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List of conspiracy theories

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There are many unproven conspiracy theories with varying degrees of popularity, frequently related to clandestine government plans and elaborate murder plots. Conspiracy theories usually deny consensus or cannot be proven using the historical or scientific method, and are not to be confused with research concerning verified conspiracies such as Germany's pretense for invading Poland in World War II. Conspiracy theory is often considered the opposite of institutional analysis.

Ethnicity, race, and religion

Antisemitism

Since at least the Middle Ages, antisemitism has featured elements of conspiracy theory. In medieval Europe it was widely believed that Jews poisoned wells, had been responsible for the death of Jesus, and ritually consumed the blood of Christians. The second half of the 19th century saw the emergence of notions that Jews and/or Freemasons were plotting to establish control over the world. Forged evidence has been presented to spread the notion the Jews were responsible for the propagation of Communism, the most notorious example being The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (1903).[1] Such antisemitic conspiracy theories became central to the worldview of Adolf Hitler. Antisemitic theories persist today in notions concerning banking,[2] Hollywood, the news media and a purported Zionist Occupation Government.[3][4][5]

Holocaust denial

Holocaust denial is also considered to be an antisemitic conspiracy theory in its position that the Holocaust is a hoax designed to advance the interests of Jews and to justify the creation of the State of Israel.[6][7] Notable Holocaust deniers include former Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmedinejad,[8] the convicted Germar Rudolf[9] and discredited author David Irving.[10]

Anti-Armenianism

Conspiracy theories which allege the Armenians wield secret political power are prevalent in Azerbaijan,[11] and have been promoted by President Ilham Aliyev.[12][13][14]

Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu has claimed that the Russian media is run by Armenians.[15] American writer and disbarred lawyer Samuel Weems[16] has claimed that the Armenian Genocide was a hoax designed to defraud Christian nations of billions of dollars, and that the Armenian Church instigates terrorist attacks.[17] Filmmaker Davud Imanov has accused the Armenians of plotting against Azerbaijan and has claimed that the Karabakh movement was a plot by the CIA to destroy the Soviet Union.[18]

Journalist Arzu Geybulla has drawn attention to the way in which such theories are used to stifle political dissent.[19]

Anti-Baha'ism

Iran's Baha'i minority has been the target of conspiracy theories alleging involvement with hostile powers. Iranian government officials and others have claimed that Bahá'ís have been agents variously of Russian imperialism, British colonialism, American expansionism and Zionism.[20] An apocryphal and historically-inaccurate book published in Iran, entitled The Memoirs of Count Dolgoruki, details a theory that the Bahá'ís intend to destroy Islam. Such anti-Bahá'í accusations have been dismissed as having no factual foundation.[21][22][23]

Anti-Catholicism

Anti-Catholic cartoon depicting Catholicism as an octopus, from H.E. Fowler and Jeremiah J. Crowley's The Pope (1913)

Anti-Catholic paranoia has featured in the Protestant mind since the Reformation. Conspiracy theories have taken many forms, including the 17th-century Popish Plot allegations,[24] claims by persons such as William Blackstone that Catholics posed a secret threat to Britain, and numerous writings by authors such as Rebecca Reed, Avro Manhattan, Jack Chick and Alberto Rivera. Theorists often claim that the pope is the Antichrist, or accuse Catholics of suppressing evidence incompatible with Church teachings and of engaging in secret evil rituals, crimes and other plots.

Fears of a Catholic takeover of the US have been especially persistent,[25][26] prompted by phenomena such as Catholic immigration in the 19th century,[27] and Ku Klux Klan propaganda.[28][29] Such fears have attached to Catholic political candidates such as Al Smith[30] and John F. Kennedy.[31][32][33]

The papacy

Pope John Paul I died in September 1978, only a month after his election to the papacy. The timing of his death and the Vatican's alleged difficulties with ceremonial and legal death procedures has fostered several conspiracy theories.

