List of contaminated cell lines

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Many cell lines that are widely used for biomedical research have been overgrown by other, more aggressive cells. For example, supposed thyroid lines were actually melanoma cells, supposed prostate tissue was actually bladder cancer, and supposed normal uterine cultures were actually breast cancer.[1] This is a list of cell lines that have been cross-contaminated and overgrown by other cells. Estimates based on screening of leukemia-lymphoma cell lines suggest that about 15% of these cell lines are not representative of what they are usually assumed to be.[2] A project is currently underway to enumerate and rename contaminated cell lines to avoid errors in research caused by misattribution.[3][4][a]

Contaminated cell lines have been extensively used in research without knowledge of their true character. For example, most if not all research on the endothelium ECV-304 or the megakaryocyte DAMI cell lines has in reality been conducted on bladder carcinoma and erythroleukemia cells, respectively. Thus, all research on endothelium- or megakaryocyte-specific functions utilizing these cell lines has turned out to be misguided, serving more of a warning example.

There are two principal ways a cell line can become contaminated: cell cultures are often exchanged between research groups; if, during handling, a sample gets contaminated and then passed on, subsequent exchanges of cells will lead to the contaminating population being established, although parts of the supposed cell line are still genuine. More serious is contamination at the source: during establishment of the original cell line, some contaminating cells are accidentally introduced into the cultures, where they in time outgrow the desired cells. The initial testing, in this case, still suggested that the cell line is genuine and novel, but in reality, it has disappeared soon after being established and all samples of such cell lines are actually the contaminant cells. It requires lengthy research to determine the precise point where cell lines have become contaminated. A mix-up rated as contamination could in reality be a simple confusion of two cell lines, but usually contamination is assumed.[citation needed]

After a cell line has been discovered to be contaminated, they are usually never used again for research demanding the specific type of cell line they are assumed to be. Most contaminated cell lines are discarded, however sometimes contaminant cells have acquired novel characteristics (e.g., by mutation or viral transfection, for example the HeLa derivate Det98) and thus constitute a novel lineage after all, so are not thrown away. If a cell line is thought to be contaminated, it is usually tested for authenticity.[b] The widespread contamination of HeLa cells was initially recognized by Walter Nelson-Rees using simple Giemsa stain karyotyping under a light microscope. This technique works well in recognizing HeLa because these cells have distinctive chromosome aberrations. Novel cell lines are proliferated and distributed and/or deposited at a safekeeping institution such as the ATCC as soon as possible after establishment, to minimize the odds that the line becomes spoiled by contamination. It is considered good practice to periodically check cell lines maintained under laboratory conditions (i.e., not placed in long-term storage) for contamination with HeLa or other common contaminants, to ensure that their quality and integrity is maintained.[citation needed]

Lists of contaminated cell lines[edit]

This list, containing 488 cell lines, was last updated on 1 December 2016.[c]

Cellosaurus also is maintaining a list of "problematic" cell lines.[6] The list is dynamically generated from all cell lines in the database with a comment containing the dedicated words "Problematic cell line". As of 17 January 2017, the list contains 757 entries.

If no species is given in the individual entries of the following tables, the table's species applies to both the assumed and the actual cell types.

Cell lines marked Virtual in the table below are known instances of contamination at the source; these cell lines became extinct or never existed. Cases where non-contaminated lines are known or strongly suspected to exist are marked Existent.

Contaminated human cell lines[edit]

