List of wars involving the United Kingdom

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This is a list of wars involving the United Kingdom and its predecessor states (such as the Kingdom of Great Britain, and generally the British Isles). Notable militarized interstate disputes are included.

Historically, the UK relied most heavily on the Royal Navy and maintained relatively small land forces. Most of the episodes listed here deal with insurgencies and revolts in the various colonies of the British Empire.

During its history, the UK's forces (or forces with a British mandate) have invaded, had some control over or fought conflicts in 171 of the world's 193 countries that are currently UN member states, or nine out of ten of all countries.[1]

  British victory
  British defeat
  Another result (e.g. a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result of civil or internal conflict, result unknown or indecisive)
  Ongoing conflict

England, Scotland and Wales to 1707[edit]

Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1801)[edit]

Conflict Britain & allies Belligerents opposing Britain Outcome
The Great Northern War
(1700–1721)
Tsardom of Russia
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Cossack Hetmanate
Denmark Denmark–Norway
 Electorate of Saxony
Poland–Lithuania
 Prussia
Province of Hanover Hanover
Sweden Swedish Empire
 Ottoman Empire
 United Provinces

Coat of Arms of Brunswick-Lüneburg.svg Brunswick-Lüneburg

Coalition victory:
The War of the Spanish Succession
(1701–1714)

including

Holy Roman Empire Austria
 Dutch Republic
 Savoy
 Prussia
Portugal Portugal
 France
 Spain
Bavaria Bavaria
Victory
  • Treaty of Utrecht:
  • Philip V recognized as King of Spain by the Grand Alliance
  • Territory in Canada and the West Indies ceded from France
  • Territory in Europe ceded from Spain
Civil war:
(1715–1716) Jacobite rising of 1715

including

Government forces Jacobites

 France

Victory

Jacobite restoration attempt defeated

The War of the Quadruple Alliance

including

 Holy Roman Empire
 France
 Dutch Republic
 Savoy
 Spain

Jacobites (against the British Crown and government only)

Quadruple Alliance Victory:
  • Royal navy won a battle; a small-scale Jacobite invasion was defeated
  • Treaty of The Hague:
  • Spanish attempt at expansion fails.
Dummer's War
(1721–1725)
"The Pine Tree flag of New England" New England Colonies
Mohawk
 France
Wabanaki Confederacy
Victory
  • Britain recognises the rights of the region's indigenous inhabitants.
The War of Jenkins' Ear
(1739–1748)

Location: New Granada, Caribbean, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, Pacific and Atlantic

Spain Spain Status quo ante bellum
The War of the Austrian Succession
(1740–1748)

including

Holy Roman Empire Austria
Province of Hanover Hanover
 Dutch Republic
 Saxony
 Sardinia
 Russia

East India Company

 France
 Prussia

Spain Spain

Bavaria Bavaria
 Saxony
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Naples and Sicily
 Genoa
Sweden Sweden

Kingdom of France French East India Company

Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle:
Civil War:

Jacobite rising of 1745
(1741–1745)

Government forces
Jacobites

 France

Victory

Jacobite restoration attempt defeated

The Second Carnatic War
(1749–1754)
East India Company
  Forces of Nasir Jang Mir Ahmad

  Forces of Mohamed Ali Khan Walajan

Kingdom of France French East India Company
  Forces of Chanda Shahib

  Forces of Muhyi ad-Din Muzaffar Jang Hidayat

Victory

Treaty of Pondicherry:

Seven Years' War
(1756–1763)
 Great Britain
 Prussia
Province of Hanover Hanover
Iroquois Confederacy
Portugal
Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Hesse Hesse-Kassel

Schaumburg-Lippe

 France  Holy Roman Empire
 Russian Empire
 Sweden

Spain Spain

 Saxony
 Sardinia
Victory

Treaty of Paris:

  • Extensive North American lands (incl. all of
    Canada) ceded from France
  • Caribbean colonies ceded from France
  • Senegal River colony (excluding Gorée) ceded
    from France
  • Florida ceded from Spain
The Third Carnatic War
(1757–1763)
East India Company  France

Kingdom of France French East India Company

Victory

Treaty of Paris:

  • French trading posts in India administered by British
  • Sumatra ceded from France
Anglo-Cherokee War
(1758–1761)
 Great Britain Cherokee Victory

Pro-British Attakullakulla becomes Cherokee leader

Tacky's War
(1760)
 Great Britain
Jamaica Jamaican Government
Jamaica Jamaican Maroons
Ashanti Slaves Victory
  • Slave defeat
  • Death of Tacky
  • Tacky's men committed suicide
Pontiac's Rebellion
(1763–1766)
Confederation of First Nation Tribes Stalemate
  • British policy change
  • British suzerainty over First Nation Tribes
  • Niagara Falls area ceded from Seneca Nation
First Anglo-Mysore War
(1766–1769)
East India Company
 Maratha Empire

Hyderabad State

Kingdom of Mysore British defeat, Hyderabad cedes territory to Mysore
First Anglo-Maratha War
(1774–1783)
East India Company  Maratha Empire Indecisive

Pre-war status quo remained.[2][3] Treaty of Salbai:

  • Maratha support for Britain against Mysore
Iroquois
Cherokee
Hanover
Loyalists
 United States
 France
Spain Spain
 Dutch Republic
Vermont Republic
Kingdom of Mysore
Oneida tribe
Tuscarora tribe
Watauga Association

Catawba tribe

Defeat

Treaty of Paris:

