List of convicts on the First Fleet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The First Fleet convicts are named on stone tablets in the Memorial Garden, Wallabadah, New South Wales.

The First Fleet is the name given to the first group of eleven ships that carried convicts from England to Australia in 1788. Beginning in 1787 the ships departed with about 759 convicts (586 men, 192 women), provisions and agricultural implements. Seventeen convicts died and two were pardoned before departure. Another nine died before reaching Santa Cruz plus another 14 who died before arrival at Port Jackson, during the eight-month trip.

In 2005, the First Fleet Garden, a memorial to the First Fleet immigrants was created on the banks of Quirindi Creek at Wallabadah, New South Wales. Stonemason, Ray Collins, researched and then carved the names of all those who came out to Australia on the eleven ships in 1788 on tablets along the garden pathways. The stories of those who arrived on the ships, their life, and first encounters with the Australian country are presented throughout the garden.[1]

No single definitive list of people who travelled on those ships exists; however, historians have pieced together as much data about these pioneers as possible. In the late 1980s, a simple software program with a database of convicts became available for Australian school students, both as a history and an information technology learning guide. An on-line version is now hosted by the University of Wollongong.[2]

The six ships that transported the First Fleet convicts were:

The convict manifest[edit]

The following is a list of partial details of all convicts who arrived at Port Jackson in January 1788.

Note that the "from" refers to where they were tried.

A[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Date of
conviction
Sentence Other information Transport ship Age as of
May 1787
ABEL Mary Worcester,

Worcestershire

5 Mar 1785 7 Mary was convicted at Worcester for stealing 3 Ells of hempen cloth, tablecloths, clothing & other items, value 31s, on 5 March 1785.[4] Mary was from Hanbury, Worcestershire, and was listed as a servant by occupation.[5] On 25 November 1786, Mary was transferred from Worcester gaol to Southwark gaol in London. Mary was pregnant when embarked on the Lady Penrhyn and gave birth to a child, William on 13 April 1787. Mary married Thomas TILLEY on 4 May 1787 at Sydney Cove. Mary's son William died on 19 May 1788. Shortly afterwards, on 21 July 1788, Mary also died at Sydney Cove, NSW. Lady Penrhyn c30
ABEL/ABLE Robert London 15 Sep 1784 Death commuted to 7 Robert was convicted with another man at the Old Bailey for assault and highway robbery with a pistol on 4 July 1784, value 5s, on 15 September 1784.[6][7][8] Robert received the King's Pardon upon the condition of being transported for seven years.[9][10] Robert was about 12 or 13 at the time of his conviction and about 15 when transported. On 5 April 1785, Robert was sent to the 'Ceres' prison hulk and later transferred to the 'Censor' prison hulk. In February 1788 Robert had 15 half pounds of flour stolen from the hut which he shared with Michael DENNISON and William WATERHOUSE. On 12 June 1790, Robert received 200 lashes for stealing sugar from the transport ship Lady Juliana. In 20 February 1794, Robert received a 30 acre land grant at Bullanmming, which he later sold to Thomas Moore. Robert left the Colony in 1795 on the Endeavour bound for India. The ship sank off New Zealand, and Robert was among the rescued who were taken to Norfolk Island in January 1796. Robert did not remain on the island and there are no further records of him from that date. Alexander c15
ABRAHAMS Esther London 30 Aug 1786 7 alias JULIAN, JULIANO. Convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing twenty-four yards of black silk lace, value 50s.[11] Listed as a Milliner by trade.[12] Defended by William Garrow.
Travelled with her baby daughter Rosanna (1787-1837)
Became wife of Lt.Col. George Johnson.
Lady Penrhyn[13]
or
Prince of Wales
c20
ABRAMS Henry Chelmsford, Essex 9 Mar 1785 7 aka ABRAHAMS. Convicted of Highway Robbery value 46s. Original sentence death commuted to seven years transportation. Listed as a labourer and waterman by occupation.[14][15] Scarborough c28
ACRES Thomas Exeter, Devon 14 Mar 1785 7 aka AKERS. Tried at Exeter Castle in Devon England on Monday 14/3/1785 for highway robbery against one John Squance for 10 Shillings, and convicted and sentenced to be hanged. This sentence was later changed to 7 years transportation. He was a Catholic and his occupation was a Shoemaker. In 1792 he was emancipated.[16][17] Charlotte c29
ADAMS John London 26 May 1784 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey (with John AYNERS) for stealing 214lbs of lead, value 30s.[18] Scarborough c47
ADAMS Mary London 13 Dec 1786 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing two cotton gowns, value 24s, one green sluff petticoat, value 3s, one white callico petticoat, value 12 pence, two shirts, value 5s, one shift, value 1s, one hat, value 2s, one ostrich feather, value 6s, one silver thimble, value 12 pence.[19] Lady Penrhyn c29
ALLEN Charles London 7 Jul 1784 7 About 17 yrs old when convicted. Convicted at the Old Bailey (with Peter SAMPSON) of burglarious breaking and entering a dwelling and stealing one linen sheet, value 10s, eight damask table cloths, value 40s, one sheet, value 10s, eight shirts, value 3s and 1 penny and one counterpane, value 10s.[20] Scarborough c20
ALLEN John Hertford, Hertfordshire 3 Mar 1786 7 Alexander c45
ALLEN Mary London 25 Oct 1786 7 Convicted of stealing by highway robbery a watch with a tortoise-shell case, value 30s, a chain, value 2s, four gold seals, value 40s, a base metal watch key, value 2 pence.[21] Lady Penrhyn c22
ALLEN Mary London 10 Jan 1787 7 alias CONNER. Convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing one man's hat, value 12s.[22] Lady Penrhyn c28
ALLEN Susannah London 18 Apr 1787 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing one dimity gown, value 15s, a cotton petticoat, value 6s, a silk cloak, value 5s, a muslin apron, value 7s, a pair of linen pockets, value 12s, a silk handkerchief, value 3s, a pair of base metal shoe-buckles, value 2s, a muslin handkerchief, value 2s, and a pair of thread stockings, value 6 pence.[23] Prince of Wales unknown
ALLEN Tamasin London 25 Oct 1786 7 aka Jamasin, alias BODDINGTON. Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing one leather pocket-book, value 1 s, ten grains of rose diamonds, value £8, seven grains weight of other diamonds, value £6, two brilliant diamonds, value 50s, a pearl, value 12s, one topaz, value 5s, a silver pencil-case, value 2s, and one promisory note called a bank note, value £10.[24] Known as a prostitute,[25] described at her trial as "a lustyish woman with black hair."[26] Lady Penrhyn c32
ALLEN William Ormskirk, Lancashire 11 Apr 1785 7 Alexander c24
ANDERSON Elizabeth London 10 Jan 1787 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey (with Elizabeth BRUCE) of stealing three linen table-cloths, value 15s and two aprons, value 5s.[27] Lady Penrhyn c32
ANDERSON Fanny Winchester, Hampshire 7 Mar 1786 7 aka Francis Charlotte c30
ANDERSON John London 20 Mar 1786 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing one silk handkerchief value 2s.[28] Charlotte c26
ANDERSON John London 26 May 1784 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing three linen table cloths, value 20s and three linen aprons, value 6s.[29] Scarborough c24
ARCHER John London 26 May 1784 7 alias FORRESTER. Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing two large coach glasses, value 40s.[30] Scarborough c31
ARSCOTT John Bodmin, Cornwall 18 Aug 1783 7 About 16 yrs old when convicted. Scarborough c20
ATKINSON George London 21 Apr 1784 7 aka ATKINS Scarborough c22
AULT Sarah London 21 Feb 1787 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey (with Elizabeth SCOTT) for stealing four bridles, value 11s, one bradoon, value 2s, two strap irons, value 1s, and two leather straps, value 1s.[31] Prince of Wales unknown
AYNERS John London 26 May 1784 7 alias AGNEW. Convicted at the Old Bailey (with John ADAMS) for stealing 214lbs of lead, value 30s.[18] Scarborough c27