Supposed cell line Existent? Supposed cell type Real cell line Real cell type Reference Cellosaurus
207 Existent pre-B cell leukemia REH or CCRF-CEM pre-B cell or T cell leukemia [7] CVCL_K034
2474/90 Virtual stomach carcinoma HT-29 colon carcinoma [7] CVCL_9556
2563, MAC-21 lung lymphoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_M629, CVCL_M627
2957/90 Virtual stomach carcinoma HT-29 colon carcinoma [7] CVCL_9557
3051/80 Virtual stomach carcinoma HT-29 colon carcinoma [7] CVCL_9558
ADLC-5M2 Virtual lung carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [7] CVCL_8169
AG-F Virtual Hodgkin's disease CCRF-CEM variant T cell leukemia [9] CVCL_D101
AO Virtual amnion HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_D631
ARH-77 Existent? plasma cell leukemia unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid [9] CVCL_1072
AV3 Virtual amnion HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_1904
BCC1/KMC Virtual basal cell carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [7] CVCL_A033
BE-13 Virtual T cell leukemia PEER T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_1081
BJA-B Existent Burkitt's lymphoma REH pre-B cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_5711
BLIN-1, -1E8 Virtual pre-B cell leukemia NALM-6 pre-B cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8173
BM-1604 Virtual prostate carcinoma DU-145 prostate carcinoma [7] CVCL_1968
BrCa 5 Virtual breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_D280
BT-20 Existent breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_0178
CaMa (cl 15) Virtual breast carcinoma unknown Laboratory mouse/Golden hamster cells [8] CVCL_1T14
CaOV Virtual ovarian carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_M091
CaVe Virtual stomach carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_8444
Chang liver liver HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma ;[10] Lacroix (2008) CVCL_0238
CHB Virtual astrocytoma unknown Laboratory rat glial cells? [8] CVCL_1R45
CMP, CMPII C2 Virtual intestinal adenocarcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_D297 CVCL_L115
CO (COLE) Virtual Hodgkin's disease CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia [9] CVCL_J653
COLO-818 Virtual melanoma COLO-800 melanoma [7] CVCL_1998
D18T Virtual synovial cell HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_8669
DAMI Virtual megakaryocytic HEL erythroleukemia MacLeod et al. (1997a, b) CVCL_4360
DAPT Virtual pilocytic astrocytoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_D279
Detroit 6 (Det6) Virtual sternal marrow HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_2436
Detroit 30A (Det30A) Virtual carcinoma ascites HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_8674
Detroit 98 (Det98), Det98/AG,
Det98/AH-2, Det98/AHR
Virtual sternal marrow HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_8188
DD Virtual malignant histiocytosis K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_J651
EB33 Virtual prostate HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_8344
ECV-304 Virtual normal endothelium T-24 bladder carcinoma Dirks et al. (1999); Lacroix (2008) CVCL_2029
EH Virtual hairy cell leukemia HK hairy cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_L804
ElCo Virtual breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_8686
EPLC-32M1 Virtual lung carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [7] CVCL_8193
EPLC-65H Virtual lung carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [7] CVCL_8194
ESP1 Virtual Sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_8351
EU-1 Virtual pre-B cell leukemia REH pre-B cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8857
EU-7 Virtual T cell leukemia CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8865
EUE Virtual fetal subcutis HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_7262
EVLC2 Virtual transfected umbilical vein endothelium unknown non-endothelial? Unger et al. (2002) CVCL_8687
F2-4E5 Virtual thymus epithelium SK-HEP-1 liver carcinoma [7] CVCL_A040
F2-5B6 Virtual thymus epithelium SK-HEP-1 liver carcinoma [7] CVCL_A041
F255A4 Virtual ??? HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_8688
FL Virtual amnion HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_1905
FQ, RB, RY, SpR Virtual Hodgkin's disease spleen OMK-210 Three-striped night monkey kidney [8] CVCL_L984, CVCL_L985,
CVCL_U964, CVCL_L986
G-11 Virtual breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_U962
GHE Virtual astrocytoma T-24 bladder carcinoma [7] CVCL_8199
Girardi heart heart HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma ;[10] Lacroix (2008) CVCL_2254
GM01312 myeloma unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_J111
GM01500 myeloma unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_D870
GREF-X Virtual liver myofibroblast unknown Laboratory rat cell line [7] CVCL_7667
HAEND liver angiosarcoma unknown non-endothelial? Unger et al. (2002) CVCL_8690
hAG Virtual adenomatoid goitre T-24 bladder carcinoma [7] CVCL_8223
HBC Virtual infiltrating ductal carcinoma unknown Rat cell line [8] CVCL_M630
HBT3, HBT-E, HBT-39b Virtual breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_D281, CVCL_M746,
CVCL_J652