  • 13 North American colonies recognised as the independent United States of America
  • Territory in North America ceded to the newly independent United States of America
  • Senegal River colony returned to France
  • French recognises British suzerainty over the Gambia river
  • Territory in India returned to France
  • Menorca ceded to Spain
  • East & West Florida ceded to Spain
    • All British settlers to be expelled from Florida
  • De-militarisation of British Honduras
  • Territory in India ceded by the Dutch
2nd Anglo-Mysore War
(1780–1784)
East India Company
 Maratha Empire

Hyderabad State

Kingdom of Mysore
 France
Treaty of Mangalore:
Northwest Indian War
(1785–1795)
Western Confederacy  United States Defeat

Treaty of Greenville

3rd Anglo-Mysore War
(1789–1792)
East India Company
 Maratha Empire
Hyderabad State

Travancore

Kingdom of Mysore
 France
Victory

Treaty of Seringapatam:

  • Half of Mysore territory ceded to East India Company
War of the French Revolution
(1793–1802)
Holy Roman Empire Austria
 Prussia
Kingdom of France French Royalists
 Dutch Republic
Spain Spain
Kingdom of Portugal
 Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Naples and Sicily
Italian states
 Ottoman Empire
 Russia
France French Republic
Poland Polish Legions
Denmark Denmark–Norway
Spain Spain

Sister republics:

Defeat

Treaty of Amiens:

  • General French victory
  • Britain recognises the French Republic
  • Cape Colony returned to the Batavian Republic
  • British withdrawal from Egypt
  • French withdrawal from the Papal States
  • Trinidad and Tobago ceded from France
  • Ceylon ceded from the Batavian Republic
Ibn Ufaisan's Invasion
(1793)
Flag of Kuwait (?-1899).png Kuwait
 Great Britain
Emirate of Diriyah Victory
  • Saudi retreat from Kuwait.
Second Maroon War
(1795–1796)
 Great Britain
British Jamaica
Jamaican Maroons Victory
  • Maroon defeat
  • Treaty signed established that the Maroons would beg on their knees for the King's forgiveness, return all runaway slaves, and be relocated elsewhere in Jamaica
  • Breach of treaty caused deportation of several Maroons to Nova Scotia and later to Sierra Leone in Africa
Hawkesbury and Nepean Wars
(1795–1816)
Burrberongal Tribe
 Great Britain
from 1801: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Dharug
Eora
Tharawal
Gandangara
Irish-convict sympathisers
Victory

Displacement of Aborigines from their land

Anglo-Spanish War
(1796–1808)

Location: Newfoundland, English Channel, Straits of Gibraltar, Balearic Islands, Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata

Spain
French Republic
Indecisive
Kandyan Wars
(1796–1818)
 Great Britain
from 1801: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
King of Kandy.svg Kingdom of Kandy Victory
  • End of 2357 years of Sinhalese independence
Irish Rebellion of 1798
(1798)
Kingdom of Ireland Kingdom of Ireland United Irishmen
Defenders
France French Republic
Victory Rebellion defeated

1801 Act of Union

4th Anglo-Mysore War
(1798–1799)
East India Company
 Maratha Empire

Hyderabad State

Kingdom of Mysore

France French Republic

Victory

Complete annexation of Mysore by Britain and allies

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922)[edit]

Conflict Britain & Her Allies Belligerents Opposing Britain Outcome
Temne War
(1801–1807)
Susu tribes Kingdom of Koya Victory

Northern shore of Sierra Leone ceded by Koya

Tunisian-Sicilian War
(1801–1804)
Bandiera del Regno di Sicilia 4.svg Kingdom of Sicily
Albanian, German, and Greek mercenaries
 Kingdom of Sardinia (from 1802)
 United Kingdom[4]
Flag of Tunis Bey-fr.svg Beylik of Tunis
Cyrenaica Tunisian pirates
Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg Regency of Algiers

Eyalet of Tripolitania (from 1803)

Victory
  • End of Tunisian attacks on Sicilian ships and impression on sailors.
  • Sicilian occupation of Aryanah and La Goulette until 1808.
  • Sardinian occupation of Bizerte and La Marsa until 1809.
  • 3,560 captured Christian-European slaves released.
Second Anglo-Maratha War
(1802–1805)
East India Company  Maratha Empire Victory

Extensive territory in India ceded by the Maratha Empire

First Kandyan War
(1803–1805)
Kandy Victory

Territory captured from Kandy

Civil War:

Emmet's Insurrection
(1803)

Forces of Robert Emmet Victory

Rebellion defeated

British Expedition to Ceylon
(1803)
 Dutch Republic
 United Kingdom
Chiefdom of Vanni
 Kingdom of Kandy
Victory
  • Vanni region lost to the British
  • The last Tamil resistance against colonial rule was crushed.
War of the Third Coalition
(1803–1805)
 Austrian Empire
 Russian Empire
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Naples and Sicily
Portugal

 Sweden

France French Empire
Netherlands Batavia
Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic) Italy
Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic) Etruria
 Spain
Bavaria Bavaria

Kingdom of Württemberg Württemberg

??
War of the Fourth Coalition
(1806–1807)
 Prussia
 Russia
 Saxony
 Sweden

Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Sicily

France French Empire

Confederation of the Rhine

Polish Legions
Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic) Italy
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Naples
Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic) Etruria
Netherlands Holland
Switzerland Swiss Confederation