B[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Date of
conviction
Sentence Other information Transport ship Age as of
May 1787
BAILS/BALES Robert Reading, Berkshire 28 February 1785 Death commuted to 14 Robert was convicted at Reading of highway robbery, value 2s, on 28 February 1785.[32] Originally sentenced to death, Robert's sentence was commuted to 14 years transportation. A police report describes Robert as “near six feet high, wears his own lank hair, pitted with the smallpox, thick lips and stout made." Robert had been discharged from the 2nd Battalion of the 1st Regiment of Guards prior to his arrest.[33] Robert was one of 12 prisoners who escaped from Reading Gaol on 30 November 1784. A £10 reward was offered for his capture. A report from the Reading Mercury notes that Robert was found hiding with another escapee in a barn near Shinfield, Berkshire on 6 December 1784. Robert was held on the Ceres hulk until his transportation. Robert was also a native of Yorkshire. On 30 April 1788, Robert was charged with three others with the theft of meat and was required to pay the value of the stolen property, even though in his defence he insisted that he had been bringing in shingles all day. In October 1789, Robert was sentenced to 25 lashes for insolence to John Palmer, the purser of the Sirius. In 1801 Robert was listed as an emancipist settler at Port Jackson. By 1806 Robert was listed as a Schoolmaster and again noted in 1820 as a teacher with 25 pupils. Robert died in 1808 in Sydney, NSW. Alexander c21
BAKER Martha London 30 August 1786 7 Martha was convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing on 2 August 1786 by highway robbery a silver watch, value 40s, a watch key, value 1 pence, and a seal, value 2s, on 30 August 1768.[34] Martha's occupation was listed as servant.[35] Martha married Walter BATLEY on 21 February 1788 at Sydney Cove.[36] Martha has previously been married to a Thomas Baker in England prior to her transportation. In November 1789, Martha was sent to Norfolk Island on board the Supply with her husband, Walter. The relationship does not seem to have lasted. By 5 February 1790, Martha was recorded as Off Stores and sharing a sow with Samuel MOBBS, with whom she cohabited on Norfolk Island. On 7 May 1792, Martha sold two pigs to the Government for £2 16s. On 2 November 1793, Martha left Norfolk Island on the Britannia bound for India. Lady Penrhyn c25
BAKER Thomas Exeter, Devon 10 January 1786 7 Thomas was convicted at Exeter for an unrecorded crime which resulted in him receiving 7 years transportation on 10 January 1786.[37] A report from the Dunkirk Hulk described Thomas as "troublesome at times."[38] Thomas died between 1788 and September 1792. Charlotte c23
BALDING James London 12 January 1785 Death commuted to 7 aka William and BALDWIN Scarborough c32
BALDWIN Ruth London 25 October 1786 7 alias BOWYER. Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing three table spoons, value 20s and two silver dessert spoons, value 10s.[39] Prince of Wales c25
BALL John Exeter, Devon 20 March 1786 7 Charlotte c51
BANNISTER George London 21 April 1784 7 About 16 years old when convicted. Tried at the Old Bailey (With George ROBINSON and John MONROE alias NURSE) for stealing one marcella petticoat, value 8s, one child's dimity cloak, value 3s, one linen gown, value 1s 6 pence and one pair of cotton stockings, value 6 pence on 21 April 1784.[40] Alexander c19
BARBER Elizabeth Became wife of
Thomas BROWN
Charlotte
Friendship
BARFERD John London 14 December 1785 7 aka BARFORD. Convicted at the Old Bailey (With John CROPPER) of stealing one hair trunk, value 12 pence, four silk gowns, value 40s, one silk apron, value 2s, six linen ruffled shirts, value 30s, one plain linen ditto, value 3s, six stocks, value 6s, a silk cloak trimmed with fur, value 5s, two linen gowns, value 20s, one petticoat, value 4s, six children's night-gowns, value 5s, a yard of printed cotton, value 12 pence two linen table-cloths, value 10s, one child's linen clout, value 12 pence one silk petticoat, value 5s, a counterpane, value 10s, six pillow-cases, value 12 pence a pair of stays, value 4s, one box iron, value 12 pence a pair of steel snuffers, value 12 pence a snuffer-stand, value 6 pence a blanket, value 6 pence six yards of silk ribbon, value 12 pence one gauze cap, value 1 penny.[41] Alexander c20
BARLAND George London 7 July 1784 7 About 17 yrs old when convicted. Convicted at the Old Bailey (with James BURLEIGH) for stealing one cloth great coat, value 20s.[42] Scarborough c20
BARNES Stephen York, Yorkshire 9 July 1785 7 Alexander unknown
BARNETT Henry Warwick, Warwickshire 21 March 1785 Death commuted to 7 aka BARNARD
alias BURTON
Alexander c43
BARRET Daniel Winchester, Hampshire 29 July 1783 7 aka BARRETT, BARNETT, BARNEY, Friendship c30
BARRETT Thomas London 11 September 1782 Life Thomas was convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing on 20 May 1782 one silver watch, value £3, one steel chain, value 3s, one stone seal value 6 pence one metal watch key, value 1 penny one hook, value 1 penny two shirts, value 8s, one shift, value 1s, on 11 September 1782.[43] Originally sentenced to death, Thomas' sentence was commuted to transportation to America for life on 10 September 1783.[44] On the 26 March 1784, Thomas was sent aboard the Mercury from a transport hulk on the Thames. The Mercury was bound for Nova Scotia. Thomas was a ringleader in the Mercury Mutiny. The ship set sail on 2 April 1784, by 8 April 1784, just beyond the Isles of Scilly, the convicts rose against the crew, but were forced to turn back because of bad weather, landing in Torbay. Thomas was recaptured and tried for returning from transportation. Thomas was sentenced him to death once again, however, since he had intervened to save the steward’s life and prevented the Captain’s ear from being cut off he was reprieved of the death sentence and given transportation for life once again.[45] A report from Dunkirk hulk described Thomas as “in general tolerably well behaved but troublesome at times."[46] On the voyage to New South Wales Thomas was involved in passing some counterfeit coin, quarter dollars, ingeniously made from some pewter spoons and old buttons and buckles belonging to marines. at Rio de Janeiro.[47] The Surgeon-General of the fleet, John White, who was on the Charlotte, considered that Barrett had masterminded the scheme after he asked Thomas to make a memento of the trip, and Thomas fashioned a medal out of a silver kidney dish. That medal still exists and was sold at auction to the Australian National Maritime Museum in Sydney in 2008, for a million dollars. It is known as the Charlotte Medal and is said to be the first work of Australian Colonial art. On 27 February 1788, Thomas was executed by hanging in the evening at Port Jackson for stealing some beef and peas from the stores. His associates LAVELL, HALL and RYAN were all reprieved of the charge. Thomas was the first man executed by hanging in New South Wales. Charlotte c29
BARRY John Bristol, Gloucestershire 23 November 1785 7 About 17-18 yrs old when convicted. Friendship c19
BARSBY George Winchester, Hampshire 1 March 1785 Death commuted to life Scarborough unknown
BARSBY Samuel Exeter,