HCE Virtual cervical carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_M619
HEK Virtual embryonic kidney HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_M624
HEK/HRV transfected embryonic kidney HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_M625
HEL-R66 Virtual embryonic lung unknown Grivet cell line [8] CVCL_1R39
HEp-2 Virtual larynx epidermoid carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma Chen (1988); Lacroix (2008) CVCL_1906
HIMeg-1 Existent? CML HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8439
HKB-1 Virtual Hodgkin's disease unknown unknown Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_5290
HMV-1 Virtual melanoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [7] CVCL_8233
HPB-ALL Existent T cell leukemia Jurkat T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_1820
HPB-MLT Virtual T cell leukemia HPB-ALL T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_7959
hPTC Virtual papillary thyroid carcinoma unknown Domestic pig cell line [7] CVCL_8224
HS-445 Hodgkin's disease unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_0761
HS-Sultan Virtual multiple myeloma plasmacytoma Jijoye Endemic Burkitt's lymphoma Drexler et al. (2001) CVCL_2516
HuK°39 Virtual kidney HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_8283
HuT Virtual fibrosarcoma-derived cell line 8387 HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_M861
IM-9 multiple myeloma unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid ;[9] Lacroix (2008) CVCL_1305
IMC-2 Virtual maxillary carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [7] CVCL_8245
Intestine 407 (INT 407) Virtual intestinal epithelium HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma ;[10] Lacroix (2008) CVCL_1907
J96 Virtual leukemic blood HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_3990
J111 Virtual monocytic leukemia HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma ;[10] Lacroix (2008) CVCL_2965
JHC Virtual placenta HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_M093
JHT Virtual transfected placenta HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_M620
JOSK-I, -K, -M, -S Virtual monocytic leukemia U-937 histiocytic lymphoma [7] CVCL_2082, CVCL_81411,
CVCL_2083, CVCL_8142
K051 Existent? myeloblastic leukemia K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_3000
Karpas 45 Existent T cell leukemia unknown unknown [9] CVCL_1326
KB Virtual oral carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma ;[10] Lacroix (2008) CVCL_0372
KBM-3 Existent monocytic leukemia HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_A425
KE-37 Existent T cell leukemia CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia [9] CVCL_1327
KM-3 Existent? pre-B cell leukemia REH pre-B cell leukemia [9] CVCL_0011
KMS-21-BM Existent? myeloma unknown unknown Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_2991
KPB-M15 Virtual terminal CML KYO-1 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_5308
KP-P1 Virtual prostate carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_D283
L132 Virtual embryonic lung epithelium HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma ;[10] Lacroix (2008) CVCL_1908
L-540 Existent Hodgkin's disease CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_1362
L-591 Existent? Hodgkin's disease unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_1867
LED-Ti cervical carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_8438
LR10.6 Virtual pre-B cell leukemia NALM-6 pre-B cell leukemia [7] CVCL_8260
LU Virtual fetal lung HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_M631
LU 106 Virtual embryonic lung HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_8892
M10T Virtual synovial cell HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_M094
MA160 Virtual prostate HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_8261
MaTu Virtual breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [7] CVCL_5328
MB-02 Existent megakaryoblastic leukemia HU-3 megakaryoblastic leukemia [9] CVCL_7075
MC-4000 Virtual breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [7] CVCL_5331
MC/CAR plasma cell leukemia unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid [9] CVCL_1397
McCoy Virtual synovial cell Strain L Laboratory mouse connective tissue [10] CVCL_3742
MDA-MB-435 Virtual breast carcinoma M14 melanoma Ellison et al. J Clin Pathol Mol Pathol 55, 294-9; Lacroix (2008) CVCL_0417
MDS Virtual monocytic leukemia Jurkat T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_L807
MHH-225 Existent? megakaryoblastic leukemia Jurkat T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8894
Minnesota EE Virtual esophageal epithelium HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_8264
MKB-1 Virtual T cell leukemia CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia [7] CVCL_8265
MOBS-1 Virtual monocytic leukemia U-937 histiocytic lymphoma [9] CVCL_8442
MOLT-15 Virtual T cell leukemia CTV-1 monocytic leukemia [7] CVCL_8150
MT-1 Virtual breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma ;[7] Lacroix (2008) CVCL_0441
MUTZ-1 Virtual T cell leukemia Namalwa Burkitt's lymphoma [9] CVCL_1431
