List of contemporary ethnic groups

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The following is a list of contemporary ethnic groups. There has been constant debate over the classification of ethnic groups. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be associated with shared cultural heritage, ancestry, history, homeland, language or dialect, the term culture specifically including aspects such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, etc.

By the nature of the concept, ethnic groups tend to be divided into ethnic subgroups, which may themselves be or not be identified as independent ethnic groups depending on the source consulted. Multiracial groups (such as Métis and Coloureds) should be listed as subgroups of the ethnic groups they are descended from.

Ethnic groups[edit]

The groups commonly identified as "ethnic groups" (as opposed to ethno-linguistic phyla, national groups, racial groups or similar). Smaller groups are often indigenous peoples.

Name Native language (primary language) Primary homeland Population (millions; estimate) Subgroups Majority (plurality) religion and sect
Abkhaz Northwest CaucasianAbazgiAbkhaz Georgia (Abkhazia) 0.2 million Bzyb, Abzhui, Zamurzakan ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy, Sunni Islam
Acholi Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticLuoAcholi Uganda, South Sudan 1.2 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Afar AfroasiaticCushiticLowland East CushiticAfar Afar Region (Ethiopia), Djibouti, Eritrea 2.3–4.2 million Sunni Islam
Agbagyi Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoVolta–NigerNupoidGwari Nigeria 0.4 million Christianity, Islam, Traditional African religions
Akan Niger-CongoKwaPotou-TanoAkan Ghana, Ivory Coast 20 million Asante, Akuapem, Akyem, Wassa, Abron, Anyi, Baoulé, Sefwi, Nzema, Ahanta, Tchaman, Abbé, numerous slave descents (particularly Afro-Antiguans, Afro-Barbudans, Afro-Barbadians, Afro-Grenadians, Afro-Vincentians, Afro-Guyanese, Afro-Jamaicans, Afro-Saint Lucians, Afro-Colombians, Afro-Costa Ricans, Afro-Cubans, Afro-Dominicans of the Dominican Republic, Afro-Nicaraguans, and Afro-Surinamese) Christianity, Traditional African religionsAkan religionWinti, IslamSunni Islam, Rastafari, Obeah, Kélé
Albanians Indo-EuropeanAlbanian Albania, Kosovo, Republic of Macedonia, Ulcinj and Gusinje (Montenegro), Preševo Valley (Serbia) 7–8 million Ghegs, Tosks, Arbëreshë, Kosovans Sunni Islam, Christianity, Agnosticism
Ambundu Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuKimbundu Angola 4 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Amhara AfroasiaticSemiticAmharic Ethiopia 30 million ChristianityEthiopian Orthodoxy
Islam
Arabs AfroasiaticSemiticArabic Arab world more than 360 million[1] Arab-Berbers (including Algerians, Libyans, Mauritanians, Moroccans, Sahrawi, Tunisians), Bahrainis, Egyptians, Emiratis, Iraqis, Jordanians, Kuwaitis, Lebanese, Omanis, Palestinians, Qataris, Saudis, Sudanese Arabs, Syrians, Yemenis, Afro-Arabs Islam, Christianity
Armenians Indo-EuropeanArmenian Armenia 7 million Hemshin peoples, Cherkesogai ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Assamese Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanAssamese India (Assam) 15 million[2] HinduismEkasarana Dharma
Assyrians AfroasiaticSemiticAssyrian Neo-Aramaic Iraq, Iran, Syria, Turkey 2–3.3 million significant populations in the United States and Sweden ChristianitySyriac Christianity
Avars Northeast CaucasianAvar–Andic→Avar Russia (Dagestan) 1.5 million Avar–Andi–Dido peoples IslamSunni Islam
Aymara AymaranAymara Bolivia, Peru, Chile 1.75 million Christianity
Azerbaijanis TurkicOghuzAzerbaijani Iran, Azerbaijan 28–35 million Karapapaks, Bayat, Shahsevan, Qaradaghis, Ayrums, Iranian Azerbaijanis, Georgian Azerbaijanis, Russian Azerbaijanis IslamShia Islam
Balochis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianBalochi Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan
(Balochistan Province, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Nimruz Province)
10 million IslamSunni Islam
Bamars Sino-TibetanLolo-BurmeseBurmishBurmese Myanmar, Thailand 30 million BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Bambara Niger-CongoMandeMandingBambara Mali 2.7 million Haratin Islam
Banda Ubangian languagesBanda languages Central African Republic, South Sudan Democratic Republic of the Congo 1.3 million Christianity
Bariba Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoSavannasBariba Borgu (Benin, Nigeria) 1.4 million Islam
Bashkirs TurkicKipchakBashkir Bashkortostan (Russia) 2 million Islam
Basques Basque Basque Country (Spain, France) 2.4 million ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Belarusians Indo-EuropeanSlavicEast SlavicBelarusian Belarus 9.5–10 million significant populations in the United States, Ukraine, and Russia ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Bemba Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuSabiBemba Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique 0.7[3]–3.3 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Bengalis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanBengali Bangladesh, India (West Bengal, Tripura Barak Valley) 300 million[4] Bengali Muslims, Bengali Hindus, Chittagonian people, Sylhetis Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism
Berbers AfroasiaticBerber North Africa 25–30 million[5]–50 million[6][7][8][9] Tuaregs, Kabyle, Chaoui, Canary Islanders, Arab-Berbers (including Algerians, Libyans, Mauritanians, Moroccans, Sahrawi, Tunisians) IslamSunni Islam
Beti Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuBeti Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea 3 million Fang, Ewondo, Eton, Bulu, Bebil, Bebele ChristianityBwiti
Bissa Niger-CongoMandeBissa Burkina Faso 0.7 million Islam
Bosniaks Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicSerbo-CroatianBosnian Bosnia and Herzegovina 3–4.5 million Significant population in Serbia IslamSunni Islam
Brahui DravidianBrahui Pakistan 2.4 million[10] Islam
Bretons Indo-EuropeanCelticBrittonicBreton
Indo-EuropeanRomanceGallo
Brittany 6–8 million ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Bulgarians Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicBulgarian Bulgaria, Western Outlands, Budjak, Macedonia 9–11.3 million Macedonian Bulgarians, Bessarabian Bulgarians, Pomaks, Banat Bulgarians along with significant populations in Turkey, Germany, Ukraine, Spain and the United States ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Catalans Indo-EuropeanRomanceCatalan Spain, France 8–10 million[11] Valencians, Balearics, Andorrans ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Chechens Northeast CaucasianNakhVainakhChechen Chechnya (Russia) 1.5—2 million IslamSunni Islam
Chokwe Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuChokwe Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia 1.3 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Chuvash TurkicOghurChuvash Chuvashia (Russia) 2 million ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Circassians Northwest CaucasianCircassian Russia (see also; Circassia) 4–8 million Adygeans, Kabardians IslamSunni Islam
Chewa Niger CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuNyasaChewa Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique 12 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Cornish Indo-EuropeanCelticBrittonicCornish

Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicAnglicEnglish (Anglo-Cornish)

Cornwall (United Kingdom) 6–11 million significant populations in the United States and Australia Christianity
Corsicans Indo-EuropeanRomanceCorsican Corsica (France) 0.3 million Christianity
Cree AlgicAlgonquianCree Canada, Montana 0.4 million Métis (Oji-Cree) Christianity → Various branches, Native American religion
Croats Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicSerbo-CroatianCroatian Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina 7.5–8.5 million Italian Croats (Molise Croats) ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Czechs Indo-EuropeanSlavicWest SlavicCzech Czech Republic 10–12 million Czech Americans ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Dagaaba Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoGurOti–VoltaDagaare Ghana, Burkina Faso 1 million Traditional African religions, Islam, Christianity
Danes Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorth GermanicDanish Denmark 7 million significant populations in the United States and Canada ChristianityLutheranism
Dinka Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticDinka South Sudan 5 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Duala Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuSawabantuDuala Littoral Region (Cameroon) 0.4 million Kole, Mboko, Kwe, Wovea, Subu, Mungo, Limba Christianity, Traditional African religions
Dutch Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicDutch Netherlands 16–29 million[12] Flemings, Surinamese, Dutch Indonesians, Afrikaners (including Coloureds and Basters), along with significant populations in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand (ChristianityProtestantism, Roman Catholicism)
Efik Niger–CongoCross RiverIbibio-EfikEfik Cross River State (Nigeria) 0.6 million Christianity, Traditional African religionsEfik mythologyEkpeAbakuá
English Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicAnglicEnglish (English of England) England 100 million English Australians, English Canadians, Belizean Creoles, English Americans ChristianityProtestantism
Estonians UralicFinnicEstonian Estonia 1.2 million Võros, Setos (ChristianityLutheranism)
Ewe Niger-CongoGbeEwe Togo, Ghana 6.7 million numerous slave descents (particularly Afro-Barbadians, Louisiana Creoles, Afro-Haitians, Afro-Colombians, Afro-Cubans, Afro-Dominicans of the Dominican Republic, Afro-Nicaraguans, Afro-Puerto Ricans, and Afro-Surinamese) Christianity, Traditional African religionsWest African Vodun (Louisiana Voodoo, Haitian Vodou, Cuban Vodú, Dominican Vudú)
Finns UralicFinnicFinnish Finland 6.5 million significant populations in the United States, Sweden, Canada, and Russia ChristianityLutheranism
Fon Niger-CongoGbeFon Dahomey (Benin), Nigeria 4.1 million Ogu people, Numerous slave descents (particularly Afro-Barbadians, Louisiana Creole, Afro-Haitians, Afro-Colombians, Afro-Cubans, Afro-Dominicans of the Dominican Republic, Afro-Nicaraguans, Afro-Puerto Ricans, and Afro-Surinamese) Traditional African religionsWest African Vodun (Louisiana Voodoo, Haitian Vodou, Cuban Vodú, Dominican Vudú)
French Indo-EuropeanRomanceFrench France 100 million[13] Quebecers, Métis (particularly those who speak Michif and Métis French), Walloons, Romands, Arpitans, Aostans, Haitians (including Afro-Haitians), French West Indians, French Guianese along with significant populations in the United States (including Louisiana Creoles), Madagascar, and Australia ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Frisians Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicFrisian Frisia (Netherlands, Germany) 1.5 million West Frisians, East Frisians, North Frisians ChristianityLutheranism
Fula Niger-CongoAtlantic-CongoSenegambianFula West Africa 20-25 million Wodaabe Islam
Ga-Adangbe Niger-CongoKwaGa-Dangme Greater Accra (Ghana) 2 million Ga, Adangbe Christianity, Traditional African religions (including Bwiti)
Gagauz TurkicOghuzGagauz Gagauzia (Moldova) 0.2 million ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Ganda Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuGreat Lakes BantuGanda Buganda (Uganda) 6.2 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Georgians KartvelianGeorgian Georgia 5–7 million Mingrelians, Svans, Adjarians ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Germans Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicGerman Germany, Austria, Switzerland 100–150 million[14] Alemannic Germans, Austrians, Bavarians, Franconians, Hessians, Luxembourgers, Pomeranians, Prussians, Saxons, South Tyroleans, Swabians, Swiss, Thuringii, Volga Germans, along with significant populations in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Chile, and Kazakhstan ChristianityRoman Catholicism, Lutheranism, Calvinism
Greeks Indo-EuropeanGreek Greece,

