The following list of
notable constructed languages is divided into auxiliary, ritual, engineered, and artistic (including fictional) languages, and their respective subgenres. All entries on this list have further information on separate Wikipedia articles.
Auxiliary languages [ edit ]
International auxiliary languages are languages constructed to provide communication among all human beings, or a significant portion, without necessarily replacing native languages.
François Sudre Based on pitch levels sounded with their solfege syllables (a "musical language") although no knowledge of music is required to learn it.
Joseph Schipfer Based on French.
Jean Pirro An early a posteriori language, predating even Volapük.
Johann Martin Schleyer First to generate international interest in IALs.
L. L. Zamenhof The most popular auxiliary language ever invented, including, possibly, up to two million speakers, the highest ever for a constructed language and the only one to date to have its own native speakers (Approximately 1,000).
1887 or 1890
Adolph Nicolas An a priori language by a former Volapük advocate.
J. Braakman The first Esperantido.
Bolak, "Blue Language"
Léon Bollack Prospered fairly well in its initial years; now almost forgotten.
Waldemar Rosenberger A naturalistic IAL by a former advocate of Volapük.
Latino sine Flexione
Giuseppe Peano "Latin without inflection", it replaced Idiom Neutral in 1908.
Edward Powell Foster An a priori language using categories of knowledge.
A group of reformist Esperanto speakers
The most successful offspring of Esperanto.
Claudius Colas An Esperantido some believe was created to cause dissent among Idoists.
Edgar de Wahl A sophisticated naturalistic IAL, also known as Interlingue.
Otto Jespersen Another sophisticated naturalistic IAL by a famous Danish linguist.
Kenneth Searight Best known attempt at universality of vocabulary.
René de Saussure Last of linguist Saussure's many Esperantidos.
Dr. Helge Heimer Naturalistic European language.
Lancelot Hogben, et al. Originally called Interglossa, has a strong Greco-Latin vocabulary.
Charles Bliss An ideographic writing system, with its own grammar and syntax.
International Auxiliary Language Association A major effort to systematize the . It aims to be immediately comprehensible by Romance language speakers and to some extent English speakers.
international scientific vocabulary
Erich Weferling An effort to unite the most common systems of constructed languages.
Zoltán Magyar A zonal constructed language based on the Romance languages.
Pham Xuan Thai
Greco-Latin vocabulary with southeast Asian grammar.
Arturo Alfandari A very terse Esperantido.
Rikichi Okamoto Notable for using Latin letters as a syllabary.
Alexander Igbinéwéká Made for use in West Africa.
Manuel Halvelik 'Archaic Esperanto', developed to produce an archaic effect in Esperanto literature.
K. A. Kumi Attobrah A pan-African language.
Staren Fetcey A sophisticated a priori IAL focused on cultural neutrality.
Based on the common Indo-European roots and the common grammatical points of the IE languages.
Nvwtohiyada Idehesdi Sequoyah Esperanto grammar with significant Cherokee vocabulary.
Vocabulary is derived from common Romance roots.
Diego Marani A "linguistic jest" by a European diplomat.
Language Research Institute, Sejong University Vocabulary from fifteen representative languages.
Lingua Franca Nova
C. George Boeree and others Romance vocabulary with creole-like grammar.
Mark Hučko A constructed language based on the Slavic languages and Esperanto grammar.
Ondrej Rečnik, Gabriel Svoboda,
Jan van Steenbergen, Igor Polyakov A naturalistic language based on the Slavic languages.
Mixture of simplified Proto-Indo-European and other languages.
Lingwa de planeta
Worldlang based on Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Hindi, Persian, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish.
Controlled languages [ edit ]
Controlled natural languages are natural languages that have been altered to make them simpler, easier to use, or more acceptable in certain circumstances, such as for use by people who do not speak the original language well. The following projects are examples of controlled English:
Charles Kay Ogden
Seek to limit the language to a given list of common-use words and terms in order to make it simpler to foreign learners or other people who may have difficulties.