 Spain

Treaties of Tilsit:
  • French victory
  • Half of Prussia ceded to French allies
  • Russia exits the war
  • Anglo-Russian War begins
Ashanti-Fante War
(1806–1807)
 Ashanti Empire Fante Confederacy

Netherlands Dutch Empire

Anglo-Turkish War
(1807–1809)
 Ottoman Empire Treaty of the Dardanelles:
  • Turkish Military victory
  • Commercial and legal concessions to British interests within the Ottoman Empire
  • Promise to protect the empire against French encroachment
Gunboat War
(1807–1814)
 United Kingdom Denmark Denmark-Norway Victory

Treaty of Kiel:

  • Denmark and Norway split up
  • Heligoland ceded from Denmark
Anglo-Russian War
(1807–1812)
 United Kingdom  Russian Empire Treaty of Örebro:
  • Anglo-Russian-Swedish pact against France
Peninsular War
(1807–1814)
 Spain

Portugal

France French Empire Victory

Treaty of Paris:

  • Bourbon dynasty restored
  • Tobago, St. Lucia, Mautitius ceded from France
  • All other French possessions restored as per 1792 borders
  • Abolition of French Slave Trade
  • Swiss independence
Persian Gulf campaign of 1809
(1809)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom Ae rak-escudo.png Al Qasimi Victory
War of the Fifth Coalition
(1809)
 Austrian Empire
Tyrol
Hungary
Kingdom of Prussia Black Brunswickers
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Sicily

 Sardinia

France French Empire
Flag of the Duchy of Warsaw.svg Warsaw

Confederation of the Rhine

Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic) Kingdom of Italy
Naples
SwitzerlandSwiss Confederation

Netherlands Holland

??
Merina Conquest of Madagascar
(1810–1817)
Merina Kingdom France French Empire Victory

Merina control of Madagascar Merina pro-British policies

Punjab War
(1810–1820)
East India Company Nishan Sahib.svg Sikh Empire Defeat
  • Status quo ante bellum
4th Xhosa War
(1811–1812)
Xhosa tribes Victory

Xhosa tribes pushed beyond the Fish River, reversing their gains in the previous Xhosa wars

Ga-Fante War
(1811)
 Ashanti Empire
Ga tribes

Netherlands Dutch Empire

Fante Confederacy
Akwapim tribes

Akim tribes

Tantamkweri ceded to Akwapim tribes
War of 1812
(1812–1815)
 United Kingdom

Tecumseh's Confederacy

United States United States Stalemate

Treaty of Ghent; Status quo ante bellum with no boundary changes

War of the Sixth Coalition
(1812–1814)
Original Coalition
 Russian Empire
 Prussia
 Austrian Empire
 United Kingdom
 Sweden
 Spain
 Portugal
 Two Sicilies
 Kingdom of Sardinia

After Battle of Leipzig

 First French Empire

Until January 1814

Victory
Second Kandyan War
(1815)
Kandy Victory

Kandyan Convention:

  • Dissolution of the Kandy royal line
  • British King declared King of Kandy
Hundred Days
(1815)

War of the Seventh Coalition

 Prussia
France France
Hanover
German Confederation
 Austria
 Russia
 Sweden
 Netherlands
 Spain
Portugal
 Sardinia
 Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

Tuscany

France French Empire

Naples

Victory

Treaty of Paris:

  • General French defeat
  • Restoration of the House of Bourbon
  • Abolition of the slave trade (all signatories)
  • ₣100,000,000 compensation from France
Third Anglo-Maratha War
(1817–1818)
East India Company  Maratha Empire Victory

Virtually all territory south of the Sutlej River controlled by Britain

5th Xhosa War
(1818–1819)
Khoikhoi Forces Forces of Xhosa Chief Maqana Nxele Victory

Xhosa pushed beyond Keiskama River

Greek War of Independence
(1820–1830)
Greece Greek revolutionaries

Ionian Islands

 Ottoman Empire

Egypt Egypt

Victory

Establishment of the Kingdom of Greece

First Ashanti War
(1823–1831)
 Ashanti Empire Stalemate with a truce
First Anglo-Burmese War
(1824–1826)
East India Company

Native tribes

Flag of the Alaungpaya Dynasty of Myanmar.svg Kingdom of Burma Victory

Treaty of Yandabo:

  • Assam, Manipur, Rakhine, and Taninthayi coast south of Salween river ceded from Burmah
  • £1,000,000 compensation from Burma
Revolt of the Mercenaries
(1828)
Empire of Brazil Brazil
 United Kingdom
Flag of France.svg France
Germany German Mercenaries
Republic of Ireland Irish Mercenaries
Victory
  • Mutiny suppressed
Portuguese Civil War
(1828–1834)
Liberal Forces of Queen Maria II

Spain Spain

Absolutist Forces of King Miguel Victory

Concession of Evoramonte:

  • Defeat and exile of King Miguel
Baptist War
(1831–1832)
 United Kingdom
Jamaica Jamaican Government
Rebel Slaves Victory
  • Slave defeat
  • Rebellion suppressed
First Carlist War
(1833–1840)
Spain Forces of Queen Isabella II
France French Kingdom
Portugal Forces of Queen Maria II

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Auxiliary Legion

Carlists: British withdrawal before war's conclusion

British mediated Convention of Vergara

The 6th Xhosa War
(1834–1836)
United Kingdom Free Khoikhoi Xhosa tribes Victory

Extensive territorial gains from Xhosa

Rebellions of 1837
(1837–1838)
 United Kingdom
United Kingdom Province of Upper Canada