Devon

20 March 1786 Death commuted to 7 Charlotte c23
BARTLETT James Winchester, Hampshire 1 March 1785 7 Pardoned & released before 1st fleet departed
BASELY John Charlotte
BASON Elizabeth Salisbury, Wiltshire 24 July 1784 Death commuted to 7 Became wife of James HEATHERLY, crew of Sirius Charlotte c30
BATLEY Oten Exeter, Devon 7 Charlotte
BATLEY Walter London 29 October 1783 7 aka Walton
alias John ROUS,
ROUSE, ROWSE
Became husband of Martha BAKER
Lady Penrhyn
Friendship c27
BAYLEY James New Sarum 7 Charlotte
BAZLEY John Exeter 7
BEARDSLEY Ann Derby 5 Friensdhip
then from Rio
Charlotte
BECKFORD Elizabeth London 7 Lady Penrhyn
BELL William London 7 Scarborough
BELLAMY Sarah Worcester 9 July 1785 7 married James Bloodsworth Lady Penrhyn
BELLET Jacob London 7 Scarborough
BENEAR Samuel London 7
BEST John London 7 Friendship
BINGHAM Elizabeth London alias MOORING
BIRD Elizabeth Maidstone 7 alias WINIFRED
BIRD James Croydon 7
BIRD Samuel Croydon 7
BISHOP Joseph London 10 December 1783 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing five silk handkerchiefs, value 12s, a cotton handkerchief, value 2s, one linen handkerchief, value 12 pence.[48] Friendship
BAUGHAN John Oxford 7 aka BAUGHN, BINGHAM, BOUGHAN, BUNHAM
alias BAFFEN, BOFFIN, BUFFIN
Friendship
BLACKHALL William Abingdon 7
BLAKE Francis London 26 May 1784 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing nine linen shirts, value 18s, two pair of silk stockings, value 4s, four handkerchiefs, value 2s, two pair of ruffles, value 12 pence, eight oz. weight of chocolate, value 2 pence and six muslin neckcloths, value 20s.[49] Total value 39s. The prosecution was led by William Garrow.
BLANCHETT Susannah Kingston 7
BLATHERHORN William Exeter/London 10 September 1783 Death commuted Life aka BEANS, FISHER. Originally convicted in the Old Bailey for stealing six yards of printed cotton, value 12s, five yards of other printed cotton, value 14s, twelve cotton handkerchiefs, value 24s, he was sentenced to be transported for 7 years on 26 February 1783.[50] He was part of a group of 24 convicts lead principally by John KELLAN which overthrew their transportation vessel bound for America, the Swift and returned to Britain. He was tried at the Old Bailey for returning from transportation and sentenced to death by hanging. The King, however, thought fit to extend his mercy upon them and commute their sentences to transportation for life on 10 September 1783.[51] Charlotte
BLOODSWORTH James Kingstone 7 aka BLOEDWORTH, BLOODWORTH Charlotte
BLUNT William London 10 December 1783 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey alongside a man named John Berryman for breaking and entering a dwelling house with intent to burglariously steal goods, chattels and monies.[52] During the trial William mentions that he is a Coachman by trade and his father, also named William, is among those giving him a reference to good character. Originally both were sentenced to death. However, this was later overturned to seven years transportation for both those convicted.[53]
BOGGIS William Kingston upon Thames 7 Scarborough
BOLTON Mary Shrewsbury 7
BONNER Jane London 18 April 1787 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing one black silk cloak, value 21s.[54]
BOND Peter London 15 September 1784 7 Although a transcript of Peter's trial does not exist, the Old Bailey Punishment Summaries note that he was tried there on 15 September 1784 and sentenced to seven years transportation.[55]
BOND William Exeter 7 Charlotte
BOULTON Rebecca Lincoln 7 aka BOLTON
Had been in prison for 4 years before the Fleet sailed. Considered both mentally ill and in poor physical condition.[56]
Prince of Wales
BOYLE John London 21 April 1784 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of fraud. Boyle, a seaman of the Royal Navy adopted the name of his former fellow seaman John Frazier upon returning home in order to obtain his wages. Upon the Navy Clerk stating that Frazier was listed as dead in the Americas, Boyle persisted to adopt several other identities in order to obtain wages that were not his. His story was disproved by three of his former shipmates present at the trial. Boyle had served with Frazier on board H.M.S. Marlborough and finally on board H.M.S. L'Hector, a captured French vessel.[57] Originally sentenced to death, this sentence was commuted to seven years transportation on 23 February 1785.[58]
BRADBURY William London 10 September 1783 7 Originally sentenced to 7 years transportation to America at the Old Bailey for stealing a Bank post-bill, for £20 a bank-note for £10 another note for £5 5s the said notes being the property of John Baring and Company on 3 July 1782.[59] He was part of a group of 24 convicts lead principally by John KELLAN which overthrew their transportation vessel bound for America, the Swift and returned to Britain. He was tried at the Old Bailey for returning from transportation and sentenced to death by hanging. The King, however, thought fit to extend his mercy upon them and commute their sentences to transportation for life on 10 September 1783.[60]
BRADFORD John Exeter 7 Charlotte
BRADLEY James London 7
BRAND Curtis Maidstone 7 alias BRYN Friendship
BRAND Lucy London 19 July 1786 7 alias WOOD. Previously convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing by pickpocketing one piece of silver coin, called half a crown, and five shillings and sixpence on 11 May 1785 for which she was sentenced to privately whipped and imprisoned for one year.[61] She was convicted and sentenced to seven years transportation at the Old Bailey approximately fourteen months later for stealing one gold ring, value 5s, three guineas, value £3 and 3s and two pieces of base metal, value 2 pence.[62]
BRANHAM Mary London 23 February 1785 7 Although a transcription of Mary's trial at the Old Bailey is not listed, her sentence is listed in the Old Bailey Punishment Summaries for the 23 February 1785.[63]
BRANNEGAN James Exeter 7 aka BRANAGAN Charlotte
BREWER William Exeter 7 Charlotte
BRICE William Bristol 7
BRINDLEY John Warwick 7
BROAD Mary Exeter, Devon 7 aka BRAUND or BRAND
Pregnant when boarded ship.
Daughter born on voyage
Charlotte Spence, 8 Sep 1787.
aka Mary BRYANT
Became wife of William BRYANT
Charlotte
Charlotte
BROUGH William Stafford 7
BROWN James Hertford 7
BROWN Richard Reading 7
BROWN Thomas London 30 April 1783 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey (with Joseph Dunnage) for stealing one chariot glass door, value 22s.[64]
BROWN Thomas Exeter 29 Oct 1783 7 Became husband of Elizabeth BARBER
Friendship
Charlotte c25
BROWN William Southwark 7
BROWN William Exeter 7 died at sea, 19 September 1787 Charlotte
BRUCE Elizabeth London 10 January 1787 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey (with Elizabeth ANDERSON) of stealing three linen table-cloths, value 15s and two aprons, value 5s.[65]
BRUCE Robert Exeter 7 Charlotte
BRYANT John Exeter 7 Charlotte
BRYANT Michael London 10 December 1783 14 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing one black cloth coat, value 5s, one striped silk waistcoat, value 2s and 6 pence, one velvet waistcoat, value 2s and 6 pence, one pair of cloth breeches, value 2s and 6 pence, one pair of fustain breeches, value 2s and 6 pence, one hat, value 1s, one handkerchief, value 9 pence and three pair of stockings, value 1s and 6 pence.[66] Friendship
BRYANT Thomas Maidstone 7
BRYANT William Launceston 7 Charlotte
BUCKLEY Joseph Dorchester 16 March 1786 7 Convicted at Dorchester of stealing a purse containing 43s on 16 March 1786. He was described by the wardens on the Dunkirk prison hulk as "tolerably decent and orderly."[67] Joseph left the colony in 1793 on the Kitty as a servant to the surgeons Dennis Considen and Mr Cranston (HMS DiscoveryHMS Discovery (1789)) Charlotte c39
BUFLEY John
BUNN Margaret London 26 April 1786 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing one linen handkerchief, value 6 pence, one cotton handkerchief, value 2s, and twelve halfpence, value 6 pence and one shilling in money.[68] Her occupation was listed as servant. She married Thomas M'LEAN on 18 March 1788. He left her upon the completion of his sentence in 1791. Margaret died in 1825.[69] Lady Penrhyn c25
BURDO Sarah London 25 October 1786. 7 aka BURDOE/BORDEAUX. Convicted at the Old Bailey (with Rebecca DAVIDSON) of stealing three guineas, value £3 and 3s and one half guinea, value 10s and 6 pence. Burdo was alluded to being a prostitute during the trial.[70] Her occupation was listed as dressmaker.[71] She died in 1834 in Sydney, NSW. Lady Penrhyn c23
BURKITT Mary London 30 August 1786 7 alias Martha VALENTINE, aka Martha/Patience/Pacence BURKITT. Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing one handkerchief, value 1s, one rule, value 6 pence and six shillings in money.[72] Her occupation was listed as Servant. She married James DAVIS on 13 February 1788 and both were sent to Norfolk Island on 2 October 1788.[73][74] Lady Penrhyn c30
BURLEIGH James London 7 July 1784 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey (with George Barland) for stealing one cloth great coat, value 20s.[75]
BURN Patrick
BURN Peter London 10 September 1783 7 No mention of Peter BURN, but a Peter BOURNE was tried at the Old Bailey for stealing one large wooden cask bound with iron hoops, value 10s, and thirty-six gallons of porter, value 30s.[76]
BURN Simon
BURNE James London 21 April 1784 Death commuted to 7 Originally sentenced to death at the Old Bailey for assault and stealing by highway robbery one black silk bonnet, value 4s, and one silver hat pin, value 4 pence on 25 February 1784.[77] His sentence was commuted to 7 years transportation on 21 April 1784.[78]
BURRIDGE Samuel Dorchester 7 Charlotte
BUTLER William London 7 July 1784 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey (with Andrew GOODWIN) of stealing 200lbs of lead, value 20s.[79]

C[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Date of
conviction
Sentence Other information Transport ship Age as of
May 1787
CAESAR John Maidstone 7 Alexander
CAMPBELL James London 7 alias George Campbell. Convicted of highway robbery in 1784. Death sentence commuted to transportation for 7 years.[80] Scarborough
CAMPBELL James Guildford 7
CAREY Ann Taunton 7 Charlotte
CARROLL Mary London 25 Oct 1786 7 Mrs James CARROLL.

