List of consonants

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This is a list of all the consonants which have a dedicated letter in the International Phonetic Alphabet, plus some of the consonants which require diacritics, ordered by place and manner of articulation.

IPA pulmonic consonantschart image • Loudspeaker.svg audio
Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal
↓ Manner Bilabial Labio­dental Linguo­labial Dental Alveolar Palato-
alveolar
Retroflex Alveolo-
palatal
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal
/ Epiglottal
Glottal
Nasal m ɱ n̼̊ n ɳ̊ ɳ ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ ɴ̥ ɴ
Stop p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ
Sibilant affricate ts dz ʈʂ ɖʐ
Non-sibilant affricate p̪f b̪v tθ̠ dð̠ t̠ɹ̠̊˔ d̠ɹ̠˔ ɟʝ kx ɡɣ ʡħ ʡʕ ʔh
Sibilant fricative s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ
Non-sibilant fricative ɸ β f v θ̼ ð̼ θ ð θ̱ ð̠ ɹ̠̊˔ ɹ̠˔ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ
Approximant ɸ˕ ʋ θ̞ ɹ̥ ɹ ɻ̊ ɻ j ɰ̊ ɰ
Flap or tap ⱱ̟ ɾ̼ ɾ̥ ɾ ɽ̊ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̯
Trill ʙ r ɽr̥ ɽr ʀ̥ ʀ ʜ ʢ
Lateral affricate ʈɭ̊˔ cʎ̥˔ kʟ̝̊ ɡʟ̝
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ ɭ̊˔ ʎ̥˔ ʎ̝ ʟ̝̊ ʟ̝
Lateral approximant l ɭ̊ ɭ ʎ̥ ʎ ʟ ʟ̠
Lateral flap ɺ̼ ɺ ɭ̆ ʎ̯ ʟ̆
Non-pulmonic consonants
Simple clicks ʘ ʘ̬ ʘ̃ ǀ ǀ̬ ǀ̃ ǃ ǃ̬ ǃ̃
ǂ ǂ̬ ǂ̃ ǁ ǁ̬ ǁ̃ ǃ˞ ǃ̬˞ ǃ̃˞
Other clicks ʘ̃ˀ ʘˀ ˀʘ̃ ʘ͡q ʘ͡qχ ʘ͡qʼ ʘ͡qχʼ ¡ ʞ
Implosives ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ
ɓ̥ ɗ̥ ᶑ̥ ʄ̊ ɠ̊ ʛ̥ 
Ejectives ʈʼ ʡʼ
θʼ ɬʼ ʃʼ ʂʼ ɕʼ χʼ
tsʼ tɬʼ tʃʼ ʈʂʼ tɕʼ cʎ̝̥ʼ kxʼ kʟ̝̊ʼ qχʼ
Co-articulated consonants
Continuants ʍ w ɥ ɫ
Occlusives k͡p ɡ͡b ŋ͡m ɧ
t͡p d͡b n͡m q͡ʡ
— These tables contain phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]
— Where symbols appear in pairs, left–right represent the voiceless–voiced consonants.
— Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged to be impossible or not distinctive.

Ordered by place of articulation[edit]

Labial consonants[edit]

(articulated by using the lips)

Bilabial consonants[edit]

Labiodental consonants[edit]

Bidental consonants[edit]

Coronal consonants[edit]

(articulated by using the tip of the tongue)

Dental consonants[edit]

Alveolar consonants[edit]

Postalveolar consonants[edit]

Palatalized postalveolar consonants[edit]
Retroflex consonants[edit]

Dorsal consonants[edit]

(articulated with the middle of the tongue)

Palatal consonants[edit]

Labialized palatal consonants[edit]

Velar consonants[edit]

Labialized velar consonants[edit]
Labial–velar consonants[edit]

Uvular consonants[edit]

Laryngeal consonants[edit]

(articulated with the throat)

Pharyngeal consonants[edit]

Glottal consonants[edit]

Ordered by manner of articulation[edit]

Pulmonic consonants

Nasal (stop) consonants[edit]

Fricative consonants[edit]

Sibilant fricatives
Central non-sibilant fricatives
Lateral fricatives
both fricatives and approximants
Pseudo-fricatives

Affricate consonants[edit]

Sibilant affricates
Non-sibilant affricates
Lateral affricates

Approximant consonants[edit]

Flap (tap) consonants[edit]

Trill consonants[edit]

Lateral consonants[edit]

Approximants
Fricatives
Affricates
Flaps
Ejective
Clicks

Ejective consonants[edit]

Plosives
Affricates
Fricatives

Implosive consonants[edit]

Labialized consonants[edit]

Plosives
Fricatives
Approximants

Palatalized consonants[edit]

Pharyngealized consonants[edit]

Velarized consonants[edit]

Click consonants[edit]

The less common clicks, such as are found in Taa, are not included.

Simple clicks
Glottalized clicks
Pulmonic-contour clicks
Ejective-contour clicks

Percussive consonants[edit]

These are not found in any language, but occur as phonetic detail or through speech defects.

See also[edit]