NCTC2544, NCTC3075 Virtual skin epithelium HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma ;[10] Lacroix (2008) CVCL_0461, CVCL_8156
NCI-ADR-RES Virtual breast cancer OVCAR-8 high grade serous ovarian cancer Liscovitch & Ravid (2007) CVCL_1452
NOI-90 Virtual natural killer cell lymphoma REH pre-B cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8462
OE Virtual endometrium HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_J350
OU-AML-1, -2. -3, -4,
-5, -6, -7, -8
Virtual acute myeloid leukemia OCI/AML2 monocytic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8391, CVCL_8392,
CVCL_8393, CVCL_8394,
CVCL_8395, CVCL_8396,
CVCL_8397, CVCL_8398
P1-1A3 Virtual thymus epithelium SK-HEP-1 liver carcinoma [7] CVCL_A042
P1-4D6 Virtual thymus epithelium SK-HEP-1 liver carcinoma [7] CVCL_A046
P39/Tsugane Existent myeloblastic leukemia HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_0478
PBEI Virtual pre-B cell leukemia NALM-6 pre-B cell leukemia [7] CVCL_8270
PLB-985 Virtual monocytic leukemia HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_2162
RAMAK-1 Virtual muscle synovium T-24 bladder carcinoma [7] CVCL_8271
RBHF-1 Virtual hepatoma unknown non-human mammal cell line [7] CVCL_Y465
RC-2A Existent? monocytic leukemia CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia [9] CVCL_L808
RED-3 Virtual acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8907
REH-6 Virtual pre-B cell leukemia unknown Laboratory mouse cell line [9] CVCL_L803
RM-10 Virtual terminal CML K-562 terminal CML [9] CVCL_8463
RPMI-6666 Hodgkin's disease unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_1665
RPMI-8402 Existent T cell leukemia unknown unknown ;[9] Lacroix (2008) CVCL_1667
RS-1 Existent? megakaryoblastic leukemia K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8423
Rsp Hodgkin's disease unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_M628
RT4 Existent bladder carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_0036
SA4 Virtual liposarcoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_8910
SAM-1 Virtual terminal CML K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8440
SBC-2 Virtual bladder carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [7] CVCL_1677
SBC-7 Virtual bladder carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [7] CVCL_1680
SCLC-16H, -24H Virtual small cell lung carcinoma SCLC-21/22H small cell lung carcinoma [7] CVCL_X025, CVCL_8262
SH-2 Virtual breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_M622
SH-3 Virtual breast carcinoma HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_M383
SPI-801, -802 Virtual T cell leukemia K-562 terminal CML [7] CVCL_2200, CVCL_2201
SR-91 Virtual T cell leukemia AML-193 monocytic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8441
SW-527 Virtual tumor SW-480/SW-620 colon adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_3799
SW-598 Virtual tumor SW-480/SW-620 colon adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_F649
SW-608 Virtual tumor SW-480/SW-620 colon adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_F653
SW-613 Virtual tumor SW-480/SW-620 colon adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_F650
SW-732 Virtual tumor SW-480/SW-620 colon adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_F651
SW-733 Virtual tumor SW-480/SW-620 colon adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_F652
T-1 Virtual kidney HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [8] CVCL_M858
T-9 Virtual transfected somatic HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_M092
T-33 Existent? terminal CML K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8427
TDL-1, TDL-2 Virtual tonsil lymphoid P3JHR-1 Burkitt's lymphoma [8] CVCL_8428, CVCL_8429
TDL-3 Virtual tonsil lymphoid RPMI-1788 lymphoblastoid [8] CVCL_8430
TDL-4 Virtual tonsil lymphoid Raji Burkitt's lymphoma [8] CVCL_8431
TI-1 Virtual myeloblastic leukemia K-562 terminal CML Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_L806
TMM terminal CML unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid [9] CVCL_1894
TuWi Virtual Wilms' Tumor HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma [10] CVCL_8275
U-937 Existent histiocytic lymphoma unknown unknown [9] CVCL_0007
UMJF-2 myeloma unknown Epstein-Barr virus-transfected B cell lymphoblastoid Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_M548
UT-7 Existent histiocytic lymphoma unknown unknown [9] CVCL_2233
UTMB-460 Virtual B cell CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8276
WISH Virtual amnion HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma ;[10] Lacroix (2008) CVCL_1909
Wong-Kilbourne Virtual conjunctiva HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma ;[10] Lacroix (2008) CVCL_2764
WSU-ALCL Virtual Anaplastic large cell lymphoma CCRF-CEM T cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_A036
WSU-CLL Virtual B cell leukemia REH pre-B cell leukemia Drexler et al. (2002a) CVCL_A049
YAA Virtual monocyte U-937 histiocytic lymphoma Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8466
YAP Virtual monocyte U-937 histiocytic lymphoma Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8467
YJ Virtual monocytic leukemia HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia Drexler et al. (2003) CVCL_8931

