List of consonants

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a list of all the consonants which have a dedicated letter in the International Phonetic Alphabet, plus some of the consonants which require diacritics, ordered by place and manner of articulation.

Ordered by place of articulation[edit]

Labial consonants[edit]

(articulated by using the lips)

Bilabial consonants[edit]

Labiodental consonants[edit]

Bidental consonants[edit]

Coronal consonants[edit]

(articulated by using the tip of the tongue)

Dental consonants[edit]

Alveolar consonants[edit]

Postalveolar consonants[edit]

Palatalized postalveolar consonants[edit]
Retroflex consonants[edit]

Dorsal consonants[edit]

(articulated with the middle of the tongue)

Palatal consonants[edit]

Labialized palatal consonants[edit]

Velar consonants[edit]

Labialized velar consonants[edit]
Labial–velar consonants[edit]

Uvular consonants[edit]

Laryngeal consonants[edit]

(articulated with the throat)

Pharyngeal consonants[edit]

Glottal consonants[edit]

Ordered by manner of articulation[edit]

Pulmonic consonants

Nasal (stop) consonants[edit]

Fricative consonants[edit]

Sibilant fricatives
Central non-sibilant fricatives
Lateral fricatives
both fricatives and approximants
Pseudo-fricatives

Affricate consonants[edit]

Sibilant affricates
Non-sibilant affricates
Lateral affricates

Approximant consonants[edit]

Flap (tap) consonants[edit]

Trill consonants[edit]

Lateral consonants[edit]

Approximants
Fricatives
Affricates
Flaps
Ejective
Clicks

Ejective consonants[edit]

Plosives
Affricates
Fricatives

Implosive consonants[edit]

Labialized consonants[edit]

Plosives
Fricatives
Approximants

Palatalized consonants[edit]

Pharyngealized consonants[edit]

Velarized consonants[edit]

Click consonants[edit]

The less common clicks, such as are found in Taa, are not included.

Simple clicks
Glottalized clicks
Pulmonic-contour clicks
Ejective-contour clicks

Percussive consonants[edit]

These are not found in any language, but occur as phonetic detail or through speech defects.

See also[edit]