Cyprus

14–17 million Greek Cypriots, Griko people, Pontic Greeks, Cappadocian Greeks, Albanian Greeks, Northern Epirotes along with significant populations in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, and Canada ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Guaranís TupiTupi-GuaraniGuaranis Amazonia 0.3 million Paraguayans, Bolivians, Argentines, Brazilians Guarani mythology, Roman Catholicism
Gujarati Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanGujarati India (Gujarat) 50–60 million[15] Gujarati Muslims, Gujarati Americans Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism
Gurma Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoGurOti–VoltaGurma Burkina Faso, Niger 3.3 million Islam
Gurunsi Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoGurGurunsi Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo 0.9 million Kabye, Tem, Lamba, Nuna, Kassena Traditional African religions, IslamSunni Islam
Hadiya AfroasiaticCushiticHighland East CushiticHadiyya Hadiya & Gurage Zones (Ethiopia) 1 million Badawwaachcho, Leemo, Mareko, Shaashoogo, Sooro Christianity, Islam
Han Chinese Sino-TibetanSiniticChinese China, Taiwan 1,300 million[16] Chinese Americans, Malaysian Chinese, Chinese Singaporeans along with significant populations in Thailand, Indonesia, Myanmar, Canada, the Philippines, Peru, Australia, Vietnam, Japan, Russia, France, the United Kingdom, South Africa, Italy, Germany, Korea, Spain, India, Laos, Brazil, the Netherlands, and Panama Atheism, Chinese Folk Religion, Christianity, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism
Hausa AfroasiaticChadicHausa Niger, Nigeria 50 million Islam
Hazaras Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianPersianDariHazaragi Afghanistan c. 7–8 million IslamShia Islam
Herero Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuHerero Namibia, Angola 0.3 million OvaHimba, Ovambanderu Christianity
Hmong Hmong–MienHmongicWest HmongicHmong Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Hainan, Guangdong, Hubei (China); Vietnam; Laos; Thailand 14 to 15 million Hmong Americans Hmong folk religion, Buddhism, Christianity
Hui Sino-TibetanSiniticChinese China 10 million IslamSunni Islam
Hungarians UralicUgricHungarian Hungary 13.1–14.7 million significant populations in the United States, Romania, Slovakia, Canada, Serbia, Ukraine, and Germany ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Hutu Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuRwanda-Rundi Rwanda, Burundi, Kivu (Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo) 18.5 million Christianity
Ibibio Niger-CongoAtlantic-CongoBenue–CongoCross RiverLower Cross RiverIbibio-EfikIbibio Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria 5 million numerous slave descents (particularly Afro-Barbadians, Afro-Dominicans of Dominica, Afro-Trinbagonians, and Afro-Cubans) Christianity
Icelanders Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorth GermanicIcelandic Iceland 0.5 million ChristianityLutheranism
Igbo Niger-CongoIgboidIgbo Igboland (Nigeria) 34 million numerous slave descents (particularly Afro-Antiguans, Afro-Barbudans, Afro-Barbadians, Belizean Creoles, Garifuna, Afro-Dominicans of Dominica, Afro-Grenadians, Afro-Guyanese, Afro-Jamaicans, Afro-Vincentians, Afro-Saint Lucians, Afro-Trinbagonians, Afro-Cubans, Afro-Dominicans of the Dominican Republic, and Afro-Puerto Ricans) Christianity, Traditional African religionsOdinani, Obeah
Ijaw Niger-CongoIjaw Niger Delta – Rivers, Bayelsa, and Delta states of Nigeria 10 million Christianity
Ingushes Northeast CaucasianNakhVainakhIngush Russia

(Ingushetia)

0.7 million IslamSunni Islam
Irish Indo-EuropeanCelticGoidelicIrish

Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicAnglicEnglish (Hiberno-English)[17]