Married John NICHOLLS
Scarborough
in Sydney Mar 1788.
Lived with William THOMPSON
Scarborough
on Norfolk Island.

Lady Penrhyn c36
CARTER Richard Shrewsbury alias CARTWRIGHT
CARNEY John Exeter 7
CARTY Francis Bodmin 7
CARVER Joseph Maidstone 7
CASTLE James London 7
CHAAF William Exeter 7 Charlotte
CHADDICK Thomas London 7
CHANIN Edward Exeter 7 Died at sea

8 Jan 1788

Charlotte
CHIELDS William
CHINERY Samuel Exeter 7 Charlotte
CHURCH William Dorchester 7 Charlotte
CLARK Elizabeth
CLARK John London 7 alias HOSIER

Died at sea
6 Jun 1787

Charlotte
CLARK William London 7
CLARKE John Exeter 7
CLEAR George
CLEAVER Mary Bristol 7 Son born

on voyage
James
1787.

Charlotte
CLEMENTS Thomas London 7
CLOUGH Richard Durham 7
COFFIN John Exeter 7 Charlotte
COLE Elizabeth Exeter,

Devon

7
COLE Elizabeth London 7
COLE William London 7
COLLEY Elizabeth London 14
COLLIER Richard Kingstone 7
COLLING Joseph London 7
COLMAN Ishmael Dorchester 7 Died at sea

29 May 1787

Charlotte
COLPITTS Ann Durham 7
COOMBES Ann Taunton,

Somerset

30 Mar 1786 7 Became wife of

John BRYANT
Charlotte.
Lived with
James Bryan
CULLEN
Scarborough.

Charlotte c27
CONELLY Cornelius Exeter 7
CONNELLY William Bristol 7
CONNOLLY William Bodmin 7
COOK Charlotte London 7
COOPER Mary Worcester 7
COPP James Exeter 7 Charlotte
CORDEN James Warwick 7
CORMICK Edward Hertford,

Hertfordshire

7
COX James Charlotte
COX John Matthew London 7 July 1784 7 aka BANBURY JACK. Convicted at the Old Bailey (with John PONTIE) of stealing thirteen yards of lace, value £5.[81] He alluded to being a sailor during his trial. Originally sentenced to death, overturned to transportation for life on 23 February 1785.[82]
CRABTREE Taylor New Sarum 7
CREAMER John Exeter 7 Charlotte
CREEK Jane London 1785 7 Worked as a butcher of birds and seller of feathers.
Convicted of stealing and sentenced to seven years transportation.
Worked on Norfolk Island from 1790 to 1796.[83]
Lady Penrhyn
CROPPER John London 14 Dec 1785 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey (With John BARFERD) of stealing one hair trunk, value 12 pence, four silk gowns, value 40s, one silk apron, value 2s, six linen ruffled shirts, value 30s, one plain linen ditto, value 3s, six stocks, value 6s, a silk cloak trimmed with fur, value 5s, two linen gowns, value 20s, one petticoat, value 4s, six children's night-gowns, value 5s, a yard of printed cotton, value 12 pence two linen table-cloths, value 10s, one child's linen clout, value 12 pence one silk petticoat, value 5s, a counterpane, value 10s, six pillow-cases, value 12 pence a pair of stays, value 4s, one box iron, value 12 pence a pair of steel snuffers, value 12 pence a snuffer-stand, value 6 pence a blanket, value 6 pence six yards of silk ribbon, value 12 pence one gauze cap, value 1 penny.[41]
CROSS William Coventry 7
CROWDER Thomas Restell London 4 Dec 1782 Death commuted

to Life

aka Thomas Ristol

CROWDER
Became
husband of
Sarah DAVIES
Lady Penrhyn

Alexander c29
CUCKOW William
CUDLIP Jacob Bodmin 7 alias NORRIS
CULLEN James Bryan London 6 Apr 1785 7 Lived with

Ann COOMBES
Charlotte

Scarborough c45
CULLYHORN John Exeter 7
CUNNINGHAM Edward London 7
CUSS John New Sarum 7 alias HUNSBOY Charlotte

D[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Sentence Other information Transport ship
DAY Richard Reading 7
DAVIES Edward Stafford 7
DAY Samuel Glocester
DAVIS Samuel Glocester 7
DAVIS William
DAVIS James London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing on the 28th day of October 1784; one man's cloth great coat, value 5s, one petticoat, value 10s, one gown, value 4s, one handkerchief, value 3s, one silk handkerchief, value 2s, two other handkerchiefs, value 2s, one pair of sheets, value 7s, two shirts, value 4s, two shifts, value 4s, one apron, value 2s, two aprons, value 1s and 6 pence, two yards of white thread lace, value 4s and one yard and a half of linen cloth, value 12 pence, the property of William Farrington on 8 December 1784.[84] James married Mary BURKITT on 13 February 1788 and both were sent to Norfolk Island on 2 October 1788.[85][86] Scarborough
DANIELS Daniel London 7 aka DANIELLS/DANNIELLS/DANNIELS. Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing on the 21st May 1784, one copper pot with a copper cover, value 4s, one pewter dish, value 6 pence, one pewter porringer, value 3 pence, and one pair of shoes, value 6 pence the property of Joseph Solomons.[87] Daniel received 32 lashes for theft of flour in May 1791.[88][89]
DICK RICHARD London 7
DAVIDSON John London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of burglary of one black bombazeen gown and petticoat, value 5s, one silk cloak, value 6s, one shift body, value 3 pence, four pair of linen sleeves, value 1s, two linen aprons, value 2s, two check aprons, value 6 pence, three laced caps, value 3s, one silver tea spoon, value 1s, one muslin shawl, value 1s, one silk handkerchief, value 3s, one black silk apron, value 1s, the property of Jane Box ; one linen stock, value 6 pence, two linen table cloths, value 10s, one silver table spoon, value 4s, one cotton bed gown, value 1s, one shaul, value 1s, and one linen apron, value 1s, the property of the said James Barkley. And two linen aprons, value 6 pence the property of Eleanor Clegg, with Benjamin Barlow, a ten-year-old boy and Daniel Love (who were both acquitted). on 25 February 1784.[90][91] Originally sentenced to death, this sentence was commuted to seven years transportation on 23 February 1785.[92] He left Norfolk Island on the Kitty on 7 March 1793.[93] Scarborough
DAVIS William Brecon Life
DAVIS Richard
DALEY Ann Nether Knutsfo 7 Mrs Gore Daley
DARNELL Margaret London 7
DAVIS Ann London 7
DALTON Elizabeth London 7 lady penrhyn
DAVIDSON Rebecca London 7 Mrs Robert Davidson. Convicted at the Old Bailey (with Sarah BURDO aka BURDOE) of stealing three guineas, value £3 and 3s and one half guinea, value 10s and 6 pence.[94]
DAWSON Margaret London 7 Lady Penhryn
DAVIS Frances Chelmsford 14
DAVIES Sarah Worcester,

Worcestershire

7 aka DAVIS

Became wife of
Thomas CROWDER
Alexander

Lady Penrhyn
DAVIES Mary Shrewsbury 7
DENNISON Michael Poole 7
DENISON Barnaby Bristol 7
DELANY Patrick
DICKSON Thomas Durham 7 alias Ralph RAW
DISCALL Timothy Bodmin 7
DIXON Mary London 7
DICKENSON Mary Southwark 7 Became wife of

William EGGLETON
Alexander

Lady Penrhyn
DOUGLAS William Lincoln 7
DOWLAND Ferdinand London 7
DODDING James aka DORING
DRING William Kingston upon 7
DUNNAGE Joseph London Life Convicted at the Old Bailey (with Thomas BROWN) for stealing one chariot glass door, value 22s on 30 April 1783 to seven years transportation.[95] This sentence was later commuted to transportation for life on 21 April 1784 for reasons currently undiscovered.[96]
DUDGENS Elizabeth London 7 aka DUDGEON. Convicted at the Old Bailey (with Susannah GARTH) for stealing by pickpocketing nine guineas, value £9 9s and one half-guinea, value 10s and 6 pence in monies on 10 September 1783. Friendship

then from Cape
Charlotte

DUNDASS Jane London 7
DUTTON Ann London 7
DEYER Leonard Southwark 7
DYKES Mary London 7

