List of conflicts in North America

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Ongoing armed conflicts in 2018; updated December 2018.
  Major wars, 10,000 or more deaths in current or past year
  Wars, 1,000–9,999 deaths in current or past year
  Minor conflicts, 100–999 deaths in current or past year
  Skirmishes and clashes, fewer than 100 deaths in current or past year

This is a list of conflicts in North America. This list includes all countries starting northward from Northern America (Canada, Greenland, and the United States of America), southward to Mesoamerica (Mexico) and the Caribbean (Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, Grenada, Saint Martin, the Dominican Republic, and the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago) and further south to Central America (Panama, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua). Conflicts are ordered by geographic regions of North America ranging from north to south, and then arranged chronologically from the Pre-Columbian era (specifically: the classic and postclassic periods of Mesoamerica) to the postcolonial period. This list includes (but is not limited to) the following: wars of independence, liberation wars, colonial wars, undeclared wars, proxy wars, territorial disputes, and world wars. Also listed might be any battle that was itself only part of an operation of a campaign of a theater of a war. There may also be periods of violent civil unrest listed, such as: riots, shootouts, spree killings, massacres, terrorist attacks, and civil wars. The list might also contain episodes of: human sacrifice, mass suicide, and genocides.

Northern America[edit]

Territorial evolution of North America of non-native nation states from 1750 to 2008.

Bermuda[edit]

As a British Colony Bermuda served as a staging point for Great Britain during the American Revolution and War of 1812. During the Battle of the Atlantic the island served as an allied airbase for submarine hunters. NATO also used Bermuda as a base during the Cold War.

Canada[edit]

11th century[edit]

16th century[edit]

17th century[edit]

18th century[edit]

19th century[edit]

20th century[edit]

21st century[edit]

Greenland[edit]

United States[edit]

This includes all conflicts that have taken place within the modern territory of the United States.

See also

Puerto Rico[edit]

Puerto Rico is geographically located within the Caribbean; however, Puerto Rico is a territory of the United States and so the island's conflicts are listed here.

Precolonial[edit]

This includes all known conflicts that occurred within the territory of the United States of America prior to European exploration.

American Indian Wars[edit]

This list covers all wars regarding Native Americans within the 49 contiental states of the United States, does not include territories. This includes conflicts fought between American Indian tribes and wars against encroachment from European Colonial Powers or the United States. Generally American Indian Wars classifies all conflicts for Native Americans between 1540 and 1924 however this list also includes 20th century incidents on Indian Reservations.

Hernando De Soto's expedition through the Southeast United States was the first major conflict between Europeans and Native Americans in the U.S. Thousands of natives were killed by the expedition, and the majority of the expedition including De Soto did not survive the journey.
The Battle of Little Bighorn near the Little Bighorn river in the state a Montana. A confederation of Lakatoa and allied tribes defeated the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment. Part of the Great Sioux War which was an ultimately a victory of the U.S Government. Painting is The Custer Fight by Charles Marion Russell.

17th century[edit]

The Burning of Jamestown, Virginia by Bacon's Rebellion. Common Indentured Servants and African Slaves fought together against the government of Colonial Virginia. The Rebellion's failure caused a hardening of racial lines in Colonial English America.

This covers all conflicts in the 1600s that occurred between rival European Colonial Powers, or between Colonists and their Colonial Administration. This section does not include conflicts regarding Native Americans.

18th Century[edit]

This covers all conflicts in the 1700s that occurred between rival European Colonial Powers, or between the early United States against European Colonial Powers. Many of the wars in this period were extensions of wars from continental Europe. This section does not include conflicts regarding Native Americans.

*1754–1763 The French and Indian War

Battle of Fort Oswego fought in Oswego,New York part of the French an Indian War. An alliance of French and Native American tribes defeated a British assault. New France enjoyed strong relations with Natives in the Great Lakes Region. Despite early French victories British supremacy on the sea assured victory in the overall war. Drawing by J.Walker

Was fought within both Canada and the United States

1775–1783 American Revolutionary War

The first of four engravings of the Battle of Lexington and Concord by Amos Doolittle from 1775. Doolittle visited the battle sites and interviewed soldiers and witnesses. Contains controversial elements, possibly inaccuracies. Fire from the militia may have occurred but is not depicted.
Siege of Yorktown in Yorktown, Virginia was the deciding battle of the American Revolutionary War and among the largest North American Battles of the 18th century. America's independence was recognized in 1783. Painting by Eugene Lami

19th Century[edit]

This covers all conflicts in the 1800s that occurred between the governments of North America that took place within the modern territory of the United States of America and conflicts between North American and European states. This does not include conflicts regarding Native Americans.

*1812–1814 War of 1812

*1835–1836 Texas Revolution

*1846–1848 Mexican–American War

*1861–1865 American Civil War

20th Century[edit]

This covers all conflicts and terrorist attacks in the 1900s that occurred within the modern territory of the United States of America. This also includes attacks upon the United States from Eurasian powers.

The Navy radio station at Dutch Harbor burning after the Japanese Attack, 4 June 1942 According to Japanese intelligence, the nearest field for land-based American aircraft was at Fort Morrow AAF on Kodiak, more than 600 miles (970 km) away, and Dutch Harbor was a sitting duck for the strong Japanese fleet, carrying out a coordinated operation with a fleet that was to capture Midway Island. The Dutch Harbor attack was part of the Aleutian Islands Campaign.