The elderly Pope Benedict XVI's resignation in February 2013, for given reasons of a "lack of strength of mind and body",[34] prompted theories in Italian publications such as La Repubblica and Panorama that he resigned in order to avoid an alleged scandal involving an underground gay Catholic network.[35][36]

Antichrist

Apocalyptic prophecies, particularly Christian claims about the End Times, have inspired a range of conspiracy theories. Many of these cite the Antichrist, a leader who will supposedly create an oppressive world empire. Countless figures have been called Antichrist, including Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, Russian emperor Peter the Great, Saladin, pope John XXII, and Benito Mussolini.[37]

The Bible

Bible conspiracy theories posit that much of what is known about the Bible is false. These theories often claim that Jesus had a wife and children and did not die on the cross. Various groups both real (such as the Vatican) and fake (such as the Priory of Sion) are said to suppress relevant information concerning, for example, the dating of the Turin Shroud. Theorists also allege that books which originally belonged in the Bible have been censored.[38]

Islam

War against Islam

"War against Islam" is a conspiracy theory in Islamist discourse which describes an alleged plot to either harm or annihilate the social system within Islam. The perpetrators of this conspiracy are alleged to be non-Muslims and "false Muslims", allegedly in collusion with political actors in the Western world. The "War against Islam" theory is often used in order to refer to modern social problems and changes, but the Crusades are often seen as its starting point.[39]

Love Jihad

Love Jihad, also called Romeo Jihad, refers to a conspiracy theory concerning Muslim males who are said to target non-Muslim girls for conversion to Islam by feigning love.[40][41][42][43]

Racism

Black genocide

Haile Selassie has been the subject of numerous theories

In the United States, black genocide conspiracy theory[44][45] holds that African Americans are the victims of genocide instituted by white Americans. Lynchings and racial discrimination were first formally described as genocide by the Civil Rights Congress in 1951. Malcolm X also talked about "black genocide" in the early 1960s.[46] Public funding of the Pill was described as "black genocide" at the first Black Power Conference, in 1967.[47][48] In 1970, after abortion was more widely legalized, some black militants depicted abortion as being part of the conspiracy.[49]

Lies of Babylon

Some Rastafari maintain that a white racist patriarchy ("Babylon") controls the world in order to oppress black people.[50] They believe that Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia did not die in 1975, and that allegedly racist media propagated false reports of his death in order to quash the Rastafari movement.[51]

The Plan

In some U.S. cities that are governed by African American majorities, such as Washington, D.C., a persistent conspiracy theory holds that white Americans are plotting to take over those cities.

White genocide

White genocide conspiracy theory is a white nationalist notion that immigration, integration, low fertility rates and abortion are being promoted in predominantly white countries to turn white people into a minority or to cause their extinction.[52][53][54][55][56][57]

Deaths and disappearances

John F. Kennedy in Dallas shortly prior to his death, 1963

Conspiracy theories frequently emerge following the deaths of prominent people. The best known of these are the theories concerning the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963. Central to many of these theories is a claim a lone gunman could not have caused Kennedy's injuries. Other theories allege that President Johnson was involved in the killing.

The deaths of establishment figures of all types attract conspiracy theorists, including, for example, the deaths of Martin Luther King, Jr., Eric V, Dmitry Ivanovich, Sheikh Rahman, Yitzhak Rabin,[58] Zachary Taylor,[59] George S. Patton,[60] Princess Diana,[61] Dag Hammarskjöld,[62] and David Kelly.[63]

Also popular are theories about the deaths of celebrities, especially musicians. Notable among such theories has been the long-running 'Paul is dead' theory, which alleges that Paul McCartney died in 1966 and was replaced by a look-alike.[64]

Inverted theories concerning deaths are also popular, prominent among which are claims that that Elvis Presley's death was faked,[65] and that Adolf Hitler survived the Second World War and fled to the Americas, to Antartica or to the moon.[66]

The disappearance, and often presumed death, of an individual may also become a cause for conspiracy theorists. Theories of a cover-up surrounding the 1974 disappearance of Lord Lucan following the murder of his family's nanny include, for example, allegations of a suicide plot whereby his body was fed to tigers at Howletts Zoo.[67][68]

Extraterrestrials

Among the foremost concerns of conspiracy theorists are questions of alien life; for example, allegations of government cover-ups of the supposed Roswell UFO incident or activity at Area 51.[69] Also popular are theories concerning so-called 'men in black', who allegedly silence witnesses.