E[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Sentence Other information Transport ship
EGGLETON William Kingston 7 aka EAGLETON

alias BONES

Alexander
EARLE William New Sarum 7
EARLY Rachel Reading 7
EATON Martha
EATON Mary alias SHEPHERD
ECCLES Thomas Guildford Life
EDMUNDS William Monmouth 7
EDWARDS William Westminster 7
EGGLESTON George Maidstone 7
ELAM Deborah Chester 7
ELLAM Peter Ormskirk 7
ELLIOT Joseph Croydon 7
ELLIOT William Croydon 7
ENGLISH Nicholas London 7
EVANS Elizabeth London 7
EVANS Williams Shrewsbury 7
EVERETT John Hertford 7
EVERINGHAM Matthew London 7

F[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Sentence Other information Transport ship
FARLEY William Bristol 7
FARMER Ann London
FARRELL Phillip London 7
FENTUM Benjamin London 7
FERGUSON John Exeter 7 Charlotte
FILLESEY Thomas Bristol 7
FITZGERALD Jane London 7 alias PHILLIPS Charlotte
FIELD William
FINLOW John alias HERVEY
FIELD Jane London
FITZGERALD Elizabeth London 7
FLYN Edward
FLARTY Phebe London 7 268. ANN PARSLEY and PHEBE FLARTY were indicted for feloniously stealing, on the 19th of January last, three muslin shawls, value 30 s. the property of Robert Hincksman, privily in his shop owned by Mr. Robert Hincksman, in Holborn (direct extract from recordings at the Old Bailey in London.)
FOWKES Francis London 7
FORRESTER Robert London 7[97]
FOYLE William New Sarum 7 Charlotte
FOWLES Ann London 7 Convicted on 16 April 1785 for the theft of gowns and petticoats worth £2, 16s.[98] Transported with her four-year-old daughter Mary, who was made a ward of the state and resettled on Norfolk Island.[25][99] Lady Penrhyn
FOWNES Margaret Shrewsbury 7 Lady Penrhyn
FORBES Ann Kingston 7
FREEMAN James Hertford 7
FREEMAN Robert London 7
FRANCIS William London 7
FRANCISCO George London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing three linen shirts, value 3s, one pair of stockings, value 6 pence, and four guineas, value £4 4s on 8 December 1784. Claimed to have been formerly in a French prison for three years and that he had served in some naval capacity.[100]
FRY George 7
FRYER Catherine alias PRIOR
FRASER William Manchester 7 aka FRAZER Charlotte
FRASER Ellen Manchester 7
FULLER John Manchester 7

G[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Sentence Other information Transport ship
GARDNER Francis London 7
GARTH Edward London 7
GARLAND Francis Exeter 7 Charlotte
GARTH Susannah London 7 aka GRATH. Convicted at the Old Bailey (with Elizabeth DUDGENS) for stealing by pickpocketing nine guineas, value £9 9s and one half-guinea, value 10s and 6 pence in monies on 10 September 1783. Friendship

then from Rio
Charlotte

GABEL Mary Southwark 7 Lady Penrhyn
GASCOYGNE Olive/Olivia Worcester 7 Lady Penrhyn
GEARING Thomas Oxford Life
GESS George Gloucester 7
GEORGE Anne London 7 Lady Penrhyn
GLENTON Thomas Northallerton 7
GLOSTER William London 7
GORDON Daniel Winchester 7
GOODWIN Edward London 7
GOODWIN Andrew London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey (with William BUTLER) of stealing 200lbs of lead, value 20s on 7 July 1784.[101]
GOULD John Exeter 7 Charlotte
GRAY Charles Southwark 7
GRIFFITHS Samuel Gloucester alias BRISCOW
GREENWELL Nicholas London 7
GREEN John Reading 7
GRIFFITHS Thomas London 7
GRANGER Charles Plymouth 7
GRACE James
GREEN Hannah Friendship

then from Rio
Charlotte

GROVES Mary Lincoln 7
GREEN Mary London 7
GREEN Ann London 7
GREENWOOD Mary (?) London 7
GUNTER William Bristol 7

H[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Sentence Other information Transport ship
HADON/HAYDON/HAIDON John Exeter 7 John was originally convicted with Simon BURN for highway robbery and stealing monies, value 39s, on 11 August 1783.[102] John was aged about 31 at the time of his transportation to New South Wales. John was involved in the Mercury Mutiny, in which convicts rose up against the crew in April 1784 and returned to England, landing at Torbay. See Charles PEAT for further information on the Mercury Mutiny. There is no record of John's trial following his return from transportation. However, it seems that John was given the transportation once again. The first fleet carried 67 of the Mercury convicts with them. A report from the Dunkirk hulk describes John as "troublesome at times".[103] In January 1789, John was ordered to receive 100 lashes for being absent from work for three days. Charlotte
HAGLEY/AGELY Richard Winchester Death commuted to 7 Richard was convicted at Winchester for assault and highway robbery of monies, value 2s, on 2 March 1784.[104] Originally sentenced to death, Richard's sentence was commuted to 7 years transportation. On 24 February 1787, Richard was dispatched to Portsmouth from the Censor prison hulk Richard married Ann Wicks, a Third Fleeter, on 17 March 1792 at Port Jackson. On 24 October 1795, Richard was marked as 'off Stores' and employed as a labourer in the Windsor area. By 1825, Richard is recorded as holding land at Wilberforce. In 1828 he was employed as a stock keeper by David Horton at Pitt Town. Richard died on 10 August 1841 at Windsor, NSW.[105] Scarborough
HAINES Joseph Gloucester 7
HALL Elizabeth Newcastle 7
HALL John Exeter 7 Charlotte
HALL Joseph Exeter Life Charlotte
HALL Margaret
HALL Samuel London 7
HALL Sarah London 7 alias HAMMOND. Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing two gowns, value 14s, a bed gown, value 6 pence, a shirt, value 4 pence a sheet, value 18 pence, two waistcoats, value 2s. 6 pence, two aprons, value 5s, a cloak, value 6 pence, five handkerchiefs, value 18 pence, and three pair of stockings, value 18 pence on 17 January 1787. Lady Penrhyn
HAMILTON Maria London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing one linen gown, value 21s, nine yards and a half of linen trimming, value 2s. 3 pence, one silk and cotton gown, value 6s, one black stuff flounced petticoat, value 6s, one apron, value 12 pence, one black silk bonnet, value 12 pence and 9s. 6 pence in monies on 19 October 1785 (Guilty of stealing 39s total).
HAMLIN William Exeter 7 aka HAMLYN Charlotte
HANDFORD John Winchester 7
HANDLAND Dorothy London 7 alias GRAY. Convicted at the Old Bailey of perjury in her evidence given at the trial of William Till at the Old Bailey in December 1785 on 22 February 1786.
HANDY Cooper
HARBINE Joseph London 7
HARPER Joshua London 7
HARRIS William Maidstone 7
HARRIS John London Life Scarborough
HARRISON Joseph London 7
HARRISON Mary Lincoln 7
HARRISON Mary London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey (with Charlotte SPRINGMORE) of unlawfully, wilfully, maliciously, and feloniously, making an assault upon Susannah Edhouse, with intent to burn, spoil, and destroy her clothes, and did spoil, burn, and deface, a certain garment of her the said Susannah, being one cloth cotton gown, value 10 s. her property, being part of the apparel which she had on her person, and then wore. A second count, for making an assault on her, with intent to spoil and deface the garments and clothes of the said Susannah, and then and there spoiling and defacing the same. Tried on 19 October 1785 (Said to be a prostitute during their trial).
HART Frances Friendship