United Kingdom Province of Lower Canada

Flag of the Patriote movement (Lower Canada).svg Patriotes
Hunters' Lodges
Reform Movement
Victory
First Anglo-Afghan War
(1839–1842)
East India Company Emirate of Afghanistan Defeat
  • British retreat from Afghanistan
First Opium War
(1839–1842)
 Qing dynasty Victory

Treaty of Nanking:

  • Five Chinese ports open to foreign trade
  • $21,000,000 compensation from the Qing Empire
  • Hong Kong Island ceded from the Qing Empire
Second Egyptian-Ottoman War
(1839–1841)
Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg Ottoman Empire
 British Empire
Flag of the Ottoman Empire (also used in Egypt).svg Egypt Eyalet
France Kingdom of the French
Spain Spain
Victory
  • Egypt renounced its claim to Syria.
Uruguayan Civil War
(1839–1851)
Colorados
Argentina Argentine Unitarians
France French Kingdom
Riograndense Republic
 Brazil

Italian Legion

Blancos

 Argentine Confederation

British and French withdrawal before war's conclusion
Peace treaty with the Argentine Confederation[5][6]

Eventual Colorados victory

First Anglo-Sikh War
(1845–1846)
East India Company
Patiala flag.svg Patiala State
Nishan Sahib.svg Sikh Empire Victory

Treaty of Lahore:

  • Extensive territory ceded from the Sikh Empire
  • Partial control over Sikh foreign affairs
Flagstaff War
(1845–1846)
Forces of Tāmati Wāka Nene Ngāpuhi Iwi Stalemate
Hutt Valley Campaign
(1846)
Te Āti Awa Iwi Ngāti Toa Iwi Victory

Ngāti Toa Iwi retreat

The 7th Xhosa War
(1846–1847)

The War of the Axe

Xhosa tribes Victory

Territory ceded from Xhosa

Wanganui Campaign
(1847)
Māori Kupapa Māori Iwis Stalemate

12 year peace and trade

Second Anglo-Sikh War
(1848–1849)
East India Company Nishan Sahib.svg Sikh Empire Victory

Complete annexation of the Punjab by the East India Company

Battle of Tysami
(1849)
 United Kingdom Chui A-poo's pirates Victory
The 8th Xhosa War
(1850–1853)

Mlanjeni's War

Xhosa tribes
Khoikhoi tribes

United Kingdom Native Kafir Police

Victory

Xhosa-Khoi attacks defeated Status quo ante bellum

Taiping Rebellion
(1850–1864)
 Qing dynasty
 France
 United Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Victory
Second Anglo-Burmese War
(1852–1853)
Flag of the Alaungpaya Dynasty of Myanmar.svg Kingdom of Burma Victory

Burmese revolution ended fighting Lower Burma annexed

Crimean War
(1853–1856)
France French Empire
 Ottoman Empire

 Kingdom of Sardinia

 Russian Empire

Bulgaria Bulgarian Legion

Victory

Treaty of Paris

The National War in Nicaragua
(1856–1857)
 Costa Rica
 Honduras
Nicaragua Rebel Forces of Patricio Rivas
The Mosquito Coast
 Guatemala
 El Salvador

 United States

Sonora

 Nicaragua

Victory

Sonora/Nicaraguan government defeat.
Slavery outlawed.
William Walker's army is defeated and he is arrested by the U.S. Navy.

Second Opium War
(1856–1860)

Arrow War

France French Empire

 United States

 Qing dynasty Victory

The Treaty of Tientsin:

  • Kowloon ceded from the Qing Empire
  • Peking opened to foreign trade
  • 11 more Chinese ports opened to foreign trade
  • Yangtze River opened to foreign warships
  • 4,000,000 taels of silver compensation
  • China banned from referring to subjects of the crown as barbarians
Anglo-Persian War
(1856–1857)
Afghanistan

East India Company

Persia

Herat

Victory

Persian withdrawal from Herat

Indian Mutiny
(1857–1858)
East India Company
Flag of Nepal (19th century-1962).svg Nepal
Jammu and Kashmir

Princely states:

Sepoys of the East India Company   Mughal Empire
अवध ध्वज.gif Awadh
Jhansi state flag.png Jhansi

7 Princely states

Victory

Act for the Better Government of India:

First Taranaki War
(1860–1861)

Second Māori War

Māori Iwis

Māori King Movement

Stalemate
Bombardment of Kagoshima
(1863)
 British Empire Maru juji.svg Satsuma Domain Victory
  • Tactical stalemate and mitigated British victory
Second Ashanti War
(1863–1864)
 Ashanti Empire Stalemate
Invasion of Waikato
(1863–1866)

Third Māori War

Māori Kupapa Māori King Movement Victory

Māori King Movement defeated, confined to King Country

Bhutan War
(1864–1865)
 India Bhutan Victory

Treaty of Sinchula:

  • Bhutan cedes Assam Duars and Bengal Duars to India
  • Bhutan cedes territory in Dewangiri to India
British Expedition to Abyssinia
(1867–1868)
 United Kingdom Ethiopian Pennants.svg Ethiopia Victory
Klang War
(1867–1874)

Selangor Civil War

Forces of Raja Abdullah of Klang

British Straits Settlements

Forces of Raja Mahadi Victory
Titokowaru's War
(1868–1869)