English conspiracy theorist David Icke, 2013

Cattle mutilation

Many reports of dead cattle found with absent body parts and seemingly drained of blood have emerged worldwide since at least the 1960s. This phenomenon has spawned theories variously concerning aliens and secret government or military experiments.[70] Prominent among such theorists is Linda Moulton Howe, author of Alien Harvest (1989).[71][72]

Reptilians

Some claim the world is controlled by blood-drinking, shape-shifting alien reptiles. David Icke has promoted this theory, holding that the Bush family, Margaret Thatcher, Bob Hope, and the British Royal Family, among others, are or were such creatures, or have been under their control.[73] Critics have suggested that 'reptilians' may be seen as an antisemitic code word; a charge denied by Icke.[65]

Science and technology

Global warming

Aerial view of the HAARP site, Alaska

Global warming conspiracy theorists typically allege that the science behind global warming has been invented or distorted for ideological or financial reasons.[74] Many have promoted such theories, including US President Donald Trump,[75] US Senator James Inhofe,[76] British journalist Christopher Booker,[76] and Viscount Christopher Monckton.[77]

Weather

Numerous theories pertain to real or alleged weather-controlling projects. Theories include the debunked assertion that that HAARP, a radio-technology research program funded by the US government, is a secret weather-controlling system. Some theorists have blamed 2005's Hurricane Katrina on HAARP.[78] Theories concerning HAARP may also refer to mind-control technology.[79]

Also of interest to conspiracy theorists are cloud-seeding technologies. These include a debunked allegation[80] that the British military's Project Cumulus caused the fatal 1952 Lynmouth Flood in Devon, England,[81] and claims concerning a secret project said to have caused the 2010 Pakistan floods.[82]

MKUltra

Genuine American research in the 1950s and 1960s into chemical interrogation and mind-control techniques has prompted many subsequent conspiracy theories, especially following CIA Director Richard Helm's 1973 order to destroy all files related to the project. These theories include the allegation that the mass fatality at Jonestown in 1978 was connected to an MKUltra experiment.[83]

RFID chips

Radio frequency identification chips, such as are implanted into pets as a means of tracking, have drawn the interest of conspiracy theorists who posit that this technology is secretly in widespread use on humans. This theory has been promoted by former Whitby town councilor Simon Parkes, and may be related to conspiracy theories concerning vaccination, electronic banking and the Antichrist.[84][85]

Space agencies

Scientific space programs are of particular interest to conspiracy theorists. The most prolific theories allege that the US moon landings were staged by NASA in a film studio. The Soviet space program has also attracted theories that the government concealed evidence of failed flights. A more recent theory, emergent following the activities of hacker Gary McKinnon,[86] suggests that there exists a secret program of manned space fleets known as Solar Warden, supposedly acting under the United Nations.[87]

NASA also features in the work of Canadian conspiracy theorist Serge Monast who promoted a notion known as 'Project Blue Beam' in the two years before his death in 1996. The theory holds that NASA is secretly planning to use holograms, lasers and electromagnetic waves to fool people into believing that god has appeared, which will permit the establishment of an evil global government.[88]