Voice of America
D. David Bourland Jr.
Eliminates the verb to be with the intent of making writing more expressive and accurate.
Simplified Technical English
European Association of Aerospace Industries
Seeks to largely reduce the complexity and ambiguity of technical texts such as manuals.
A constructed language, which is based on, but independent of, English.
Proposes a more direct, short, clear language by avoiding many idioms, jargon and foreign words.
Visual languages [ edit ]
Visual languages use symbols or movements in place of the spoken word. Constructed
sign languages also fall in this category.
Ritual languages [ edit ]
These are languages in actual religious use by their communities or congregations.
Engineered languages [ edit ]
Engineered languages are devised to test some hypothesis. They fall into three categories: philosophical, experimental and logical. An engineered language may belong to more than one of those categories.
Human-usable [ edit ]
Knowledge representation [ edit ]
Languages mainly intended for
knowledge representation, which are easier for computers to understand.
Knowledge Query and Manipulation Languages
Several well known
Knowledge Query and Manipulation Languages have been created from extensive research projects to represent and query knowledge on computers:
Knowledge Interchange Format
A precursor for knowledge representation.
An ISO standard derived from KIF.
Resource Description Framework
A language standardized by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) based on the principles of Common Logic, which represents knowledge as a directed graph built from unordered sets of "sentences" (in fact, as relational triples: subject, relation, attribute) using various syntaxes ( XML, Turtle, JSON-LD, RDFa) for its interchange format.
Universal Modeling Language
Grady Booch Ivar Jacobson James Rumbaugh
Describes the sets of relations and rules of inference and processing, and SQL may be used to use them in concrete schemas and compact store formats, but RDF designs its own (semantically more powerful) schema language for handling large sets of knowledge data stored in RDF format.
Web Ontology Language
Another knowledge representation language standardized by W3C, and derived from Common Logic.
Artistic/fictional languages [ edit ]
Languages used in fiction [ edit ]
J. R. R. Tolkien
Furbish, the default language spoken by Furbies, which can learn English with time.
Internet-based [ edit ]
Language of the Teonim, a race of polydactyl humans who have a cultural history of worshiping catlike deities.
Verdurian and others
Spoken in the country Verduria of planet Almea.
Spoken by the Drushek, a large-eared, long-tailed race without vocal cords that lives in the continent Kryslan.
An alien language that lacks verbs, violating a universal feature among natural human languages.
Spocanian, language of Spocania, developed by Rolandt Tweehuysen starting from 1962.
Alternative languages [ edit ]
Some experimental languages were developed to observe hypotheses of alternative linguistic interactions which could have led to very different modern languages. The following two examples were created for
Ill Bethisad, an alternate history project.
Micronational languages [ edit ]
Personal languages [ edit ]
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
Further reading [ edit ]
Adams, Michael, ed. (2011). . Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. From Elvish to Klingon: Exploring Invented Languages ISBN . 9780192807090 OCLC 713186702.
Okrent, Arika (2009). . New York: Spiegel & Grau. In the Land of Invented Languages: Esperanto Rock Stars, Klingon Poets, Loglan Lovers, and the Mad Dreamers Who Tried to Build a Perfect Language ISBN . 9780385527880 OCLC 321034148.
Reprinted as: ——— (2010). In the Land of Invented Languages: Adventures in Linguistic Creativity, Madness, and Genius. New York: Spiegel & Grau. ISBN . 9780812980899 OCLC 436030223.
Peterson, David J. (2015). The Art of Language Invention: From Horse-Lords to Dark Elves, the Words Behind World-Building. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN . 9780143126461 OCLC 900623553.
Rosenfelder, Mark (2010). The Language Construction Kit. Chicago: Yonagu Books. ISBN . 9780984470006 OCLC 639971902. Rosenfelder, Mark (2012). Advanced Language Construction. Chicago: Yonagu Books. ISBN . 9781478267539 OCLC 855786940. The sequel to The Language Construction Kit.
External links [ edit ]