traquair, Peter (1998). Freedoms̓ sword. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0004720792.
  10. ^ Martinkus, John (2004). Indonesia's secret war in Aceh (1. publ. ed.). Milsons Point, N.S.W.: Random House. ISBN 174051209X.
  11. ^ Wilson, Peter H. (2011). The Thirty Years War : Europe's tragedy (1st Harvard University Press pbk. ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674062310.
  12. ^ Birmingham, David (2003). A concise history of Portugal (2. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521536863.
  13. ^ Kagan, Donald (2004). The Peloponnesian War. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0142004375.
  14. ^ III, W. Martin James (2011). A political history of the civil war in Angola, 1974–1990 (Pbk. ed.). New Brunswick, [N.J.], U.S.A.: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1412815061.
  15. ^ Stevens, Carol B. (2007). Russia's wars of emergence : 1460–1730. Harlo [u.a.]: Pearson Longman. ISBN 0582218918.
  16. ^ "Board of Directors". Central Bank of Somalia. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  17. ^ "UN senior official calls for widespread support for Somali Government reform efforts" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  18. ^ "Somalia - UNOSOM II: Background". United Nations. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  19. ^ "Richard B. Cheney - George H.W. Bush Administration". US Office of the Secretary of Defense. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  20. ^ "Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls and Casualty Statistics for Wars, Dictatorships and Genocides". Users.erols.com. Retrieved April 20, 2011.
  21. ^ Fearon, James D. (2004). "Why Do Some Civil Wars Last So Much Longer Than Others?". Journal of Peace Research. 41 (3): 275–301. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.19.3818. doi:10.1177/0022343304043770.
  22. ^ Robinson, Colin (2016). "Revisiting the rise and fall of the Somali Armed Forces, 1960–2012". Defense & Security Analysis. 32 (3): 237–252. doi:10.1080/14751798.2016.1199122.
  23. ^ Frost, Robert I. (2000). The northern wars : war, state, and society in northeastern Europe, 1558 – 1721 ([Nachdr.] ed.). Harlow [u.a.]: Longman. ISBN 0582064295.
  24. ^ Karnow, Stanley (1997). Vietnam, a history (2nd rev. and updated ed.). New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books. ISBN 0140265473.
  25. ^ Bowman, Karlyn (July 24, 2008). "America and the War on Terror" (PDF). American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 17, 2010. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
  26. ^ Rothenberg, Gunther E. (2006). The Napoleonic Wars. [Washington, D.C.]: Smithsonian Books. ISBN 006085121X.
  27. ^ Bowley, R. L. (2001). Scilly at war. St Mary's: Bowley Publ. ISBN 0900184345.
  28. ^ Cruz, Eduardo Agustin (2010). The grand Araucanian wars (1541–1883) in the kingdom of Chile. [S.l.]: Xlibris. ISBN 1450055281.[self-published source]
  29. ^ "Top 10 Shortest Wars - Listverse". Listverse. 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2018-06-14.