Part of the New Zealand land wars

Māori Kupapa Ngāti Ruanui Iwi Victory

Ngāti Ruanui Iwi withdrawal

1868 Expedition to Abyssinia
(1868)
 India  Abyssinia Victory

British hostages freed War of the Abyssinian Succession begins

Te Kooti's War

Part of the New Zealand land wars
(1868–1872)

Māori Kupapa Māori Iwis Victory

End of New Zealand land wars Territory ceded by Māori Iwis

Red River Rebellion
(1869–1869)
 Dominion of Canada

Métis Loyalists

Métis Forces of Louis Riel Victory

Defeat of rebellion Manitoba Act:

Third Ashanti War
(1873–1874)
 Ashanti Empire Victory

Treaty of Fomena:

  • 50,000 oz of gold compensation from Ashanti Empire
  • Ashanti withdrawal from coastal areas
  • Ashanti banned from practicing human sacrifice
The 9th Xhosa War
(1877–1879)
Mfengu Tribe Xhosa Gcaleka Tribe Victory

All Xhosa territory annexed to the Cape Colony

Second Anglo-Afghan War
(1878–1880)
 India Flag of Afghanistan (1880–1901).svg Afghanistan Some goals achieved

British control over Afghan foreign affairs

Anglo-Zulu War
(1879)
United Kingdom Natal Zulu Kingdom Victory

Zululand annexed to Natal

‘Urabi Revolt
(1879–1882)
 United Kingdom
Khedivate of Egypt
Egyptian and Sudanese forces under Ahmed ‘Urabi Victory
  • ‘Urabi forces defeated and exiled
First Boer War
(1880–1881)
 South African Republic Defeat

Pretoria Convention:

  • South African Republic granted self-government
Mahdist War
(1884–1889)
 Egypt
 Italy

 Belgium

Mahdist Sudan Victory

Sudan ruled by Britain and Egypt

Third Anglo-Burmese War
(1885)
Flag of the Alaungpaya Dynasty of Myanmar.svg Kingdom of Burma Victory

Upper Burma annexed to British Raj

Sikkim Expedition
(1888)
 India Qing dynasty Tibet Victory

Tibet recognizes British suzerainty over Sikkim

Anglo-Manipur War
(1891)
Flag of Manipur.svg Kingdom of Manipur Victory
Anglo-Zanzibar War
(1896)
Zanzibar Victory

Pro-British Sultan installed

Boxer Rebellion
(1899–1901)
 Japan
 Russia
France France
 United States
 Germany
 Italy

 Austria-Hungary

Righteous Harmony Society

 Qing dynasty

Victory

Boxer Protocol:

  • Anti-foreign societies banned in China
Second Boer War
(1899–1902)
 Orange Free State

 South African Republic
Foreign volunteers

Victory

Treaty of Vereeniging:

  • All Boers to surrender arms and swear allegiance to the Crown
  • Dutch language permitted in education
  • Promise to grant Boer republics self-government
  • £3,000,000 compensation "reconstruction aid" to Afrikaners
Anglo-Aro War
(1901–1902)
Flag of the Aro Confederacy.svg Aro Confederacy Victory

Aro Confederacy destroyed

British expedition to Tibet
(1903–1904)
 India Qing dynasty Tibet Victory

Status quo ante bellum

Russo-Japanese War
(1904–1905)
Empire of Japan Empire of Japan

Supported by:
 United Kingdom[7]

Russian Empire Russian Empire Victory (limited involvement)

Treaty of Portsmouth

World War I
(1914–1918)
 India
 Dominion of Canada
 Australia
 New Zealand
 South Africa
 Newfoundland
 Belgium
 France
 Greece
 Portugal
 Romania
 Russia
 Italy
 Japan
United States United States
 Serbia
 Montenegro

Other Allies

 Austria-Hungary

 Germany

 Ottoman Empire

 Bulgaria

Victory

Treaty of Versailles:

  • German demobilisation

Treaties of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and Trianon:

Russia pulls out in 1917

  • Russian Civil War
    • Creation of the Soviet Union

Creation of League of Nations:

Estonian War of Independence
(1918–1920)
 Estonia
 United Kingdom
 Finland
 Denmark
 Latvia
Russia White movement
Sweden Swedish volunteers
 Soviet Russia

Baltische Landeswehr

Victory
  • Independence of Estonia
  • Vidzeme gained by the Republic of Latvia
Latvian War of Independence
(1918–1920)
 Latvia
 Estonia
Russia White Movement
 Poland
 Lithuania
 United Kingdom
 German Empire
West Russian Volunteer Army

 Russian SFSR
 Latvian SSR

Victory
  • Independence of Latvia
Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War
(1918–1920)
United Kingdom British Empire
France France
 United States
 Japan
 Greece
 Soviet Russia

 Far Eastern Republic

Defeat
  • Allied withdrawal from Russia
  • Bolshevik victory over White Army
  • Soviet Union new Russian Power
Turkish War of Independence
(1919–1923)
 Greece
 France
 Armenia (in 1920)
 United Kingdom
 Ottoman Empire (until 1922)

 Italy
Georgia (in 1921)

Turkish National Movement

Supported by:
 Russian SFSR[8]
Azerbaijan SSR
Georgian SSR
Bukharan PSR
Afghanistan
All-India Muslim League