Flat Earth

Logo of the Flat Earth Society, 2013

Flat Earth theory first emerged in nineteenth-century England, despite the Earth's spherical nature having been known even to the ancient Greeks. 'Flat-earther' conspiracy theorists hold that planet Earth is not a sphere, and that evidence has been faked or suppressed to hide the fact that is instead a disc, or a single infinite plane. NASA is often said to be implicated in the conspiracy. Other claims may include such allegations as that GPS devices are rigged in order to make aircraft pilots wrongly believe they are flying around a globe.[89][90]

Technology suppression

Numerous theories pertain to the alleged suppression of certain technologies and energies. Such theories may focus on the Vril Society Conspiracy, allegations of the suppression of the electric car by fossil-fuel companies (as detailed in the 2006 documentary Who Killed the Electric Car?), and the Phoebus cartel, set up in 1924, which has been accused of suppressing longer-lasting light bulbs.[91] Other long-standing allegations include the suppression of perpetual motion and cold fusion technology by government agencies, special interest groups, or fraudulent inventors.[92]

Promoters of alternative energy theories have included Thomas Henry Moray,[93] Eugene Mallove, and convicted American fraudster Stanley Meyer.[94]

Weaponry

Conspiracy theorists often attend to new military technologies, both real and imagined. Subjects of theories include: the alleged Philadelphia Experiment, a supposed attempt to turn a U.S. Navy warship invisible;[95] the alleged Montauk Project, a supposed government program to learn about mind control and time travel; and the so-called Tsunami bomb which is alleged to have caused the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.[96]

Other theories include Peter Vogel's debunked claim that an accidental explosion of conventional munitions at Port Chicago was in fact a nuclear detonation,[97] and a theory promoted by the Venezuelan state-run TV station ViVe that the 2010 Haiti earthquake was caused by a secret US "earthquake weapon".[98]

False History

Pope Sylvester II (999 to 1003)

Some theories claim that the dates of historical events have been deliberately distorted. These include the phantom time hypothesis of German conspiracy theorist Heribert Illig, who in 1991 published an allegation that 297 years had been added to the calendar by establishment figures such as Pope Sylvester II in order to position themselves at the millennium.

A comparable theory, known as the New Chronology, is most closely associated with Russian theorist Anatoly Fomenko. Fomenko holds that history is many centuries shorter than is widely believed and that numerous historical documents have been fabricated, and legitimate documents destroyed, for political ends. Adherents of such ideas have included chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov.[99]

Aviation

Numerous conspiracy theories pertain to air travel and aircraft. Incidents such as the 1955 bombing of the Kashmir Princess, the 1985 Arrow Air Flight 1285 crash, the 1986 Mozambican Tupolev Disaster, the 1987 Helderberg Disaster, the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103, and the 1994 Mull of Kintyre helicopter crash, as well as various aircraft technologies and alleged sightings, have all spawned theories of foul play which deviate from official verdicts.[100]

Black helicopters

This conspiracy theory emerged in the US in the 1990s, alleging that sightings of 'black helicopters' were evidence of an impending governmental declaration of martial law. A similar theory concerning so-called 'phantom helicopters' had emerged in the UK in the 1970s.[101]

Chemtrails

A high-flying jet's engines leaving a condensation trail (contrail)

A popular theory alleges that water condensation trails ('contrails') from aircraft secretly consist of chemical or biological agents.[74]

Korean Air Lines Flight 007

The destruction of Korean Air Lines Flight 007 by Soviet jets in 1983 has long drawn the interest of conspiracy theorists. The theories range from allegations of a planned espionage mission, to a US government cover-up, to the consumption of the passengers' remains by giant crabs.

Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370

The disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 in south-east Asia in March 2014 has prompted many theories. One theory suggests that this plane was hidden away, and was reintroduced over Ukraine later the same year as 'Flight MH17', in order to be shot down for political purposes. Prolific American conspiracy theorist James H. Fetzer has placed responsibility for the disappearance with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.[102] Theories have also related to allegations that a certain autopilot technology was secretly fitted to the aircraft.[103]

Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17

The shooting-down of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 over Ukraine in July 2014, widely believed to have been an error by Russian-backed Ukrainian separatists, has spawned numerous alternative theories. These variously include allegations that it was secretly Flight MH370, that it was part of a conspiracy to conceal the 'truth' about HIV (seven disease specialists were on board), or that the Ukrainian army, the Illuminati or Israel was responsible.[102]

Medicine

Alternative therapy suppression

A 2013 study approved by the University of Chicago suggested that almost half of Americans believe at least one medical conspiracy theory, with 37% believing that the Food and Drug Administration deliberately suppresses 'natural' cures due to influence from the pharmaceutical industry.[104] A prominent proponent of comparable conspiracy theories has been convicted fraudster Kevin Trudeau.

Artificial diseases

There are claims that HIV is an artificial disease, with some theories alleging that it was secretly created by the CIA.[105][106] Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan and others have claimed that diseases such as AIDS and Ebola are man-made and have been deliberately spread among black populations by white supremacists.[107][108] Similar conspiracy theories allege that pharmaceutical companies assist in the creation of conditions and diseases including ADHD, HSV and HPV.

Fluoridation

Water fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay.[109] Although many dental-health organizations support such fluoridation, the practice is opposed by conspiracy theorists.[110] Allegations may include claims that it has been a way to dispose of industrial waste,[111][112] or that it exists to obscure a failure to provide dental care to the poor.[110] A further theory promoted by the John Birch Society in the 1960s described fluoridation as a Communist plot to weaken the American population.[113]

Vaccination

A popular conspiracy theory states that the pharmaceutical industry has mounted a cover-up of a causal link between vaccines and autism. The theory took hold with the publication in 1998 of a fraudulent paper by discredited former doctor Andrew Wakefield.[114] The resulting anti-vaccine movement has been promoted by a number of prominent persons including Rob Schneider,[115] Jim Carrey[116] and President Donald Trump,[117][118] and has led to increased rates of infection and death from diseases such as measles in many countries, including the US, Italy, Germany, Romania and the UK.[119][120][121][122]

Vaccine conspiracy theories have been widespread in Nigeria since at least 2003, as well as in Pakistan. Such theories may feature claims that vaccines are part of a secret anti-Islam plot, and have been linked to fatal mass shootings at vaccine clinics in both countries.[123][124]

Economics

New World Order

The New World Order theory states that a group of international elites controls governments, industry, and media organizations, with the goal of establishing global hegemony. They are alleged to be implicated in most of the major wars of the last two centuries, to carry out secretly staged events, and to deliberately manipulate economies. Organizations alleged to be part of the plot include the Federal Reserve System, the Council on Foreign Relations, Trilateral Commission, the Bilderberg Group,[125] the European Union, the United Nations, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, Bohemian Grove,[126] Le Cercle[127] and Yale University society Skull and Bones.

Illuminati

A name frequently invoked in conspiracy theories, 'Illuminati' has applied to many groups both real and fictional. Numerous conspiracy theorists believe that the original short-lived eighteenth-century Enlightenment society still exists, or that a similar group exists using the same name, and that either group is today engaged in an international conspiracy to promote the posited New World Order. Prominent theorists include Mark Dice and David Icke.[128]

Denver Airport

Some theorists believe that Denver International Airport stands above an underground city which serves as a headquarters of the New World Order. Theorists cite the airport's unusually large size, its distance from Denver city center, as well as assorted alleged Masonic or Satanic symbols, and a set of murals which include depictions of war and death.[129]

Ust akil

In 2014, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan coined the term ust akil ("mastermind") to denote an alleged conspiracy, perhaps based within the US government, to weaken Turkey.[130][131][132] Erdoğan and the Daily Sabah newspaper have alleged that various non-state actors, including ISIL and the PKK, have attacked Turkey.[133]

In February 2017, Ankara Mayor Melih Gökçek claimed that the earthquakes in Çanakkale Province could have been 'artificial earthquakes' which were designed to destabilize the Turkish economy.[134]