21st century[edit]

This includes all domestic conflicts and terrorist attacks that took place within the United States. Note that actions of terrorism and domestic conflict are distinguished from one another.

Middle America[edit]

Mexico[edit]

Pre-Columbian[edit]

Map depicting the Maya area within the larger Mesoamerican region. View full size for details.

16th century[edit]

The maximal extent of the Aztec Empire, according to María del Carmen Solanes Carraro and Enrique Vela Ramírez.

17th Century[edit]

18th Century[edit]

19th Century[edit]


Development of Spanish American Independence
  Government under traditional Spanish law
  Loyal to Supreme Central Junta or Cortes
  American junta or insurrection movement
  Independent state declared or established
  Height of French control of the Peninsula

20th Century[edit]

21st Century[edit]

Central America[edit]

Guatemala[edit]

Date Event Modern department
February – March 1524 Spanish defeat the K'iche' Retalhuleu, Suchitepéquez, Quetzaltenango, Totonicapán and El Quiché
8 February 1524 Battle of Zapotitlán, Spanish victory over the K'iche' Suchitepéquez
12 February 1524 First battle of Quetzaltenango results in the death of the K'iche' lord Tecun Uman Quetzaltenango
18 February 1524 Second battle of Quetzaltenango Quetzaltenango
March 1524 Spanish under Pedro de Alvarado raze Q'umarkaj, capital of the K'iche' El Quiché
14 April 1524 Spanish enter Iximche and ally themselves with the Kaqchikel Chimaltenango
18 April 1524 Spanish defeat the Tz'utujil in battle on the shores of Lake Atitlán Sololá
9 May 1524 Pedro de Alvarado defeats the Pipil of Panacal or Panacaltepeque near Izcuintepeque Escuintla
26 May 1524 Pedro de Alvarado defeats the Xinca of Atiquipaque Santa Rosa
27 July 1524 Iximche declared first colonial capital of Guatemala Chimaltenango
28 August 1524 Kaqchikel abandon Iximche and break alliance Chimaltenango
7 September 1524 Spanish declare war on the Kaqchikel Chimaltenango
1525 The Poqomam capital falls to Pedro de Alvarado Guatemala
13 March 1525 Hernán Cortés arrives at Lake Petén Itzá Petén
October 1525 Zaculeu, capital of the Mam, surrenders to Gonzalo de Alvarado y Contreras after a lengthy siege Huehuetenango
1526 Chajoma rebel against the Spanish Guatemala
1526 Acasaguastlán given in encomienda to Diego Salvatierra El Progreso
1526 Spanish captains sent by Alvarado conquer Chiquimula Chiquimula
9 February 1526 Spanish deserters burn Iximche Chimaltenango
1527 Spanish abandon their capital at Tecpán Guatemala Chimaltenango
1529 San Mateo Ixtatán given in encomienda to Gonzalo de Ovalle Huehuetenango
September 1529 Spanish routed at Uspantán El Quiché
April 1530 Rebellion in Chiquimula put down Chiquimula
9 May 1530 Kaqchikel surrender to the Spanish Sacatepéquez
December 1530 Ixil and Uspantek surrender to the Spanish El Quiché
April 1533 Juan de León y Cardona founds San Marcos and San Pedro Sacatepéquez San Marcos
1543 Foundation of Cobán Alta Verapaz
1549 First reductions of the Chuj and Q'anjob'al Huehuetenango
1551 Corregimiento of San Cristóbal Acasaguastlán established El Progreso, Zacapa and Baja Verapaz
1555 Lowland Maya kill Francisco de Vico Alta Verapaz
1560 Reduction of Topiltepeque and Lakandon Ch'ol Alta Verapaz
1618 Franciscan missionaries arrive at Nojpetén, capital of the Itzá Petén
1619 Further missionary expeditions to Nojpetén Petén
1684 Reduction of San Mateo Ixtatán and Santa Eulalia Huehuetenango
29 January 1686 Melchor Rodríguez Mazariegos leaves Huehuetenango, leading an expedition against the Lacandón Huehuetenango
1695 Franciscan friar Andrés de Avendaño attempts to convert the Itzá Petén
28 February 1695 Spanish expeditions leave simultaneously from Cobán, San Mateo Ixtatán and Ocosingo against the Lacandón Alta Verapaz, Huehuetenango and Chiapas
1696 Andrés de Avendaño forced to flee Nojpetén Petén
13 March 1697 Nojpetén falls to the Spanish after a fierce battle Petén

Nicaragua[edit]

Costa Rica[edit]

El Salvador[edit]

Honduras[edit]

  • 1960–1996 Central American crisis
    • 1982–1986 Battalion 3-16 was responsible for the kidnapping, torture, disappearance and murder of at least 184 Honduran students, professors, journalists, human rights activists and others

Panama[edit]

Belize[edit]

Caribbean[edit]

All conflicts which occurred on the islands in the Caribbean Sea are listed here. U.S Territories such as Puerto Rico and the U.S Virgin Islands are exceptions to this rule as they included in the United State's Section.

Dominican Republic[edit]

Cuba[edit]

Saint Martin[edit]

Tobago[edit]

Haiti[edit]

Political evolution of Central America and the Caribbean

Jamaica[edit]

Grenada[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Working people By Desmond Morton, page 72
  2. ^ Knowledge "Vancouver Island War" (3 minute video summary)