then from Rio
Charlotte

HART John London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing one linen cloth, value 1 pence, one rush basket, value 2 pence, 16lbs of mutton, value 6s, 3lbs of cheese, value 15 pence, 4lbs of butter, value 2s, 4oz of tea, value 15 pence, 2lbs of moist sugar, value 10 pence, 1lb of loaf sugar, value 8 pence on 12 January 1785. Joh was working as a porter at the time of his arrest and had recently been discharged as a Sergeant.[106] John married Flora LARA/ZARAH on 13 February 1788 in Sydney. John was sent to Norfolk Island from Port Jackson on 17 February 1789. John died on Norfolk Island on 3 January 1795.
HART Catherine London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing three gowns, value 20s, a silk petticoat, value 3s, a dimity petticoat, value 3s, five shirts, value 20s, four shirts, value 8s and 3 bonnets, value 3s on 8 December 1784. The total value of these items was said to be 49s. The Court argued that if the items stolen were above 40s then the sentence would be death. The Prosecutor claimed they were worth 30s in order to save the life of the accused.
HART John Stafford 7
HARTLEY John Oxford 7
HARWOOD Ester London 7 aka HOWARD. Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing one silver watch, value 20s, two iron keys, value 1s, one half guinea and two shillings in monies on 30 October 1786.
HATCH John Reading 7
HATCHER John Winchester 7
HATFIELD William Maidstone 7
HATHAWAY Henry Gloucester 7
HATTOM Joseph York, Yorkshire 7 years Scarborough
HAWELL Thomas Stafford 7
HAYES Dennis London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of highway robbery with a knife on 8 December 1784.
HAYES John Guildford 7
HAYDON John Charlotte
HA?ES William
HAYNES William
HAYTON George London 7 aka CLAYTON
HAYWARD Elizabeth London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing a linen gown, value 4s, a silk bonnet, value 2s and a bath cloak, value 1s on 10 January 1787
HEAD Richard Reading 7
HEADING James Chelmsford Life
HEADINGTON Thomas Abingdon 7
HENRY Catherine London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing three muslin shawls, value 50s on 10 January 1787
HERBERT Jane London 7 alias ROSE, also known as Jenny Russell. Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing one promisory note, called a Bank note, No. 8269, dated 30 March 1786, value £20 on 30 August 1786. Prince of Wales
HERBERT John London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing a silk handkerchief, value 1s on 21 April 1784 Charlotte
HERBERT John Exeter 7
HERVEY Elizabeth Friendship

then from Rio
Charlotte

HILL John Maidstone Life
HILL John London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing one linen handkerchief, value 6s, on 26 May 1784.
HILL Mary London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing by highway robbery a gilt watch in an enamel case, value £3, a blue watch ribbon, value 1 penny, a gold seal, value 20s and a gold key, value 5s on 25 October 1786 (Suggested to be a prostitute during her trial).
HILL Thomas London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing one pair of linen sheets, value 10s, one cotton gown, value 7s, one check linen apron, value 12 pence, one cloth cloak and value 6 pence on 7 July 1784.
HILL Thomas 7
HILT William Exeter Life
HINDLEY William Ormskirk 7 alias PLATT
HINDLE Ottiwell Preston 7
HIPSLEY Eliabeth London 7
HOGG William London 14 Convicted at the Old Bailey of Deception and Forgery by unlawfully stamping certain wares, with a certain mark and stamp in imitation of, and to resemble the said mark and stamp of the Lion and unlawfully, wilfully, and knowingly had, and were possessed of a certain mark and stamp, that was made to resemble the said mark and stamp (that of the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths) on 21 April 1784
HOLLAND William Exeter 7
HOLLISTER Job Bristol 7
HOLLOGIN Elizabeth London 7
HOLLOWAY James London 7 Convicted of stealing at the Old Bailey a silk handkerchief, value 3s on 20 October 1784
HOLMES Susannah Accompanied

by young son
Henry.

Friendship

then from Cape
Charlotte

HOLMES William London 7 Convicted of stealing at the Old Bailey one linen handkerchief, value 2s on 7 July 1784
HORTOPP James Exeter 7 Charlotte
HOWARD John London 7
HOWARD Thomas London 7 Convicted of stealing at the Old Bailey to the value of 39s on 12 January 1785
HUBBARD William Surrey 7 Convicted of theft in the Kingston Assizes on 24 March 1784 Scarborough
HUDSON[107][108] John London 7[109] 8 yrs old

(going on 9)
when convicted
in Dec 1783.
12 yrs old when
arrived NSW Jan 1788.

Friendship
HUFFNELL Susannah Worcester 7
HUGHES Frances Ann Lancaster 7
HUGHES Hugh Southwark 7 "Alexander"
HUGHES John Maidstone 7
HUGHES Thomas
HUMPHREYS Edward London 7[110] aka HUMPHRIES. Convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing one cloth great coat, value 30s and one pair of leather boots, value 10s on 8 December 1784. Scarborough
HUMPHREYS Henry Exeter 7 Charlotte
HUMPHRIES Mary London
HURLEY Jeremiah Exeter 7
HUSBAND William London 7
HUSSEY James
HUXLEY Thomas Warwick 7 alias JONES
HYLIDS Thomas Guildford 7

I[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Date of
conviction
Sentence Other information Transport ship Age as of
May 1787
INETT Ann Worcester 11 March 1786 Death commuted

to 7

Ann was convicted at Worcester for breaking, entering and stealing 1 petticoat with force of arms, value 20s, on 11 March 1786.[111] Originally sentenced to death, Ann's sentence was commuted to 7 years transportation. Ann had been born in in Grimley, Worcestershire in occupation was listed as a Mantua maker.[112] On 14 February 1788, Ann was sent to Norfolk Island aboard the Supply. Ann cohabited with Philip Gidley King, then a Second Lieutenant in the Royal Marines.[113] Ann and Philip had a son named Norfolk. All three returned to Port Jackson aboard the Supply on 24 March 1790. In Port Jackson a second son, named Sydney, was born to Philip and Ann. Philip Gidley King left New South Wales in October 1790 to deliver dispatches to Britain, leaving Ann and the two boys in New South Wales. Whilst in England, Philip arranged for their two sons to be educated in England, where they became officers in the Royal Navy. Whilst in England King also married his first cousin, Anna Josepha Coombe, on 11 March 1791 at Saint Martin in the Fields, London, and returned shortly afterwards with his wife on HMS Gorgon to take up his post as Lieutenant-Governor of Norfolk Island. King returned in September 1791, and probably at Philip Gidley King's arrangement, Ann married Richard John Robinson, a Second Fleeter who arrived on the Scarborough, on 18 November 1792 at Parramatta, NSW. Philip Gidley King would go on to become the third Governor of New South Wales as of 28 September 1800. On 23 August 1794, Richard and Ann received a 30-acre land grant at the Northern Boundary farms. Philip Gidley King's sons by Ann returned to England with their father and to be educated there in October 1796. King had returned due to health issues concerning Gout. In 1800, a grant of a Parramatta lot was given to Ann although the papers were annotated by Philip Gidley King as given to Ann Robinson, her married name. In 1804, a grant of a Sydney town lot was given to Ann although the papers were annotated the same as for the Parramatta lot. This particular holding was a large in Pitt Row. Later it was numbered 105 Pitt Street. Here, Ann looked after a shop which included her eatery at their inn, the 'Yorkshire Grey.' In 1800 their household included two servants. An extract from the Sydney Gazette 25 November 1804 notes: "Eating House Pitt's Row: Richard John Robinson begs leave to inform his friends and the Public in general that he intends opening an Eating House at the Yorkshire Grey, to commence on the 29th inst. As can be only harbinger of success in an undertaking dependent onpublic affirmation and support, he flatters himself that by uniform endeavor to merit will be to ensure a liberal encouragement. Officers of Vessels, Settlers, and all who may have occasion to make his house that of their occasional resort, that shall find every accommodation that can be hoped. Dinners will be drest at a short notice and sent out if required. Means will be adopted to furnish the labouring orders at a trifling expense."[114] In March 1820, Ann left the Colony on board the Admiral Cockburn. Any further details of Ann's life are not known. Lady Penrhyn c30
INGRAM/INGRAHAM Benjamin London 8 December 1784 7 aka INGRAHAM. Convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing on the 8 November 1784 one linen handkerchief, value 1s, on 8 December 1784.[115] Originally sentenced to transportation in Africa, issues with the penal colony made New South Wales the alternative (See Thomas LIMPUS for further details on African Penal Colonies).[116] Benjamin was a young pickpocket. Benjamin was sentenced to 100 lashes ("50 now and 50 when he can") for stealing 2lbs of flour, and absconding in November 1789.[117] Benjamin was sent to Norfolk Island on 8 January 1790.[118] Benjamin escaped again in June 1790, for which he received 300 lashes. On 3 September 1792, Benjamin was caught stealing after breaking into a house, for which he was sentenced to life at Norfolk Island. On 26 January 1793, Benjamin returned to Norfolk Island from Port Jackson. However, Benjamin committed another 3 burglaries on Norfolk Island. On 26 January 1795, Benjamin ended his life, described by one "of wretchedness and villainy," by suicide by hanging at Norfolk Island aged approximately 29 years old. Scarborough c18
IRVINE/IRVIN John Lincoln 6 March 1784 7 aka John ADERSON, John ANDERSON, John LAW. John was convicted at Lincoln for stealing a silver cup on 6 March 1784.[119] John's occupation was listed as surgeon. John became the first convict to be emancipated in New South Wales. Although he was mustered on the Scarborough he was actually embarked on the Lady Penhryn being escorted there by John Easty, a marine, on 20 March 1787. On the voyage and again after arrival in the colony John Irvine quickly proved his worth as a surgeon. On 26 February 1790, John's sentence was cancelled and all civil rights and privileges were restored. John was then posted to Norfolk Island as Assistant Surgeon, traveling there aboard the Sirius on 4 March 1790. On 14 May 1791, John returned to Port Jackson on board the Supply. On 22 February 1792, John received a 30-acre land grant at Parramatta. John died on 13 September 1795 at Parramatta, before he received the news of his formal appointment as Assistant Surgeon with a salary of £50 per year. John is buried at St John's, Parramatta, New South Wales. Scarborough c26