Government, politics and conflict

Political conspiracy theories may take generalized and wide-ranging forms concerning wars and international bodies, but may also be seen at a localized level, such as the conspiracy theory pertaining to the 118th Battalion, a British regiment stationed in Kitchener, Ontario, during World War I, which is believed by some in Kitchener to still be present and controlling local politics.[135]

False flag operations

The World Trade Center towers prior to 9/11

False flag operations are covert operations designed to appear as if they are being carried out by other entities. Some allegations of false flag operations have been verified or have been subjects of legitimate historical dispute (such as the 1933 Reichstag arson attack[136]). Discussions of unsubstantiated allegations of such operations feature strongly in conspiracy theory discourse.

Aleksey Galkin and Alexander Litvinenko have claimed that the 1999 Russian apartment bombings were false flag operations perpetrated by the FSB.[137] Other allegations of similar operations have attached to the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the Oklahoma City bombing, the 2004 Madrid train bombings,[138] and the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident.[139]

9/11

The multiple attacks made on the US by Islamist terrorists using hijacked aircraft on September 11, 2001, have proved especially attractive to conspiracy theorists. Theories may include reference to missile or hologram technology. By far, the most popular theory is that the attacks were in fact controlled demolitions,[140][141] a theory which has been rejected by the engineering profession[142] and the 9/11 Commission.

Sandy Hook

A 2012 fatal mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, prompted numerous conspiracy theories, among which is the claim that it was a manufactured event with the aim of promoting gun control. Former Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke has theorized that 'Zionists' were responsible.[143] Theorists such as Alex Jones have suggested that the event was staged with actors.[144][145] Harassment of the bereaved families by conspiracy theorists has resulted in a number of prosecutions.

Clinton Body Count

American conspiracy theorist Alex Jones, 2009

A discredited theory, parts of which have been advanced by Christopher Ruddy among others, asserts that former US President Bill Clinton and his wife Hillary Clinton have assassinated fifty or more of their associates.[146][147][148] The Lakeland Ledger, the Chicago Tribune and Snopes.com have debunked this theory, pointing to detailed death records, the unusually large circle of associates that a President is likely to have, and the facts that many of the people listed had no known link to the Clintons, or had been misidentified, or were still alive.[149][150]

Seth Rich

The unsolved 2016 murder of DNC staff member Seth Rich has prompted conspiracy theorists to claim that his killing was instigated by Hillary Clinton following alleged collaboration with WikiLeaks during the 2016 United States presidential campaign. Elements of this story have been promoted by figures including Alex Jones, Newt Gingrich, and Sean Hannity as an alternative theory to Russian interference in the election.[151][152][153][154]

Barack Obama

Former US President Obama has been the subject of numerous conspiracy theories. His presidency was the subject of a 2009 film, The Obama Deception, by Alex Jones, which alleged that Obama's administration was a puppet government for a wealthy elite. Another theory denies the legitimacy of Obama's claim to the Presidency due to the circumstances of his birth. This theory has persisted despite the release of a certified copy of his Hawaiian birth certificate. A notable promoter of the theory was President Donald Trump, who later acknowledged its fallaciousness.[155][156] Other theories claim that Obama, a Protestant Christian, is secretly a Muslim.

Benghazi

A pair of fatal attacks on US government facilities in Benghazi, Libya, by Islamist terrorists in 2012 has spawned numerous theories, including allegations that Obama's administration arranged the attack for political reasons, and Senator Rand Paul's repeated assertion that the government's response to the incident was designed to distract from a secret CIA operation.[157][158][159]

FEMA

The United States' Federal Emergency Management Agency is the subject of many theories, including the allegation that the organization has been engaged in the building of concentration camps on US soil, in advance of the imposition of martial law and genocide.[160]