Defeat

Treaty of Lausanne

Third Anglo-Afghan War
(1919–1919)
 India  Afghanistan Afghan diplomatic victory [9][10]
  • Defeat of Afghan invasion of north-west British India
  • Inconclusive military operation [11]
  • Reaffirmation of the Durand Line
  • Afghan independence with full sovereignty in foreign affairs
Irish War of Independence
(1919–1921)
United Kingdom Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) Republic of Ireland Irish Republic Anglo-Irish Treaty:
Somaliland campaign (1920)
(1920)
 British Somaliland

East Africa Protectorate British East Africa

Dervish State Victory

Demise of the Dervish State

Great Iraqi Revolution of 1920
(1920)
Iraqi rebels Victory
  • Revolt suppressed, greater autonomy given to Iraq

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1922–present)[edit]

Conflict Britain & Her Allies Belligerent Opposing Britain Outcome
Adwan Rebellion
(1923)
 United Kingdom
Jordan Emir Abdullah's forces
Jordan Hashemite allied tribesmen:
  • Sheykh Minwar al-Hadid
Jordan Sultan al-Adwan's forces Victory

Sultan al-Adwan's defeat and exile

Ikhwan Revolt
(1927–1930)
Flag of Kuwait (1915-1956).svg Kuwait
Nejd and Hejaz
RAF
Ikhwan Victory
  • Ikhwan attack on Kuwait repelled.
  • The remnants of the Ikhwan incorporated into regular Saudi units.
  • The Ikhwan leadership was either slain or imprisoned.
Great Arab Revolt in Palestine
(1936–1939)
 United Kingdom
Israel Yishuv
Arab Higher Committee Victory

Revolt suppressed

Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine
(1939–1948)
 United Kingdom Israel Yishuv Defeat[12]
S-Plan
16 January 1939 – March 1940
 United Kingdom Republic of Ireland Irish Republican Army Victory
  • IRA failure
World War II
(1939–1945)
The Allies
Axis Powers
Victory

Nazi Germany formally surrenders 8 May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.
On August 15, 1945, following the dropping of atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan announces its surrender, ending World War II

British (and Commonwealth), French, American, and Soviet troops occupy Germany until 1955, Italy and Japan lose their colonies, Europe is divided into 'Soviet' and 'Western' spheres of interest.

Northern Campaign
2 September 1942 – December 1944
United Kingdom Royal Ulster Constabulary Republic of Ireland Irish Republican Army Victory
  • IRA campaign failure
Greek Civil War
(1944–1948)
Kingdom of Greece Kingdom of Greece
 United Kingdom

 United States

D.S.E. (Δ.Σ.Ε.)
Albania Albania
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia

Bulgaria Bulgaria

Victory
Communist forces defeated, many D.S.E. soldiers exiled in Eastern Europe.
Battalion of UK troops still in Greece till 1948
Indonesian National Revolution
(1945–1949)
 United Kingdom
 Netherlands
 Japan (until 1945)
 Indonesia
Hand over to Dutch in 1946
  • Netherlands recognises Indonesian Independence
Operation Masterdom
(1945–1946)
 United Kingdom
France
Empire of Japan
North Vietnam Viet Minh
Hand over to French

First Indochina War begins

Corfu Channel incident
(1946–1948)
 United Kingdom  People's Socialist Republic of Albania Victory
  • ICJ awards compensation to Britain, which is not settled till 1992. Britain breaks off talks aimed at establishing diplomatic relations with Albania.
Malayan Emergency
(1948–1960)
British Commonwealth Flag of the Communist Party of Malaya.svg Malayan Communist Party

Flag of the Malayan National Liberation Army.svg Malayan Races Liberation Army

Victory
  • Communist retreat from Malaya
  • Malayan independence
Korean War
(1950–1953)
United Nations United Nations Command  North Korea
 People's Republic of China

 Soviet Union

Ceasefire
  • Communist invasion of South Korea repelled
  • UN invasion of North Korea repelled
1951 Anglo-Egyptian War[13]
(1951–1952)
 United Kingdom Egypt Egypt Victory
Mau Mau Uprising
(1952–1960)
 United Kingdom Mau Mau Victory
  • Defeat of Mau Mau
  • Kenyan independence
Jebel Akhdar War
(1954–1959)
Sultanate of Muscat and Oman
 United Kingdom
Imamate of Oman Victory
  • Dissolution of the Imamate of Oman
Cyprus Emergency
(1955–1959)
 United Kingdom EOKA

Turkey TMT

  • Cyprus became an independent republic in 1960 with Britain retaining control of two Sovereign Base Areas, at Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
  • Enosis not achieved
Suez Crisis
(1956–1957)
 United Kingdom
France France

 Israel

Egypt Egypt Coalition military victory[14][15][16]
Egyptian political victory[14]
  • Anglo-French withdrawal following international pressure (December 1956)
  • Israeli occupation of Sinai (until March 1957)
  • UNEF deployment in Sinai[17]
  • Straits of Tiran re-opened to Israeli shipping
Border Campaign
(1956–1962)
 United Kingdom IrishRepublicanFlag.png Irish Republican Army Victory

IRA campaign fails

First Cod War
(1958–1961)
 United Kingdom  Iceland Defeat
Iceland expands its territorial waters to 12 nautical miles
Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation
(1962–1966)
Commonwealth of Nations  Indonesia Victory

Indonesia recognises Malaysian rule over former North Borneo

Dhofar Rebellion
(1962–1975)
 Oman
 United Kingdom
Iran Iran

 Jordan

Various insurgents Victory Insurgency defeated
Modernisation of Oman
Aden Emergency
(1963–1967)
Federation of South Arabia Federation of South Arabia
 United Kingdom
People's Democratic Republic of Yemen NLF
FLOSY
Defeat
People's Republic of South Yemen established
Nigerian Civil War
(1967–1970)
 Nigeria
 Egypt
 United Kingdom
 Biafra Victory
  • Biafra rejoins Nigeria
The Troubles
(1968–1998)
 United Kingdom