Ireland 70–80 million[18] Irish Travellers and significant populations in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Argentina, Mexico and New Zealand ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Italians Indo-EuropeanRomanceItalian Italy[19] 60–140 million[20] significant populations in Brazil, Argentina, the United States, Venezuela, Canada, France, Peru, Uruguay, Australia, Germany, Chile and the United Kingdom ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Japanese JaponicJapanese Japan 129 million[21] Japanese Americans and significant populations in Brazil, China, the Philippines, Canada and Peru Buddhism, Shinto
Javanese AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianJavanese Java 105 million[22] Cirebonese, Osing, Tenggerese, Boyanese, Samin, Banyumasan, Javanese Malaysians IslamSunni Islam, Hinduism
Jews AfroasiaticSemiticNorthwest SemiticCanaaniteHebrew Israel 17-20 million Israelis, Ashkenazim, Mizrahim, Sephardim, Teimanim, Kochinim, Etiopim, along with significant populations in the United States, France, Canada, the United Kingdom, Argentina, Russia, Germany, and Australia Judaism
Kalanga Niger–Congo languagesAtlantic–CongoBantuKalanga Zimbabwe, Botswana 0.9 million Nambya Traditional African religion, Christianity
Kannadigas DravidianKannada India (Karnataka) 37–55 million Hinduism
Kanuri Nilo-SaharanSaharanKanuri Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameroon 10 million Kanembu Islam
Karachays TurkicCommon TurkicKipchak→Kipchak-Cuman→Karachay-Balkar Russia (Karachay-Cherkessia) 0.2 million IslamSunni Islam
Karakalpaks TurkicKipchakKarakalpak Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan) 0.6 million IslamSunni Islam
Karen Sino-TibetanTibeto-BurmanKaren Karen State (Myanmar), Thailand 7 millions Karen, Pwo Karen Theravada Buddhism, Christianity
Kashmiris Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanDardicKashmiri India (Kashmir Valley), Pakistan (Neelum Valley and Leepa Valley of Azad Kashmir ) 5.6 million[23][24] Kashmiri Muslims, Kashmiri Pandits, Kashmiris of Punjab IslamSunni Islam, Hinduism
Kazakhs TurkicKipchakKazakh Kazakhstan 17 million significant populations in China, and Russia IslamSunni Islam
Khas Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanNepali Nepal 12.9 million Chhetri, Bahun, Nepalis Hinduism
Khmer AustroasiaticKhmer Cambodia 15–17 million Cambodian Americans BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Kikuyu Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuNortheast BantuKikuyu Kenya 9.9 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Komi UralicPermicKomi language Russia (Komi Republic, Perm Krai) c. 0.6 million Komi-Permyaks, Komi-Zyrians ChristianityEastern Orthodox Christianity
Konkani Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanKonkani India (Goa) 7.4 million[2] Hinduism
Kongo Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuKongo Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Angola, Gabon 10 million Lari, Vili, Mayombe, numerous slave descents (particularly Afro-Guyanese, Afro-Jamaicans, Afro-Trinbagonians, African Americans (including Americo-Liberians), Afro-Haitians, Afro-Colombians, Afro-Cubans, Afro-Dominicans of the Dominican Republic, Afro-Ecuadorians, Afro-Nicaraguans, Afro-Puerto Ricans, Afro-Brazilians (including Pardo Brazilians), and Afro-Surinamese) Christianity, Traditional African religionsKongo religion (Kumina, Palo (religion))
Koreans KoreanicKorean Korea 82.5 million[25] Korean Americans, Zainichi Koreans, Chinese Koreans, Koryo-saram, Zainichi, and significant populations in Canada, Australia, Vietnam, and the Philippines Buddhism, Christianity
Kukis Sino-TibetanKukish North East India Bangladesh Myanmar 0.7 million[26] Thadou, Paite, Simte, Zou, Lamkang, Kom people, Lushai, Hmar people, Anal people, Koireng, Zomi Christianity, Judaism
Kurds Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianKurdish Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria (see also; Kurdistan) 30–38 million Kurmanjis, Sorans, Zazas, Gorans. There are also significant populations in France and Germany. Sunni Islam, Shia Islam -> Alevism, Christianity, Yazidism
Kyrgyz TurkicKipchakKyrgyz Kyrgyzstan 4.5 million IslamSunni Islam
Lango Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticLuoLango Uganda 1.8 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Lao Tai-KadaiTaiSouthwestern TaiLao Laos 4 million BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Latvians Indo-EuropeanBalticLatvian Latvia 1.5–1.6 million ChristianityLutheranism
Lithuanians Indo-EuropeanBalticLithuanian Lithuania 3.7–4.1 million Samogitians ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Laz KartvelianKarto-ZanZanLaz Turkey, Georgia 0.2–1 million IslamSunni Islam, ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Luba Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuLuban Democratic Republic of the Congo 13 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Luo Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticLuoLuo Kenya, Tanzania 7 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Lurs Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianLuri Iran 5 million IslamShia Islam
Macedonians Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicMacedonian Republic of Macedonia, region of Macedonia 2.5 million Torbesh ChristianityEastern Orthodox Christianity
Mafa AfroasiaticChadicBiu–MandaraMafa Cameroon 0.8 million Christianity
Malays AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianMalay Malay world 30 million Bruneians, Kedahans, Pattani, Kelantanese, Terengganuans, Pahang, Perakians, Berau, Cape Malays IslamSunni Islam
Malayali DravidianMalayalam India (Kerala) 40–60 million significant populations in the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait and Bahrain Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Jainism
Maldivians Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanMaldivian Maldives 0.4 million Mahls IslamSunni Islam
Maltese AfroasiaticSemiticArabicSiculo-ArabicMaltese Malta 0.7 million Gozitans ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Manchu AltaicTungusicManchu (Sino-TibetanSiniticChinese) China 10.4 million Manchu shamanism, Buddhism
Mandinka Niger-CongoMandeMandingMandinka (Mandingo), Maninka, Kassonke, Kita Maninka Mali, The Gambia, Guinea, Senegal, Ivory Coast 13 million numerous slave descents (particularly Afro-Bahamians, Afro-Saint Lucians, Afro-Trinbagonians, African Americans (including Americo-Liberians), Afro-Colombians, Afro-Costa Ricans, Afro-Dominicans of the Dominican Republic, Afro-Nicaraguans, Afro-Panamanians, and Cape Verdeans) Islam, Christianity
Mapuche AraucanianMapudungun Chile, Argentina 1.7 million Huilliche Christianity (Catholicism, Evangelicalism)
Marathi Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanMarathi India (Maharashtra) 87 million[27] Hinduism
Mari UralicMari Russia (Mari El Republic) c.0.6 million ChristianityEastern Orthodox Christianity
Masa AfroasiaticChadicMasa Cameroon, Chad 0.5 million Christianity, Islam
Mayans Mayan Guatemala, Belize, Mexico (Yucatán, Campeche, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Chiapas), Honduras, El Salvador 7 million Achi, Chuj, Ch'orti', Itza, K'iche', Q'eqchi', Tz'utujil, Xinca, Hispanic Belizeans, Guatemalans ChristianityRoman Catholicism, Maya religion
Mbaka UbangianNgbaka languagesMbaka Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.3 million ChristianityRoman Catholicism, Traditional African religions
Minangkabau AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianNuclear Malayo-PolynesianMalayo-SumbawanMalayicMalayanMinangkabau Indonesia 8 million IslamSunni Islam
Mongo Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuBangi-NtombaMongo Democratic Republic of the Congo 12 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Mongols AltaicMongolian Inner Mongolia (China), Mongolia 10 million Buryats, Oirats (Subgroup: Kalmyks) BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Montenegrins Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicSerbo-CroatianMontenegrin Montenegro 0.6 million ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Mordvins UralicMordvinicErzya language
UralicMordvinicMoksha language
Russia (Mordovia) 0.8 million Erzya, Mokshas ChristianityEastern Orthodox Christianity
Mossi Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoGurOti–VoltaMossi Burkina Faso 7.6 million Islam
Naga Sino-TibetanNaga language India (Nagaland, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam), Myanmar 4 million Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Konyak, Lotha, Mao, Maram, Poumai, Rongmei, Sangtam, Sumi, Tangkhul, Tangsa and Zeliang ChristianityProtestantism, Roman Catholicism
Norwegians Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorth GermanicNorwegian Norway 12 million significant populations in the United States, and Norwegian Canadians ChristianityLutheranism
Nubians Nilo-SaharanNubian languages Nubia, Southern Egypt, North Sudan 2–15 million Sudanese Arabs Sufi Islam, Sunni Islam, Coptic Christian
Nuer Nilo-SaharanNiloticWestern NiloticNuer South Sudan 5 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Nuristanis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianNuristani Nuristan (Afghanistan) 0.3 million IslamSunni Islam
Odia Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanOdia India (Odisha) 32 million[28] Hinduism
Occitans Indo-EuropeanItalicRomanceOccitano-RomanceOccitan France (Occitania) 16 million Christianity
Oromo AfroasiaticCushiticOromo Ethiopia, Kenya 35–45 million[29]

