List of contaminated cell lines

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Many cell lines that are widely used for biomedical research have been contaminated and overgrown by other, more aggressive cells. For example, supposed thyroid lines were actually melanoma cells, supposed prostate tissue was actually bladder cancer, and supposed normal uterine cultures were actually breast cancer.[1]

This is a list of cell cultures which have been cross-contaminated and overgrown by other cells. A project is currently underway to enumerate and rename contaminated cell lines to avoid errors in research caused by misattribution (Masters, 2002). Estimates based on screening of leukemia-lymphoma cell lines suggest that about 15% of these cell lines are not representative of what they are usually assumed to be (Drexler et al., 2002).

Contaminated cell lines have been extensively used in research without knowledge of their true character. For example, most if not all research on the "endothelium" ECV-304 or the "megakaryocyte" DAMI cell lines has in reality been conducted on bladder carcinoma and erythroleukemia cells, respectively. Thus, all research on endothelium- or megakaryocyte-specific functions utilizing these cell lines has turned out to be worthless, except as a warning example.

There are two principal ways a cell line can become contaminated: cell cultures are often exchanged between research groups; if, during handling, a sample gets contaminated and then passed on, subsequent exchanges of cells will lead to the contaminating population being established, although parts of the supposed cell line are still genuine. More serious is contamination at the source: during establishment of the original cell line, some contaminating cells are accidentally introduced into the cultures, where they in time outgrow the desired cells. The initial testing, in this case, still suggested that the cell line is genuine and novel, but in reality, it has disappeared soon after being established and all samples of such cell lines are actually the contaminant cells. It requires lengthy research to determine the precise point where cell lines have become contaminated.

Cell lines marked Virtual in the table below are known instances of contamination at the source; these cell lines became extinct or never existed. Cases where non-contaminated lines are known or strongly suspected to exist are marked Existent

Contaminated cell lines should never be used for research demanding the specific type of cell line they are assumed to be, and most of them should ideally be discarded or at least not used in research at all, except when the contaminant cells have acquired novel characteristics (e.g., by mutation or viral transfection, for example the HeLa derivate Det98) and thus constitute a novel lineage after all.

If in doubt, researchers should test cell lines for authenticity; the references listed below contain some papers on how common contaminants can be recognized. It is worth noting that the widespread contamination with HeLa cells was initially recognized by Walter Nelson-Rees using simple Giemsa stain karyotyping under a light microscope. This technique works well in recognizing HeLa because these cells have distinctive chromosome aberrations.

Novel cell lines should be proliferated and distributed and/or deposited at a safekeeping institution such as the ATCC as soon as possible after establishment, to minimize the odds that the line becomes spoiled by contamination. It is good practice to periodically check cell lines maintained under laboratory conditions (i.e., not placed in long-term storage) for contamination with HeLa or other common contaminants, to ensure that their quality and integrity is maintained.

Lists of contaminated cell lines[edit]

An updated list can be obtained from International Cell Line Authentication Committee website.[2] The list, last updated on October 10, 2014, has 475 cell lines.

If no species is given in the individual entries, the table's species applies to both the assumed and the actual cell types.

Contaminated human cell lines[edit]