Flag of Northern Ireland.svg Loyalist paramilitaries:

IrishRepublicanFlag.png Provisional Irish Republican Army

IrishRepublicanFlag.png Official Irish Republican Army

Irish National Liberation Army

StarryPlough.svg Irish People's Liberation Organisation

IrishRepublicanFlag.png Continuity Irish Republican Army

IrishRepublicanFlag.png Real Irish Republican Army

Stalemate
Good Friday Agreement:
  • Devolution in Northern Ireland
  • Power-sharing deal
  • Cross-border cooperation
  • Disarming of paramilitary groups
  • Demilitarisation
Second Cod War
(1972–1973)
 United Kingdom  Iceland Defeat
UK accept Iceland's 50 nautical mile exclusive fishery zone
Third Cod War
(1975–1976)
 United Kingdom  Iceland Defeat
Iceland expands its exclusive fishery zone to 200 nautical miles
Falklands War
(1982)
 United Kingdom  Argentina Victory

British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands re-established.

Multinational Force in Lebanon
(1982–1984)
 United Kingdom
 France
 United States
 Italy
Islamic Jihad Organization
Iran Iran
 Syria
Progressive Socialist Party
Amal Movement
Defeat
Lebanese Army collapsed following Multinational Force withdrawal.[18] Civil War continued until 1990.
Britain provides smaller contribution than other 3 powers from Feb 1983, while the 3 others had intervened in Aug 1982, Britain, US, and Italy left in Feb 1984, with the French leaving by March 31, 1984.
Gulf War
(1991)
 Kuwait
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Saudi Arabia
 France
 Egypt
 Syria

Other Allies

Iraq Victory

Kuwait regains its independence

Bosnian War
(1992–1995)
United Nations UNPROFOR

 NATO

 Republika Srpska Victory

Dayton Accords

Operation Desert Fox
(1998)
 United States

 United Kingdom

 Iraq Victory

Objectives largely achieved

Kosovo War
(1998–1999)
 United States
 United Kingdom
 France
 Canada
 Denmark
 Germany
 Italy

UCK KLA.png Kosovo Liberation Army

 Yugoslavia Victory
Kosovo occupied by Nato forces

Kosovo administered by UNMIK

Sierra Leone Civil War
(2000–2002)
 Sierra Leone

 United Kingdom

Sierra Leone Rebels

 Liberia

Victory

Rebels defeated

War in Afghanistan

Fourth Anglo-Afghan War[19]
(2001–2014)
 Afghanistan
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Canada
 Germany
 Italy
 France
 Denmark
 Poland
 Romania
 Turkey
 Australia
 Spain
ISAF-Logo.svg ISAF
Afghanistan Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan Ongoing
Fall of Taliban régime and the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Osama bin Laden killed

Taliban insurgency

Iraq War
(2003–2009)
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Iraq after the fall of Saddam Hussein
 Australia
 Poland
 Denmark

 Iraqi Kurdistan

 Iraq under Saddam Hussein
Islamic State of Iraq

Various insurgents

Victory
Overthrow of Ba'ath Party government
Occupation of southern Iraq
Iraqi insurgency, emergence of al-Qaeda in Iraq, and Sectarian Violence[20]
Rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, the successor of al-Qaeda in Iraq[21][22]

British withdrawal in 2009, US withdrawal in 2011

Libyan Civil War
(2011)
Many NATO NATO members acting under United Nations UN mandate, including:
 United States
 United Kingdom
 France
 Denmark
 Italy
 Canada
and
Libya Anti-Gaddafi forces
Arab League several Arab League states

Sweden Sweden

Libya Pro-Gaddafi forces Victory
Operation Shader
(2014–present)
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Iraq
Syria Syrian Opposition
 Australia
 Belgium
 Canada
 Denmark
 France
 Germany
 Italy
 Netherlands
 New Zealand
 Norway
 Portugal
 Spain
 Turkey
 Bahrain
 Jordan
 Morocco
 Qatar
 Saudi Arabia
 United Arab Emirates
 Rojava
 Egypt
 Libya
 Nigeria
 Cameroon
 Chad
 Niger
 Russia
 Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Boko Haram