IslamSunni Islam, ChristianityCoptic Orthodox and Protestant

Ossetians Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianEast IranianOssetian South Ossetia, Georgia; North Ossetia-Alania, Russia 0.8 million Iron, Digor ChristianityEastern Orthodox, Assianism
Ovambo Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuOshiwambo Namibia, Angola 1.6 million ChristianityLutheranism
Ovimbundu Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuUmbundu Angola 6 million Christianity
Pamiris Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianPamir Tajikistan, Afghanistan, China, Pakistan (see also; Pamir Mountains) ca. 0.3 million IslamShia IslamIsma'ilism
Pashtuns Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianPashto Pashtunistan (Afghanistan, Pakistan) 40–60 million[30] Pashtun Americans IslamSunni Islam
Persians Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianPersian Iran 49 million IslamShia Islam
Poles Indo-EuropeanSlavicWest SlavicPolish Poland 58–60 million[31][32][33][34][35] Kashubians, Silesians, along with significant populations in the United States, Brazil, Germany, Canada, France, the United Kingdom, Argentina, Belarus, Russia, Australia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Ireland, and Norway ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Portuguese Indo-EuropeanRomancePortuguese Portugal 42-125 million[36] Brazilians, Cape Verdeans, São Tomenses, Luso-Indians, Macanese, Galicians. There are also significant populations in the United States, Venezuela, France, Canada, South Africa, Angola, the United Kingdom, and Portuguese Luxembourger. ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Punjabis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanPunjabi East and West Punjab (Pakistan, India) 121 million[37] Punjabi Muslims, Sikhs, Punjabi Hindus, Punjabi Christians, Punjabi Jains, Punjabi Buddhists and significant populations in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. Islam, Sikhism, Hinduism, Christianity, Jainism, Buddhism
Quechua people Quechua languages Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador 10 million Roman Catholicism, traditional Andean religions, Protestant, Judaism
Rohingyas Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanRohingya Rakhine State, Myanmar. 2.4 million +[38] Islam, Hinduism
Romanians Indo-EuropeanRomanceRomanian Romania, Moldova 24 million[39] Moldovans and significant populations in Italy, Germany, Spain, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and France. ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Roma Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanRomani Europe, North India (Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan), The Middle East 12 million Sinti, Iberian Kale, Welsh Kale, Finnish Kale, Romanichal, significant populations in Turkey, the United States, Brazil, Spain, Romania, France, Bulgaria, Hungary, Greece, Italy, Serbia, and Slovakia. Christianity, Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, Islam[40]
Russians Indo-EuropeanSlavicEast SlavicRussian Russia 130–150 million[41] significant populations in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Germany, the United States, Uzbekistan, Israel, Brazil, Belarus, Canada, Latvia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Estonia, Turkmenistan, France, Lithuania and Azerbaijan. ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Samoans AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianOceanicPolynesianSamoan Samoan Islands (Samoa, American Samoa 0.5 million ChristianityProtestantism
Sara Nilo-SaharanCentral SudanicSara Chad, Central African Republic 3–4 million Traditional African religions
Sardinians Indo-EuropeanRomanceSardinian Sardinia (Italy) 1.7 million[42] ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Scottish Indo-EuropeanCelticGoidelicScottish Gaelic

Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicAnglicEnglish (Scottish English) and Scots

Scotland 28–40 million[18] Ulster Scots, Belizean Creoles, significant populations in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Argentina ChristianityChurch of Scotland
Senufo Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoSenufo Mali, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso 3 million Nafana Traditional African religions
Serbs Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicSerbo-CroatianSerbian Serbia, Republika Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Montenegro 9.6–12.5 million significant populations in Kosovo, Croatia, Germany, Austria, France, and Sweden ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Shan Tai-KadaiTaiSouthwestern TaiShan Shan State (Myanmar) 4—6 million BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Shona Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuShona Zimbabwe, Mozambique 10.7–11.7 million Manyika, Ndau, Kalanga Christianity, Traditional African religions
Sindhis Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanSindhi Pakistan (Sindh), India 40 million[citation needed] Indian Sindhis, Sindhi Muslims, Sindhi Hindus, Sindhi Sikhs Islam (79%)
Hinduism (20%)
Others (1%)
Sinhalese Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIndo-AryanSinhalese Sri Lanka 16 million[43] British Sri Lankans BuddhismTheravada
Christianity
Slovaks Indo-EuropeanSlavicWest SlavicSlovak Slovakia 6 million ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Slovenes Indo-EuropeanSlavicSouth SlavicSlovene Slovenia 2.5 million Carinthian Slovenes ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Soga Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuNortheast BantuGreat Lakes BantuSoga Busoga (Uganda) 2.1 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Somalis AfroasiaticCushiticLowland East CushiticSomaliSomali Greater Somalia (Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya 16–20 million American Somalis, British Somalis, Swedish Somalis, Canadian Somalis, Somali diaspora, Hawiye, Darod, Isaaq, Dir, Rahanweyn, Madhiban, Yibir Islam
Songhai Nilo-SaharanSonghai Mali, Niger 4.5 million Zarma Islam
Soninke Niger-CongoMandeSoninke Mali 1 million Haratin Islam
Sotho Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuSouthern BantuSotho-TswanaSotho South Africa, Lesotho 5.3–6.4 million Pedi Christianity, Traditional African religions
Spaniards Indo-EuropeanRomanceSpanish Spain 47[44]–500 million Castilians, Asturians, Leonese, Aragonese, Extremadurans, Fala, Mexicans, Colombians, Argentinians, Peruvians, Venezuelans, Chileans, Ecuadorians, Guatemalans, Cubans, Bolivians, Dominicans, Hondurans, Paraguayans, Salvadorians, Nicaraguans, Costa Ricans, Puerto Ricans, Panamanians, Uruguayans, Hispanic-Americans, Hispanic-Californians, Hispanic-New Mexicans, Hispanic Belizeans along with significant populations in France, Brazil, and the rest of the United States ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Sundanese AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianSundanese Java 40 million Bantenese, Baduy, Cirebonese IslamSunni Islam
Sukuma Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuNortheast BantuSukuma Tanzania 5.5 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Swazi Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuSouthern BantuNguniSwazi South Africa, Swaziland 2.4 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Swedes Indo-EuropeanGermanicNorth GermanicSwedish Sweden 14.2 Million Åland Swedes and significant populations in mainland Finland, the United States, Canada, Argentina and the United Kingdom ChristianityLutheranism
Tagalogs AustronesianMalayo-PolynesianPhilippineTagalog Philippines 30 million Filipino Americans ChristianityRoman Catholicism
Tajiks Indo-EuropeanIndo-IranianIranianPersianDari / Tajik Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan 18–27 million IslamSunni Islam
Tamils DravidianTamil India (Tamil Nadu), Sri Lanka 78 million[45] Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka, Sri Lankan Tamils, Tamil Muslims, along with significant populations in Malaysia, South Africa, the United States, Singapore, Canada, the United Kingdom, and France. Hinduism, Islam, Christianity
Thais Tai-KadaiThai Thailand 59 million Southern, Khorat, Lanna, Isans, Tai Lü, Thai Americans Buddhism, Hinduism
Tatars TurkicKipchakTatar Tatarstan (Russia) 6.8 million Volga Tatars, Crimean Tatars, Lipka Tatars, Siberian Tatars, Mishar Tatars, Finnish Tatars, Chinese Tatars IslamSunni Islam
Telugu DravidianTelugu India (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana) 90 million[46] Hinduism
Temne Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoMelTemne Sierra Leone 2.2 million Islam, Poro, Sande, Christianity
Tibetans Sino-TibetanTibeto-KanauriBodishTibetan Tibet (China) 6.2 million BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Tigrayans AfroasiaticSemiticTigrinya Eritrea, Ethiopia 9 Million ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Tswana Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuSouthern BantuSotho-TswanaTswana South Africa, Botswana 6 million Koene, Balete, Mangwato, Bangwaketse, Rolong Christianity
Turks TurkicOghuzTurkish Turkey 63–72 million Turkish Cypriots, Yörüks and significant populations in Germany, France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, the United States, and Sweden IslamSunni Islam, IslamAlevism
Turkmens TurkicOghuzTurkmen Turkmenistan 6 million IslamSunni Islam
Tutsi Niger–CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuRwanda-Rundi Rwanda, Burundi, Kivu (Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo) 3 million Banyamulenge Christianity, Islam
Udmurts UralicPermicUdmurt language Russia (Udmurtia) 0.6 million ChristianityEastern Orthodox Christianity
Ukrainians Indo-EuropeanSlavicEast SlavicUkrainian Ukraine; Kuban, Belgorod, Kursk, Voronezh, Rostov, (Russia); Prešov (Slovakia); Zakerzonia (Poland); Brest (Belarus) 38–59 million[47] Boyko, Hutsul, Kozak, Lemko, Pannonian Rusyn, Poleshuks, Rusyn along with significant populations in the United States, Brazil, Kazakhstan, Argentina, Germany, Italy, the Czech Republic, and Romania ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy, Ukrainian Catholic
Uyghur TurkicKarlukUyghur Xinjiang (China) 10 million Uyghurs in Kazakhstan IslamSunni Islam
Uzbeks TurkicKarlukUzbek Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan 25 million Uzbeks in Russia IslamSunni Islam
Vietnamese AustroasiaticVieticVietnamese Vietnam 84 million[48] significant populations in the United States, Cambodia, France, Australia, Canada, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Germany and Laos BuddhismMahayana
Vietnamese folk religion
Welsh Indo-EuropeanCelticBrittonicWelsh