Contaminated non-human cell lines[edit]

Supposed cell line Existent? Supposed cell type Real cell line Real cell type Reference Cellosaurus
Aedes vexans, [Culiseta inornata],
Aedes aegypti
Suitor's clone
N/A unknown Emperor Gum Moth ovary? [8] CVCL_1R46, CVCL_1R47,
CVCL_1R48
GPS-M, GPS-PD Guinea pig spleen Strain L-M Laboratory mouse connective tissue [8] CVCL_1R31, CVCL_1R32
LT-1 Leopard frog renal adenocarcinoma TH-1/FHM Eastern box turtle heart / Fathead minnow epithelium [8] CVCL_1R49

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The original citation was ambiguous on which of these citations was being referenced, so both have been added here.
  2. ^ The citations of this article contain some papers on how common contaminates can be recognized.
  3. ^ An updated list can be obtained from International Cell Line Authentication Committee website.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jill Neimark (27 February 2015). "Line of attack". Science. 347 (6225): 938–940. Bibcode:2015Sci...347..938N. doi:10.1126/science.347.6225.938. PMID 25722392.
  2. ^ Masters, John R. (April 2002). "HeLa cells 50 years on: the good, the bad and the ugly". Nature Reviews Cancer. 2 (4): 315–319. doi:10.1038/nrc775. ISSN 1474-175X. PMID 12001993. S2CID 991019.
  3. ^ Drexler, H. G.; Quentmeier, H.; Dirks, W. G.; Uphoff, C. C.; MacLeod, R. a. F. (September 2002). "DNA profiling and cytogenetic analysis of cell line WSU-CLL reveal cross-contamination with cell line REH (pre B-ALL)". Leukemia. 16 (9): 1868–1870. doi:10.1038/sj.leu.2402610. ISSN 1476-5551. PMID 12200708.
  4. ^ Drexler, Hans G.; Uphoff, Cord C.; Dirks, Willy G.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F. (2002-04-01). "Mix-ups and mycoplasma: the enemies within". Leukemia Research. 26 (4): 329–333. doi:10.1016/S0145-2126(01)00136-9. ISSN 0145-2126. PMID 11839374.
  5. ^ "Database of Cross-Contaminated or Misidentified Cell Lines" (PDF). iclac.org. January 12, 2016. Retrieved 2019-05-10.
  6. ^ "Cellosaurus search result: 757 hits for 'problematic cell line'". Cellosaurus. Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 17 January 2018. The reference includes the list of linked pages in the search result.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Dirks, Wilhelm G.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.; Drexler, Hans G. (November 1999). "ECV304 (endothelial) is really T24 (bladder carcinoma): Cell line cross-contamination at source". In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Animal. 35 (10): 558–559. doi:10.1007/s11626-999-0091-8. ISSN 1071-2690. PMID 10614862. S2CID 31347874.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Nelson-Rees, W.; Daniels, D.; Flandermeyer, R. (1981-04-24). "Cross-contamination of cells in culture". Science. 212 (4493): 446–452. Bibcode:1981Sci...212..446N. doi:10.1126/science.6451928. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 6451928.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Drexler, Hg; Dirks, Wg; MacLeod, Raf (October 1999). "False human hematopoietic cell lines: cross-contaminations and misinterpretations". Leukemia. 13 (10): 1601–1607. doi:10.1038/sj.leu.2401510. ISSN 0887-6924. PMID 10516762.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an Nelson-Rees, W. A.; Flandermeyer, R. R. (1976). "HeLa cultures defined". Science. 191 (4222): 96–98. Bibcode:1976Sci...191...96N. doi:10.1126/science.1246601. PMID 1246601.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Cellosaurus list of problematics (contaminated/misidentified) cell lines