Supposed cell line Existent? Supposed cell type Real cell line Real cell type Reference Cellosaurus
207 Existent pre-B cell leukemia REH or CCRF-CEM pre-B cell or T cell leukemia MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_K034
2474/90 Virtual stomach carcinoma HT-29 colon carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_9556
2563, MAC-21 lung lymphoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_M629, CVCL_M627
2957/90 Virtual stomach carcinoma HT-29 colon carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_9557
3051/80 Virtual stomach carcinoma HT-29 colon carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_9558
ADLC-5M2 Virtual lung carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_8169
AG-F Virtual Hodgkin's disease CCRF-CEM variant T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (1999) CVCL_D101
AO Virtual amnion HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_D631
ARH-77 Existent? plasma cell leukemia unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (1999) CVCL_1072
AV3 Virtual amnion HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_1904
BCC1/KMC Virtual basal cell carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_A033
BE-13 Virtual T cell leukemia PEER T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_1081
BJA-B Existent Burkitt's lymphoma REH pre-B cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_5711
BLIN-1, -1E8 Virtual pre-B cell leukemia NALM-6 pre-B cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8173
BM-1604 Virtual prostate carcinoma DU-145 prostate carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_1968
BrCa 5 Virtual breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_D280
BT-20 Existent breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_0178
CaMa (cl 15) Virtual breast carcinoma unknown Laboratory mouse/Golden hamster cells Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_1T14
CaOV Virtual ovarian carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_M091
CaVe Virtual stomach carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_8444
Chang liver liver HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976); Lacroix (2008) CVCL_0238
CHB Virtual astrocytoma unknown Laboratory rat glial cells? Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_1R45
CMP, CMPII C2 Virtual intestinal adenocarcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_D297 CVCL_L115
CO (COLE) Virtual Hodgkin's disease CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (1999) CVCL_J653
COLO-818 Virtual melanoma COLO-800 melanoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_1998
D18T Virtual synovial cell HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_8669
DAMI Virtual megakaryocytic HEL erythroleukemia MacLeod et al. (1997a, b) CVCL_4360
DAPT Virtual pilocytic astrocytoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_D279
Detroit 6 (Det6) Virtual sternal marrow HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_2436
Detroit 30A (Det30A) Virtual carcinoma ascites HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_8674
Detroit 98 (Det98), Det98/AG,
Det98/AH-2, Det98/AHR
Virtual sternal marrow HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_8188
DD Virtual malignant histiocytosis K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_J651
EB33 Virtual prostate HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_8344
ECV-304 Virtual normal endothelium T-24 bladder carcinoma Dirks et al. (1999); Lacroix (2008) CVCL_2029
EH Virtual hairy cell leukemia HK hairy cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_L804
ElCo Virtual breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_8686
EPLC-32M1 Virtual lung carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_8193
EPLC-65H Virtual lung carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_8194
ESP1 Virtual Sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_8351
EU-1 Virtual pre-B cell leukemia REH pre-B cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8857
EU-7 Virtual T cell leukemia CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8865
EUE Virtual fetal subcutis HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_7262
EVLC2 Virtual transfected umbilical vein endothelium unknown non-endothelial? Unger et al. (2002) CVCL_8687
F2-4E5 Virtual thymus epithelium SK-HEP-1 liver carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_A040
F2-5B6 Virtual thymus epithelium SK-HEP-1 liver carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_A041
F255A4 Virtual  ??? HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_8688
FL Virtual amnion HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_1905
FQ, RB, RY, SpR Virtual Hodgkin's disease spleen OMK-210 Three-striped night monkey kidney Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_L984, CVCL_L985,
CVCL_U964, CVCL_L986
G-11 Virtual breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_U962
GHE Virtual astrocytoma T-24 bladder carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_8199
Girardi heart heart HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976); Lacroix (2008) CVCL_2254
GM01312 myeloma unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_J111
GM01500 myeloma unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_D870
GREF-X Virtual liver myofibroblast unknown Laboratory rat cell line MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_7667
HAEND liver angiosarcoma unknown non-endothelial? Unger et al. (2002) CVCL_8690
hAG Virtual adenomatoid goitre T-24 bladder carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_8223