Indo-EuropeanGermanicWest GermanicAnglicEnglish (Welsh English)

Wales 6–16.3 million Welsh Argentine and significant populations in the United States, Canada, and Australia. ChristianityChurch in Wales, Presbyterian Church of Wales
Wolof Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoSenegambianWolof Senegambia (Senegal, The Gambia) 6.2 million numerous slave descents (particularly Afro-Kittians, Afro-Nevisians, Afro-Saint Lucians, and Afro-Costa Ricans) IslamSufismMouride, Tijaniyyah
Xhosa Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuSouthern BantuNguniXhosa South Africa 8 million Christianity, Traditional African religions
Yakuts TurkicSiberian TurkicYakut Yakutia (Russia) 0.5 million ChristianityRussian Orthodox Christianity
Yoruba Niger-CongoAtlantic-CongoVolta-NigerEdekiriYoruba Yorubaland (Nigeria, Benin, Togo) 43 million Egun, Ijesha, Egba, Yewa, Igbomina, Awori, Akoko, Okun, Ana, Ekiti, Ilaje, numerous slave descents (particularly Afro-Antiguans, Afro-Barbudans, Afro-Grenadians, Afro-Guyanese, Afro-Jamaicans, Afro-Saint Lucians, Afro-Trinbagonians, African Americans (including Americo-Liberians), Afro-Haitians, Afro-Colombians, Afro-Costa Ricans, Afro-Cubans, Afro-Dominicans of the Dominican Republic, Afro-Nicaraguans, Afro-Puerto Ricans, and Afro-Brazilians (including Pardo Brazilians)) Christianity, Islam
Zande Niger-CongoZande Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, South Sudan 1.1 million Christianity
Zhuang Tai KadaiTaiZhuang Guangxi (China) 16.9 million Moism
Zulu Niger-CongoAtlantic–CongoBantuSouthern BantuNguniZulu KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) 10–11 million Northern Ndebele Christianity, Traditional African religions

Lists of ethnic groups[edit]