Pizzagate

Pizzagate is a discredited conspiracy theory that emerged during the 2016 United States presidential election, connecting a pizza restaurant and members of the Democratic Party with a non-existent child-sex ring. It has been comprehensively discredited by numerous bodies including the District of Columbia Police Department, Snopes.com, The New York Times, and Fox News.[161]

ANC

Members of South Africa's African National Congress party have long propagated conspiracy theories, frequently concerning the CIA and alleged white supremacists. In 2014, Deputy Minister of Defence Kebby Maphatsoe joined others in accusing without evidence Public Protector Thuli Madonsela of being a US agent working to create a puppet government in South Africa.[162][163][164]

Cultural Marxism

The intellectual group known as the Frankfurt School which emerged in the 1930s has increasingly been the subject of conspiracy theories which have alleged the promotion of Communism in capitalist societies. The term 'Cultural Marxism' has been notably employed by conservative American movements such as the Tea Party,[165][166] and by mass-murderer Anders Breivik.[167]

Espionage

Israeli animal spying

Conspiracy theories exist alleging that Israel uses animals to conduct espionage or to attack people. These are often associated with conspiracy theories about Zionism. Matters of interest to theorists include the shark attacks in Egypt in 2010, Hezbollah's accusations of the use of 'spying' eagles,[168] and the 2011 capture of a griffon vulture carrying an Israeli-labeled satellite tracking device.

Harold Wilson

Numerous persons, including former MI5 officer Peter Wright and Soviet defector Anatoliy Golitsyn, have alleged that British Prime Minister Harold Wilson was secretly a KGB spy.[169]

Sports

Boxing has featured in conspiracy theories, such as the claims that the second Ali-Liston fight[170] and the first Bradley-Pacquiao fight were fixed.[171] Another notion, the "juiced ball" theory, attributes an increase in baseball scores during the 1990s and 2000s to the use of balls that had been adulterated during manufacture.

Shergar

The notorious theft and disappearance of the racehorse Shergar in 1983 has prompted many conspiracy theorists to speculate about involvement by the Mafia, the IRA and Colonel Gaddafi.[172]

Frozen Envelope

The "frozen envelope theory" suggests that the NBA rigged its 1985 Draft Lottery so that Patrick Ewing would join the New York Knicks. Theorists claim that a lottery envelope was chilled so that it could be identified by touch.[173] A similar "hot balls theory", promoted by Scottish soccer coach David Moyes, suggests that certain balls used in draws for UEFA competitions have been warmed to achieve specific outcomes.[174]

Business

New Coke was manufactured between 1985 and 2002

Deepwater Horizon

A number of conspiracy theories pertain to a fatal oil-rig industrial accident in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico, alleging sabotage by those seeking to promote environmentalism, or a strike by North Korean or Russian submarines. Elements of such theories have been suggested or promoted by US radio host Rush Limbaugh and President Donald Trump.[175][176][177]

New Coke

A theory claims that The Coca-Cola Company intentionally changed to an inferior formula with New Coke, with the intent either of driving up demand for the original product or permitting the reintroduction of the original with a new formula using cheaper ingredients.[178] Coca-Cola president Donald Keough, rebutted this charge: "The truth is, we're not that dumb, and we're not that smart."[179]