J[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Sentence Other information Transport ship
JACKSON William Durham 7
JACOBS David London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing two livery cloth great coats, value 40s on 20 October 1784.
JACOBS John London 7
JACKSON Hannah Bristol 7
JAGET Joseph Exeter 7
JAMESON James
JACKSON Jane London alias Esther ROBERT Lady Penrhyn
JACKSON Mary London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing a total of 6 shillings on 30 August 1786. Lady Penrhyn
JEFFRIES Robert Devizes 7
JEFFERIES John Maidstone 7
JENKINS Robert Maidstone 7 alias BROWN
JEPP John London 7 Conviction mentioned in the Old Bailey Punishment Summary for 23 February 1785.
JENKINS William Exeter 7
JONES Francis Winchester 7
JOHNSON Charles Manchester 7 Alexander
JONES Edward London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing six watch movements, value 20s, one hundred and eighty five watch movements framed, value £4, one brass watch cap, value 6 pence, forty eight centre watch wheels and pin, value 12s, seventy six watch barrels and harbours, value 15s, sixty six great watch wheels and fuzees, value 24s, twenty one cantright watch wheels, value 2s, two hundred and thirty seven small watch pins, value 16s, two hundred and forty eight watch screw wheels, value 5s, nine watch studs, value 6 pence, seventeen watch vergers, value 2s, thirty watch balances, value 18 pence, three turnbenches, value 5s, a pair of men's shoes, value 6 pence, a pair of buckles, value 6 pence, a spectacle case mounted with steel, value 6 pence, and one linen sheet, value 3s on 15 September 1784.
JOSEPHS Thomas London 7
JOHNSON William Kingston 7
JOHNS Stephen Launceston 7
JONES Margaret Launceston 14
JOHNSON Edward Dorcester 7
JONES John Exeter 14
JONES William Shewsbury 7
JONES Richard Shewsbury 7
JONES Thomas Bristol 14
JOHNSON Catherine London 7
JOHNSON Mary London 7

K[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Date of
conviction
Sentence Other information Transport ship Age as of
May 1787
KABLE Henry Thetford 14 Mar 1783 Death commuted

to 7

aka CABLE Friendship c20
KELLAN John London 10 Sep 1783 Death commuted to Life aka John Herbert KEELING. Originally convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing one steel hilted sword, value 10s. on 30 April 1783 and sentenced to 7 years transportation in America.[120] Returned from transportation with 24 other convicts after taking control of the vessel,Swift, in which he was to be transported. He was discovered "at large" on 31 August 1783 in Sandhurst, Kent and was apprehended peacefully.[121] He was convicted on 10 September 1783 for returning from transportation with the other convicts. Notably a Charles KEELING (a probable relative). During the trial he and Charles Keeling were described as having had a very principal share in taking the vessel out of the hands of the Captain, in arising on him and the company, and in freeing themselves and others; and though they appeared active afterwards, in endeavouring to protect the Captain from the violence of the crew, yet there is very great reason to apprehend that this was done in order to colour purposes that perhaps would not have been carried into execution without their assistance and countenance; and Charles Keeling in particular, by the effrontery and boldness he displayed at the time sentence of death was pronounced upon him, gave the Court too much reason to think that he was a very hardened offender. Originally all sentenced to death,[122] the King, however, thought fit to extend his mercy upon them and commute their sentences to transportation for life.[123] Scarborough c22
KELLY Thomas Pontefract 13 Jan 1785 7 Alexander c23
KENNEDY Martha Kingston 9 Apr 1787 7 Prince of Wales c31
KIDNEY Thomas Bristol 30 Oct 1782 7 aka KIDNER Alexander c23
KILBY William Reading 16 Jan 1784 Death commuted

to Life

Alexander c51
KING John London 21 Apr 1784 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing one man's box great coat, value 18s and one linen towel, value 6 pence on 21 April 1784. Scarborough c33
KILPACK David London 10 Sep 1783 Death commuted to Life aka KILLPACK. Originally sentenced to 7 years transportation to America at the Old Bailey for animal theft of one live turkey cock, value 1s. 6 pence, one live cock, value 1s, two live hens, value 1s, and two live ducks, value 1s on 26 February 1783.[124] He was part of a group of 24 convicts lead principally by John KELLAN which overthrew their transportation vessel bound for America, the Swift and returned to Britain. He was tried at the Old Bailey for returning from transportation and sentenced to death by hanging. The King, however, thought fit to extend his mercy upon them and commute their sentences to transportation for life on 10 September 1783.[125] Scarborough c27
KIMBERLY Edward Coventry 20 Mar 1783 7 aka KIMBERLEY. Edward was convicted of Grand Larceny on the 20th March 1783. Edward was a Night watch member in 1805. He was described by convicts in his charge as sadistic, and "considered the convicts of Norfolk island no better than heathens," and that "women were born for the convenience of men".[126] He died in 1829. Scarborough c22
KNOWLER John Maidstone 16 Mar 1785 7 aka NOWLAND. John was convicted of robbery of a coat, gloves and shoes, value 9s,[127] on 16 March 1785. His occupation was listed as labourer. He died in 1822 in Van Diemans Land.[128] Alexander c25
KNOWLAND Andrew London 10 Sep 1783 Death commuted to 7 aka ROMAN, RONAN, ROWLAND. Convicted at the Old Bailey for fraud of a shipmate onboard HMS Nemesis on 10 September 1783.[129] Originally sentenced to death, it seems that this was commuted to transportation at a later date.[130] Andrew was involved in the mutiny aboard the convict ship the Swift (or sometimes known as the Mercury) Which originally set sail for the Americas in 1784. Those involved were eventually recaptured, and the ringleaders sentenced to death. However, these sentences were again commuted and some of the convicts from the Swift made up those sent to Australia.[131] During his incarceration awaiting transportation, Andrew was referred to as "troublesome" by his jailers aboard the Dunkirk prison hulk.[132] Friendship c32