HBC Virtual infiltrating ductal carcinoma unknown Rat cell line Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_M630
HBT3, HBT-E, HBT-39b Virtual breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_D281, CVCL_M746,
CVCL_J652
HCE Virtual cervical carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_M619
HEK Virtual embryonic kidney HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_M624
HEK/HRV transfected embryonic kidney HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_M625
HEL-R66 Virtual embryonic lung unknown Grivet cell line Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_1R39
HEp-2 Virtual larynx epidermoid carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Chen (1988); Lacroix (2008) CVCL_1906
HIMeg-1 Existent? CML HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8439
HKB-1 Virtual Hodgkin's disease unknown unknown Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_5290
HMV-1 Virtual melanoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_8233
HPB-ALL Existent T cell leukemia Jurkat T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_1820
HPB-MLT Virtual T cell leukemia HPB-ALL T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_7959
hPTC Virtual papillary thyroid carcinoma unknown Domestic pig cell line MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_8224
HS-445 Hodgkin's disease unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_0761
HS-Sultan Virtual multiple myeloma plasmacytoma Jijoye Endemic Burkitt's lymphoma Drexler et al. (2001) CVCL_2516
HuK°39 Virtual kidney HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_8283
HuT Virtual fibrosarcoma-derived cell line 8387 HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_M861
IM-9 multiple myeloma unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (1999); Lacroix (2008) CVCL_1305
IMC-2 Virtual maxillary carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_8245
Intestine 407 (INT 407) Virtual intestinal epithelium HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976); Lacroix (2008) CVCL_1907
J96 Virtual leukemic blood HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_3990
J111 Virtual monocytic leukemia HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976); Lacroix (2008) CVCL_2965
JHC Virtual placenta HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_M093
JHT Virtual transfected placenta HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_M620
JOSK-I, -K, -M, -S Virtual monocytic leukemia U-937 histiocytic lymphoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_2082, CVCL_81411,
CVCL_2083, CVCL_8142
K051 Existent? myeloblastic leukemia K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_3000
Karpas 45 Existent T cell leukemia unknown unknown Drexler et al. (1999) CVCL_1326
KB Virtual oral carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976); Lacroix (2008) CVCL_0372
KBM-3 Existent monocytic leukemia HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_A425
KE-37 Existent T cell leukemia CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (1999) CVCL_1327
KM-3 Existent? pre-B cell leukemia REH pre-B cell leukemia Drexler et al. (1999) CVCL_0011
KMS-21-BM Existent? myeloma unknown unknown Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_2991
KPB-M15 Virtual terminal CML KYO-1 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_5308
KP-P1 Virtual prostate carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_D283
L132 Virtual embryonic lung epithelium HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976); Lacroix (2008) CVCL_1908
L-540 Existent Hodgkin's disease CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_1362
L-591 Existent? Hodgkin's disease unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_1867
LED-Ti cervical carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_8438
LR10.6 Virtual pre-B cell leukemia NALM-6 pre-B cell leukemia MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_8260
LU Virtual fetal lung HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_M631
LU 106 Virtual embryonic lung HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_8892
M10T Virtual synovial cell HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_M094
MA160 Virtual prostate HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_8261
MaTu Virtual breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_5328
MB-02 Existent megakaryoblastic leukemia HU-3 megakaryoblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (1999) CVCL_7075
MC-4000 Virtual breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_5331
MC/CAR plasma cell leukemia unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (1999) CVCL_1397
McCoy Virtual synovial cell Strain L Laboratory mouse connective tissue Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_3742
MDA-MB-435 Virtual breast carcinoma M14 melanoma Ellison et al. J Clin Pathol Mol Pathol 55, 294-9; Lacroix (2008) CVCL_0417
MDS Virtual monocytic leukemia Jurkat T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_L807
MHH-225 Existent? megakaryoblastic leukemia Jurkat T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8894
Minnesota EE Virtual esophageal epithelium HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_8264
MKB-1 Virtual T cell leukemia CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_8265
MOBS-1 Virtual monocytic leukemia U-937 histiocytic lymphoma Drexler et al. (1999) CVCL_8442
MOLT-15 Virtual T cell leukemia CTV-1 monocytic leukemia MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_8150
MT-1 Virtual breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999); Lacroix (2008) CVCL_0441
MUTZ-1 Virtual T cell leukemia Namalwa Burkitt's lymphoma Drexler et al. (1999) CVCL_1431