Notes and references

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  2. ^ Levy, Richard (2005). Antisemitism: a historical encyclopedia of prejudice. p. 55. ISBN 1-85109-439-3. 
  3. ^ Baker, Lee D. (2010). Anthropology and the Racial Politics of Culture. Duke University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0822346982. 
  4. ^ Waltman, Michael; John Haas (2010). The Communication of Hate. Peter Lang. p. 52. ISBN 978-1433104473. 
  5. ^ "Who runs Hollywood? C'mon". LA Times. 
  6. ^ ""Denial": how to deal with a conspiracy theory in the era of ‘post-truth’". Cambridge University Press. 16 February 2017. 
  7. ^ Doward, Jamie (22 January 2017). "New online generation takes up Holocaust denial". The Observer. 
  8. ^ "Holocaust Revisionism". Time. 2009. 
  9. ^ "A German court sentenced Holocaust denier Germar Rudolf to two and a half years in prison for inciting racial hatred in publications and Web sites which "systematically" called into question the Nazi genocide." "German Holocaust Denier Imprisoned for Inciting Racial Hatred", Deutsche Welle, February 16, 2007.
  10. ^ Hare, Ivan; Weinstein, James (2010). Extreme Speech and Democracy. Oxford University Press. p. 553. ISBN 0199601798. 
  11. ^ McLaughlin, Daniel (12 May 2012). "Baku pins hopes on Eurovision to boost image". The Irish Times. Retrieved 21 June 2012. 
  12. ^ "Closing Speech by Ilham Aliyev at the conference on the results of the third year into the "State Program on the socioeconomic development of districts for 2009–2013"". Archived from the original on 11 June 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  13. ^ "Closing Speech by Ilham Aliyev". Official web-site of President of Azerbaijan cached on archive.org on 3 May 2015. Archived from the original on May 26, 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015. 
  14. ^ "Armenia pulls out of Azerbaijan-hosted Eurovision show". BBC. Retrieved 17 June 2015. 
  15. ^ "Turkish minister says Russian media run by Armenians, German media not free". Hürriyet Daily News. 7 June 2016. 
  16. ^ "Arkansas Legal Ethics". Law.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  17. ^ Weems, Samuel A. 2002. Armenia: secrets of a Christian terrorist state. The Armenian Great deception series, v. 1. Dallas: St. John Press.
  18. ^ Waal, Thomas (2013). Black garden Armenia and Azerbaijan through peace and war. New York London: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-6032-5. 
  19. ^ Geybulla, Arzu (8 January 2016). "Searching for the ‘Armenian Lobby’". openDemocracy. 
  20. ^ Ghanea, Nazila (2003). Human Rights, the UN and the Bahá'ís in Iran. Martinus Nijhoff. p. 294. ISBN 90-411-1953-1 
  21. ^ Cooper, Roger (1993). Death Plus 10 years. HarperCollins. p. 200. ISBN 0-00-255045-8 
  22. ^ Simpson, John; Shubart, Tira (1995). Lifting the Veil. Hodder & Stoughton Ltd. p. 223. ISBN 0-340-62814-6 
  23. ^ Tavakoli-Targhi, Mohamad (2008). "Anti-Baha'ism and Islamism in Iran". In Brookshaw, Dominic P.; Fazel, Seena B. The Baha'is of Iran: Socio-historical studies. New York, NY: Routledge. p. 200. ISBN 0-203-00280-6 
  24. ^ Henrietta Heald (1992). Chronicle of Britain: Incorporating a Chronicle of Ireland. Jacques Legrand. p. 605. ISBN 9781872031354. 
  25. ^ Jenkins, Philip (1 April 2003). The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice. Oxford University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-19-515480-1. 
  26. ^ John Tracy Ellis, "American Catholicism", University Of Chicago Press 1956.
  27. ^ Bilhartz, Terry D. (1986). Urban Religion and the Second Great Awakening. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-8386-3227-7. 
  28. ^ Anbinder; Tyler. Nativism and Slavery: The Northern Know Nothings and the politics of the 1850s (1992). Online version; also online at ACLS History e-Book, the standard scholarly study
  29. ^ Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 21, 30, 55, 91. 
  30. ^ "Warning Against the Roman Catholic Party," a 1928 speech by Sen. Thomas J. Heflin (hosted at History Matters)
  31. ^ Randall Balmer. "Billy Graham Regrets Political Involvement, Again," Religion Dispatches.
  32. ^ Gregory Campbell McDermott. "I am not the Catholic candidate": Local Issues and the Catholic Question in John F. Kennedy's 1960 Presidential Campaign.
  33. ^ "Transcript: JFK's Speech on His Religion". NPR.org. 5 December 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2016. 
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