al-Nusra Front
Khorasan


Ahrar ash-Sham

Ongoing

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Laycock, S. (2012). All the Countries We've Ever Invaded – And the Few We Never Got Round To. The History Press. 
  2. ^ M. R. Kantak, The First Anglo-Maratha War, 1774–1783: A Military Study of Major Battles, quote: "Inspite of British superiority in the military science, the British troops could not force a decisive win over the Maratha troops in the First Anglo-Maratha War. The ultimate result of the War showed that the two sides remained evenly balanced.", p. 226 
  3. ^ John Bowman, Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture, quote: "First Anglo-Maratha War...The war ends inconclusively.", Columbia University Press, p. 290 
  4. ^ "British Slaves on the Barbary Coast". 
  5. ^ Rosa, José María (1974) [1970]. Historia Argentina [History of Argentina] (in Spanish). V. Buenos Aires: Editorial Oriente S.A. pp. 279–288. 
  6. ^ Abad de Santillán, Diego. Historia Argentina (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: TEA (Tipográfica Editora Argentina). p. 383. 
  7. ^ "British Assistance to the Japanese Navy during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–5". The Great Circle. Australian Association for Maritime History. 2 (1): 44. April 1980. JSTOR 41562319. (Registration required (help)). 
  8. ^ Jelavich, Barbara (1983). History of the Balkans: Twentieth century. Cambridge University Press. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-521-27459-3. 
  9. ^ Lansford 2017, p. 47.
  10. ^ Sidebotham, Herbert (1919). "The Third Afghan War". New Statesman, 16 August 1919. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2009. 
  11. ^ Cavanna 2015, p. xviii.
  12. ^ Charters, David A. The British army and Jewish insurgency in Palestine, 1945-47. Springer, 1989, p. X
  13. ^ Egypt 1951 War with Britain, Globalsecurity.org
  14. ^ a b Tal (2001) p 203
  15. ^ Mart, Michelle. Eye on Israel: How America Came to View the Jewish State as an Ally. p. 159. ISBN 0791466876. 
  16. ^ Stewart (2013) p 133
  17. ^ Kunz, Diane B. The Economic Diplomacy of the Suez Crisis. p. 187. ISBN 0-8078-1967-0. 
  18. ^ "The Collapse of Lebanon's Army: U.S. Said to Ignore Factionalism". March 11, 1984. 
  19. ^ The Fourth Afghan War is lost The Daily Telegraph, 4 September 2009
  20. ^ "Sectarian divisions change Baghdad's image". MSNBC. 3 July 2006. Retrieved 18 February 2007. 
  21. ^ "The JRTN Movement and Iraq's Next Insurgency | Combating Terrorism Center at West Point". Ctc.usma.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-02. 
  22. ^ "Al-Qaeda's Resurgence in Iraq: A Threat to U.S. Interests". U.S Department of State. 5 February 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  23. ^ "British air strikes killed 3,000 ISIS militants in Iraq and Syria in three years."
  24. ^ UK troops training Kurdish forces in Iraq, says MoD
  25. ^ British trained Iraqi soldiers gear up to back Baghdad surge
  26. ^ Ahmed Aboulenein (10 December 2017). "Iraq holds victory parade after defeating Islamic State". Reuters. Retrieved 11 December 2017.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Duchy of Warsaw as a state was in effect fully occupied by Russian and Prussian forces by May 1813, though most Poles remained loyal to Napoleon


Further reading[edit]

  • Barnett, Correlli. Britain and her army, 1509–1970: a military, political and social survey (1970).
  • Black, Jeremy. A military history of Britain: from 1775 to the present (2008).
  • Bradford, James C. ed. International Encyclopedia of Military History (2 vol. 2006).
  • Brownstone, David and Irene Franck. Timelines of War: A Chronology of Warfare from 100,000 BC to the Present (1996), Global coverage.
  • Cannon, John, ed. The Oxford Companion to British History (2003)
  • Carlton, Charles. This Seat of Mars: War and the British Isles, 1485–1746 (Yale UP; 2011) 332 pages; studies the impact of near unceasing war from the individual to the national levels.
  • Chandler, David G., and Ian Frederick William Beckett, eds. The Oxford history of the British army (Oxford UP, 2003).
  • Cole, D. H and E. C Priestley. An outline of British military history, 1660–1936 (1936). online
  • Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupuy. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History: From 3500 B.C. to the Present (1993).
  • Fortescue, John William. History of the British Army from the Norman Conquest to the First World War (1899–1930), in 13 volumes with six separate map volumes. Available online for downloading; online volumes; The standard highly detailed full coverage of operations.
  • Haswell, Jock, and John Lewis-Stempel. A Brief History of the British Army (2017).
  • Higham, John, ed. A Guide to the Sources of British Military History (1971) 654 pages excerpt; Highly detailed bibliography and discussion up to 1970; includes local and naval forces.
  • James, Lawrence. Warrior race: a history of the British at war (Hachette UK, 2010). excerpt
  • Johnson, Douglas, et al. Britain and France: Ten Centuries (1980)
  • Mulligan, William, and Brendan Simms, eds. The Primacy of Foreign Policy in British History, 1660–2000 (Palgrave Macmillan; 2011) 345 pages
  • Neville, Peter (2013). Historical Dictionary of British Foreign Policy. Scarecrow Press. pp. xix–xxxi.  timeline pp xix to xxxi
  • Otte, T.G. The Makers of British Foreign Policy: From Pitt to Thatcher (2002)
  • Ranft, Bryan. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Royal Navy (Oxford UP, 2002).
  • Rodger, N. A.M. The safeguard of the sea: A naval history of Britain, 660–1649 (Vol. 1. 1998). excerpt
    • Rodger, N.A.M.The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649–1815 (vol 2 2006) excerpt
  • Sheppard, Eric William. A short history of the British army (1950). online
  • Ward, A.W. and G.P. Gooch, eds. The Cambridge History of British Foreign Policy, 1783–1919 (3 vol, 1921–23), old detailed classic; vol 1, 1783–1815 ; vol 2, 1815–1866; vol 3. 1866–1919

Historiography[edit]

  • Messenger, Charles, ed. Reader's Guide to Military History (2001) pp 55–74 etc.; annotated guide to most important books.
  • Schroeder, Paul W. "Old Wine in Old Bottles: Recent Contributions to British Foreign Policy and European International Politics, 1789–1848." Journal of British Studies 26.01 (1987): 1–25.