NCTC2544, NCTC3075 Virtual skin epithelium HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976); Lacroix (2008) CVCL_0461, CVCL_8156
NOI-90 Virtual natural killer cell lymphoma REH pre-B cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8462
OE Virtual endometrium HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_J350
OU-AML-1, -2. -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8 Virtual acute myeloid leukemia OCI/AML2 monocytic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8391, CVCL_8392,
CVCL_8393, CVCL_8394,
CVCL_8395, CVCL_8396,
CVCL_8397, CVCL_8398
P1-1A3 Virtual thymus epithelium SK-HEP-1 liver carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_A042
P1-4D6 Virtual thymus epithelium SK-HEP-1 liver carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_A046
P39/Tsugane Existent myeloblastic leukemia HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_0478
PBEI Virtual pre-B cell leukemia NALM-6 pre-B cell leukemia MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_8270
PLB-985 Virtual monocytic leukemia HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_2162
RAMAK-1 Virtual muscle synovium T-24 bladder carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_8271
RBHF-1 Virtual hepatoma unknown non-human mammal cell line MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_Y465
RC-2A Existent? monocytic leukemia CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (1999) CVCL_L808
RED-3 Virtual acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8907
REH-6 Virtual pre-B cell leukemia unknown Laboratory mouse cell line Drexler et al. (1999) CVCL_L803
RM-10 Virtual terminal CML K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (1999) CVCL_8463
RPMI-6666 Hodgkin's disease unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_1665
RPMI-8402 Existent T cell leukemia unknown unknown Drexler et al. (1999); Lacroix (2008) CVCL_1667
RS-1 Existent? megakaryoblastic leukemia K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8423
Rsp Hodgkin's disease unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_M628
RT4 Existant bladder carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_0036
SA4 Virtual liposarcoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_8910
SAM-1 Virtual terminal CML K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8440
SBC-2 Virtual bladder carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_1677
SBC-7 Virtual bladder carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_1680
SCLC-16H, -24H Virtual small cell lung carcinoma SCLC-21/22H small cell lung carcinoma MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_X025, CVCL_8262
SH-2 Virtual breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_M622
SH-3 Virtual breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_M383
SPI-801, -802 Virtual T cell leukemia K-562 terminal CML MacLeod et al. (1999) CVCL_2200, CVCL_2201
SR-91 Virtual T cell leukemia AML-193 monocytic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8441
SW-527 Virtual tumor SW-480/SW-620 colon adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_3799
SW-598 Virtual tumor SW-480/SW-620 colon adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_F649
SW-608 Virtual tumor SW-480/SW-620 colon adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_F653
SW-613 Virtual tumor SW-480/SW-620 colon adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_F650
SW-732 Virtual tumor SW-480/SW-620 colon adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_F651
SW-733 Virtual tumor SW-480/SW-620 colon adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_F652
T-1 Virtual kidney HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_M858
T-9 Virtual transfected somatic HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_M092
T-33 Existent? terminal CML K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8427
TDL-1, TDL-2 Virtual tonsil lymphoid P3JHR-1 Burkitt's lymphoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_8428, CVCL_8429
TDL-3 Virtual tonsil lymphoid RPMI-1788 lymphoblastoid Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_8430
TDL-4 Virtual tonsil lymphoid Raji Burkitt's lymphoma Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_8431
TI-1 Virtual myeloblastic leukemia K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_L806
TMM terminal CML unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (1999) CVCL_1894
TuWi Virtual Wilms' Tumor HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976) CVCL_8275
U-937 Existent histiocytic lymphoma unknown unknown Drexler et al. (1999) CVCL_0007
UMJF-2 myeloma unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_M548
UT-7 Existent histiocytic lymphoma unknown unknown Drexler et al. (1999) CVCL_2233
UTMB-460 Virtual B cell CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8276
WISH Virtual amnion HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976); Lacroix (2008) CVCL_1909
Wong-Kilbourne Virtual conjunctiva HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Nelson-Rees & Flandermeyer (1976); Lacroix (2008) CVCL_2764
WSU-ALCL Virtual Anaplastic large cell lymphoma CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_A036
WSU-CLL Virtual B cell leukemia REH pre-B cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2002a) CVCL_A049
YAA Virtual monocyte U-937 histiocytic lymphoma Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8466
YAP Virtual monocyte U-937 histiocytic lymphoma Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8467
YJ Virtual monocytic leukemia HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8931