by status
regional lists

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Arab League Celebrates Its 68th Anniversary". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs: 70. May 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2018. 
  2. ^ a b Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
  3. ^ "Bemba facts, information, pictures – Encyclopedia.com articles about Bemba". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 22 October 2017. 
  4. ^ roughly 170 million in Bangladesh and 130 million in the Republic of India (CIA Factbook 2014 estimates, numbers subject to rapid population growth); about 10 million Bangladeshis in the Middle East, 1 million Bengalis in Pakistan, 5 million British Bangladeshi.
  5. ^ "North Africa's Berbers get boost from Arab Spring". Fox News. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  6. ^ Tej K. Bhatia, William C. Ritchie (2006). The Handbook of Bilingualism. John Wiley & Sons. p. 860. ISBN 0631227350. Retrieved 19 July 2016. 
  7. ^ "Berber people". Retrieved 2016-08-17. 
  8. ^ Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia, Ed. Steven, L. Danver, M.E. Sharpe/Mesa Verde Publishing, 2013, p.23
  9. ^ Temehu.com. "Berbers (Imazighen) of North Africa: Libya, Algeria & Morocco". www.temehu.com. Retrieved 22 October 2017. 
  10. ^ "Brahui". ethnologue.com. Retrieved 22 October 2017. 
  11. ^ Including all population with Catalan heritage, language, culture
  12. ^ Estimates range from anywhere between 66 and 106 million. The French language has an estimated 75 million native speakers. The CIA Factbook does not report any French ethnicity (considering it a nationality), giving the ethnic composition of France as "Celtic and Latin with Teutonic". [1]
  13. ^ "Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia" by Jeffrey Cole (2011), p. 171; "Estimates of the total number of Germans in the world range from 100 million to 150 million, depending on how German is defined, ..."
  14. ^ CIA Factbook (2014) estimates 55 million in India. SIL Ethnologue cites 46 million native speakers of Gujarati. About 1 million in Pakistan and 1 million in the USA.
  15. ^ 1.24 billion (92% of total population) in the PRC (CIA Factbook 2014 est.), about 22 million in Taiwan, and an estimated 50 million Overseas Chinese
  16. ^ The Irish were predominantly Gaelic-speaking until the 17th century, but significantly anglicized during the early modern period. Since the mid-19th century, the large majority of Irish have been native speakers of English.
  17. ^ a b ceu@scotland.gsi.gov.uk, Scottish Government, St. Andrew's House, Regent Road, Edinburgh EH1 3DG Tel:0131 556 8400 (29 May 2009). "The Scottish Diaspora and Diaspora Strategy: Insights and Lessons from Ireland". www.scotland.gov.uk. Retrieved 22 October 2017. 
  18. ^ Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country, James D. Fearon. Department of Political Science, Stanford University
  19. ^ Figures cited range anywhere between some 60 and 140 million, the latter figure including citizens of Brazil and the United States who identify as of partial Italian ancestry. The Italian language has some 60 million native speakers.[2]
  20. ^ 127 million in Japan, about 2.5 million abroad.
  21. ^ 102 million in Indonesia (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate); small numbers in Malaysia, Suriname and elsewhere.
  22. ^ ORGI. "Census of India: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues −2001". www.censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2017-04-30. 
  23. ^ Shakil, Mohsin. "Languages of Erstwhile State of Jammu Kashmir (A Preliminary Study)". 
  24. ^ 50 million in South Korea, 25 million in North Korea, roughly 7 million in diaspora.
  25. ^ 0.5 million in India, 0.1 million in Myanmar, 0.1 million in Bangladesh roughly 20 thousand in diaspora.
  26. ^ 87 million in the Republic of India (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate), subject to rapid population growth.
  27. ^ "Odia". ethnologue.com. Retrieved 22 October 2017. 
  28. ^ About 38 million in Ethiopia, ~2 million in Kenya, roughly half a million in diaspora. Afan Oromo language has an estimated 45 million native speakers.
  29. ^ About 30 million in Pakistan and 12 million in Afghanistan; Penzl and Sloan, Pashto Grammar (2009) estimated a total number of Pashto speakers between 40 and 60 million. SIL Ethnologue in 2011 estimated an ethnic population of 49 million.
  30. ^ 37.5–38 million in Poland and 21–22 million ethnic Poles or people of ethnic Polish extraction elsewhere. "Polmap. Rozmieszczenie ludności pochodzenia polskiego (w mln)"
  31. ^ Główny Urząd Statystyczny (January 2013). Ludność. Stan i struktura demograficzno-społeczna [Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011] (pdf) (in Polish). Główny Urząd Statystyczny. pp. 89–101. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  32. ^ Struktura narodowo-etniczna, językowa i wyznaniowa ludności Polski [Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011] (PDF) (in Polish). Warsaw: Główny Urząd Statystyczny. November 2015. pp. 129–136. ISBN 978-83-7027-597-6. 
  33. ^ Gudaszewski, Grzegorz (November 2015). Struktura narodowo-etniczna, językowa i wyznaniowa ludności Polski. Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011 (PDF). Warsaw: Główny Urząd Statystyczny. pp. 132–136. ISBN 978-83-7027-597-6. 
  34. ^ Central Statistical Office (January 2013). "The national-ethnic affiliation in the population – The results of the census of population and housing in 2011" (PDF) (in Polish). p. 1. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  35. ^ Portuguese ethnicity is more clear-cut than Spanish ethnicity, but here also, the case is complicated by the Portuguese ancestry of populations in the former colonial empire. Portugal has 11 million nationals. The 42 million figure is due to a study estimating a total of an additional 31 million descendants from Portuguese grandparents; these people would be eligible for Portuguese citizenship under Portuguese nationality law (which grants citizenship to grandchildren of Portuguese nationals). Emigração: A diáspora dos portugueses Archived 28 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. (2009)
  36. ^ Lahnda/Western Punjabi 90,512,900 Pakistan and other countries (2014). Eastern: 28,200,000 India (2001), other countries: 1,314,770. Ethnologue 19.
  37. ^ David Mathieson (2009). Perilous Plight: Burma's Rohingya Take to the Seas. Human Rights Watch. p. 3. ISBN 9781564324856. 
  38. ^ "Romanian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 13 November 2014. 
  39. ^ Gall, Timothy L, ed. (1998), Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life, 4. Europe, Cleveland, OH: Eastword, pp. 316, 318, ‘Religion: An underlay of Hinduism with an overlay of either Christianity or Islam (host country religion)’; Roma religious beliefs are rooted in Hinduism. Roma believe in a universal balance, called kuntari... Despite a 1,000-year separation from India, Roma still practice 'shaktism', the worship of a god through his female consort... 
  40. ^ Estimates range between 130 and 150 million. 111 million in the Russian Federation (2010 census), about 16 million ethnic Russians in post-Soviet states (8 M in Ukraine, 4.5 M in Kazakhstan, 1 M in Belarus, 0.6 M Latvia, 0.6 M in Uzbekistan, 0.6 M in Kyrgyzstan. Up to 10 million Russian diaspora elsewhere (mostly Americas and Western Europe).
  41. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". www.demo.istat.it. Retrieved 22 October 2017. 
  42. ^ "Sinhala". ethnologue.com. Retrieved 22 October 2017. 
  43. ^ There is no clear definition of Spanish ethnicity. In Spain, ethnic identity is divided into regional groups, and internationally, Spanish ethnicity is not clearly delineated from "Spanish ancestry" in the territories of the former colonial empire. There are 41 million Spanish nationals in Spain, and some 2 million living abroad. The total worldwide rounds to more than 47 million.
  44. ^ 73 million in the Republic of India (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate, subject to rapid population growth), 2 million in Sri Lanka (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate), roughly 3 million in diaspora.
  45. ^ 89 million in the Republic of India (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate), subject to rapid population growth.
  46. ^ Project, Joshua. "Ukrainian – Joshua Project". www.joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 22 October 2017. 
  47. ^ 80 million in Vietnam (CIA Factbook 2014 estimate), roughly 4 million in diaspora.
  • Levinson, David (1998). Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-57356-019-1.