Contaminated non-human cell lines[edit]

Supposed cell line Existent? Supposed cell type Real cell line Real cell type Reference Cellosaurus
Aedes vexans, [Culiseta inornata],
Aedes aegypti
Suitor's clone
N/A unknown Emperor Gum Moth cell line Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_1R46, CVCL_1R47,
CVCL_1R48
GPS-M, GPS-PD Guinea pig spleen Strain L-M Laboratory mouse connective tissue Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_1R31, CVCL_1R32
LT-1 Leopard frog renal adenocarcinoma TH-1/FHM Eastern box turtle heart / Fathead minnow epithelium Nelson-Rees et al. (1981) CVCL_1R49

References[edit]

  • Chen, T. R. (1988): Re-evaluation of HeLa, HeLa S3, and Hep-2 karyotypes. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 48: 19-24. HTML abstract
  • Dirks, Willy G.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F. & Drexler, Hans G. (1999): ECV304 (endothelial) is really T24 (bladder carcinoma): cell line cross-contamination at source. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology 35: 558–559.
  • Drexler, Hans G.; Dirks, Willy G. & MacLeod, Roderick A. F. (1999): False human hematopoietic cell lines: cross-contaminations and misinterpretations. Leukemia 13: 1601–1607. HTML abstract
  • Drexler, Hans G.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F. & Dirks, Willy G. (2001): Cross-contamination: HS-Sultan is not a myeloma but a Burkitt lymphoma cell line. Blood 98: 3495–3496. PDF fulltext
  • Drexler, Hans G.; Quentmeier, H.; Dirks, Willy G.; Uphoff, Cord C. & MacLeod, Roderick A. F. (2002a): DNA profiling and cytogenetic analysis of cell line WSU-CLL reveal cross-contamination with cell line REH (pre B-ALL). Leukemia 16: 1868–1870. doi:10.1038/sj.leu.2402610 (HTML abstract)
  • Drexler, Hans G.; Uphoff, Cord C.; Dirks, Willy G. & MacLeod, Roderick A. F. (2002b): Mix-ups and mycoplasma: the enemies within. Leukemia Research 26: 329–333. doi:10.1016/S0145-2126(01)00136-9 (HTML abstract)
  • Drexler, Hans G.; Dirks, Willy G.; Matsuo, Y. & MacLeod, Roderick A. F. (2003): False leukemia–lymphoma cell lines: an update on over 500 cell lines. Leukemia 17: 416–426. doi:10.1038/sj.leu.2402799 (HTML abstract) HTML partial fulltext
  • Lacroix, Marc (2008): Persistent use of "false" cell lines. International Journal of Cancer 122: 1–4. doi:10.1002/ijc.23233 PMID 17960586 (HTML abstract)
  • MacLeod, Roderick A. F.; Dirks, Willy G.& Drexler, Hans G. (1997a): Early Contamination of the Dami Cell Line by HEL. Blood 90: 2850-2851. PDF fulltext
  • MacLeod, Roderick A. F.; Dirks, Willy G.; Reid, Y. A.; Hay, R. J. & Drexler, Hans G. (1997b): Identity of original and late passage Dami megakaryocytes with HEL erythroleukemia cells shown by combined cytogenetics and DNA fingerprinting. Leukemia 11: 2032–2038. HTML abstract
  • MacLeod, Roderick A. F.; Dirks, Willy G.; Matsuo, Y.; Kaufmann, M.; Milch, H. & Drexler, Hans G. (1999): Widespread intraspecies cross-contamination of human tumor cell lines arising at source. International Journal of Cancer 83: 555-563. HTML abstract
  • Masters, John R. (2002): HeLa cells 50 years on: the good, the bad and the ugly. Nature Reviews Cancer 2: 315-319. doi:10.1038/nrc775 (HTML abstract)
  • Nelson-Rees, W. A. & Flandermeyer, R. R. (1976): HeLa cultures defined. Science 191: 96–98. HTML abstract
  • Nelson-Rees, W. A.; Daniels, D. W. & Flandermeyer, R. R. (1981): Cross-contamination of cells in culture. Science 212: 446–452. doi:10.1126/science.6451928 (HTML abstract)
  • Unger, Ronald E.; Krump-Konvalinkova, V.; Peters, K. & Kirkpatrick, C. J. (2002): In Vitro Expression of the Endothelial Phenotype: Comparative Study of Primary Isolated Cells and Cell Lines, Including the Novel Cell Line HPMEC-ST1.6R. Microvascular Research 64: 384–397. Pubmed

External links[edit]

  • Cellosaurus list of problematics (contaminated/misidentified) cell lines