L[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Date of Trial Sentence Other information Transport ship
LANKEY David London 26 May 1784 7 David was convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing one silk hankerchief, value 2s, on 26 May 1784.[133] David was about 24 years old at the time of his conviction, and his occupation was listed as a tailor.[134] David was sent to Norfolk Island on 4 March 1790 aboard the Sirius.[135] On 10 June 1790 sentenced to receive 300 lashes for absconding. David returned to Port Jackson in 1791 where he worked as a tailor for many years, despite having received land grants. Scarborough
LANE/LYNE Richard Winchester 2 March 1784 7 Richard was convicted at Winchester of stealing a watch and other goods with a value of 160 shillings on 2 March 1784.[136] Richard was sent to Norfolk Island from Port Jackson on 4 March 1790. Richard returned to Port Jackson from Norfolk Island on the Kitty in March 1793.[137] Scarborough
LAWRELL John Bodmin 18 August 1783 7 John was Convicted at Bodmin, Cornwall of stealing a silver table spoon, value 5s on 18 August 1783. John was described as "sometimes troublesome" on the Dunkirk Hulk.[138] John was sent to Norfolk Island on 17 February 1789.[139] In August 1789, could only bear 61 of 100 lashes ordered for gambling on Sunday. He received remaining 39 lashes on 5 September 1789. John returned from Norfolk Island to Port Jackson in 1791. On 24 January 1792, John established a farm at Eastern Farms. John died on 23 February 1796 at Mulgrave Place. Scarborough
LANE William Chelmsford 28 July 1784 7 William was convicted at Chelmsford of stealing 320lbs of pickled pork, 8lbs of salted butter, 6 gallons of shrub, 6 gallons of brandy, 6 gallons of peppermint water, three 6 gallon casks and a brass cock, value 5s on 28 July 1784.[140][141] William was originally sentenced to transportation in America, and was imprisoned upon the Ceres Prison Hulk at approximately the age of 30 in 1786. On 24 February 1787, William was transferred to Portsmouth and placed aboard the Scarborough for transportation. William's occupation was listed as Labourer. During his incarceration on 12 April 1790, William received two thousand lashes for stealing 13lbs of biscuits because "he saw a broken lock," "and hunger prompted him to take the biscuit." On 1 May 1796, received a grant of 30 acres on the banks of the Hawkesbury River. On 26 January 1802, William conveyed his grant to John PALMER for £50. By 1806, William was mustered as renting five acres of land at Richmond Hill. In 1814, William mustered as a landholder in the Liverpool district. William died on 30 September 1815 in Airds, New South Wales, aged approximately 60 years. Scarborough
LARNE/LA RUE James Exeter 12 July 1785 7 James was convicted at Exeter for an unknown felony on 12 July 1785.[142] Reports from Dunkirk hulk state that James was "troublesome at times". In September 1791, James appears on the Norfolk Island victualling lists. That same year, James received 50 lashes for theft. On 30 November 1791, James was caught robbing a house. He received 546 of 800 lashes ordered and had his ration of flour limited to five pounds per week as well, he was required to work for one month in heavy irons. In February 1805, James was listed in the Norfolk Island muster as a vagrant. In 1808, James went to Van Diemens Land on the City of Edinburgh. James died of exposure while intoxicated on 20 July 1816. His death was reported in the "Hobart Town Gazette." He was described as follows: "Jemmy La Rou, a poor maniac whose death was occasioned by being exposed to the severities of the weather in a state of intoxication. He was a poor harmless being." Charlotte
LAMBETH John Bristol 29 March 1785 Death commuted to 7 John was originally sentenced to death at Bristol for stealing a promissory note and money, value of 172 shillings[143] on 29 March 1785. John was born around April 1763, being baptised on 7 April 1763 in Fillongly, Warwickshire, England.[144] John was referred to as "tolerably decent and orderly" by his jailers aboard the Dunkirk Prison Hulk. John's trade was listed as a blacksmith. John died on 2 July 1788 at the age of 25. Friendship
LAVELL/LOVELL Henry London 11 September 1782 Death commuted to Life Henry was originally convicted at the Old Bailey on 11 September 1782 for falsely making, forging, and counterfeiting a certain order for payment of money, purporting to be an order for £10 and 10s.[145] The jury found a guilty verdict, the punishment for which was death. However, Mr. John Sylvester moved an arrest of judgment on account of all the names of the partners of Mr. Drummond's house not being mentioned in the indictment, but only the name of Drummond and Co., which not being the usual form, was referred to the opinion of the Twelve Judges. The Twelve Judges found Henry guilty.[146][147] Henry was sentenced to transportation for life on 4 December 1782.[148] Henry was involved in the Mercury Mutiny, in which convicts rose up against the crew in April 1784 and returned to England, landing in Torbay.[131] See Charles PEAT for further information on the Mercury Mutiny. There is no record of Henry's trial following his return from transportation. However, the first fleet carried 67 of the Mercury convicts with them. During his incarceration in the Dunkirk hulk, Henry's behaviour was described as "in general tolerably well behaved but troublesome at times."[149] Henry's trade was listed as Ivory Turner, but prior to his trial he had been a servant to Henry Harvey Aston in a house at Portland Place, London. Some sources note that before Henry defrauded both Mr. Aston and Drummonds Bank he also stole and pawned Mr. Aston's watch and gold chain.[150] On 27 February 1788 Henry stole food from public stores. Henry was sentenced to hang for this, but the decision was changed to banishment and he was eventually confined in irons on Pinchgut Island in Sydney Harbour.[151] He was released from this on the King's Birthday on 4 June 1788. On 8 January 1790 Henry was sent to Norfolk Island, he returned to Port Jackson on the Kitty in March 1793 at the request of Governor Phillip. In 1801 Henry was listed as having returned to England after receiving a full pardon. Friendship
LARA/ZARAH Flora London 21 January 1787 7 Flora was convicted at the Westminster Sessions of Peace for stealing a Mahogany tea chest and money, value 5s, on 21 January 1787.[152] She was described in the court records as "an evil disposed person". Flora's surname suggests she was Jewish. Flora married John HART in Sydney on 13 February 1788.

Flora was sent to Norfolk Island on 11 November 1789, following John who had been sent in February of that year. She returned to Port Jackson some time before 1814, when she was mustered at Parramatta.

Prince of Wales
LAYCOCK/HAYCOCK Caroline London 30 March 1785 7 Caroline was convicted at Middlesex Guildhall for petty larceny on 30 March 1785.[153] Caroline had a daughter by a sailor, who was baptised on 30 September 1788. Caroline was listed as having cohabited with a number of people; Robert Hosborn (, Robert BRUCE, Mark Turner, William Shepherd (1791), William Smyth (1802) and Henry Heatley.[153] On 25 July 1789 Caroline was sentenced to 50 lashes for helping William BOGGIS steal a shirt. Caroline had daughter by Robert BRUCE, who was baptised on 21 March 1790. Caroline aso bore three sons to a second fleeter, Mark Turner. Eventually Caroline married Henry Heatley on 7 May 1810 at St. Matthew, Windsor, NSW. Caroline separated from Henry in 1814. Caroline died in Sydney Hospital on 17 March 1830. Prince of Wales
LANGLEY Jane London 29 July 1785 7 Jane was convicted at the Old Bailey (with Mary PHYN/FINN) of stealing, on 29 July 1785 £5, 9s and 6 pence in Blackhorse Yard, Holborn, London, on 14 September 1785.[154] Mary was born on 16 September 1761 to Edward and Elizabeth Langley at the Lying In Hospital, Endell Street, Holborn, London, and was baptised the following day. Jane worked as a tambour embroider following the expiration of her apprenticeship in 1777, During the trail, Jane and Mary committed perjury with the aid of a smith who lived in their street, Blackhorse Yard, named John Jeffery Smith.[155] Smith was later convicted on 19 October 1785 for the offence. At their trial, with the offence of perjury made clear, the Judge, and Recorder of London, James Adair stated to Jane and Mary "Now as to you prisoners, I think it right that these persons who have been the hearers of your defence, and of your trial, should also be the hearers of your sentence, for this Court has always made it a rule, wherever they detect persons committing the crime of perjury in order to clear prisoners, to punish those prisoners who set up such defences in the severest manner; had you been convicted of this offence unaggravated with the crime of perjury, the Court would probably have thought, that whipping each of you, with six, or at most twelve months confinement in the house of correction, would have been a sufficient punishment of your offence, but the Court consider your perjured defence, in which opinion I must entirely concur with the Jury, so great an aggravation of your guilt, that the Court must pass an additional punishment upon you; therefore the sentence of the Court is, that you and each of you be transported beyond the seas for the term of seven years to such place or places as his Majesty, by the advice of his Privy Councel shall think fit to declare and appoint." Jane was about 26 when she was sent to New South Wales. She was described as tall with very curly hair, "quite a black complexioned woman, and her hair grows over her forehead all rough."[156] Jane was pregnant at the time of her transportation. She gave birth to child on 23 September 1787, named Henrietta (d 14 August 1821), whose father was a seaman. Philip Scriven is suspected to be the child's father, however, it is possible that her father was actually Thomas Gilbert, the master of the Lady Penrhyn.[157] During the voyage her young son Philip travelled with her. Jane cohabited with Philip Scriven/Shewing/Skirving, a seaman. She was sent to Norfolk Island on 4 March 1790 with Henrietta about the Sirius. Jane later married Thomas Chipp, a marine who arrived on the Lady Penrhyn, on Norfolk Island on 5 November 1791. The couple had 7 children together and left Norfolk Island aboard the Daedalus in 1794. Jane died on 18 February 1836. Lady Penrhyn
LAWRENCE Mary London 21 April 1784 7 Mary was convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing, on the 21 April 1784, "one pair of silver salt spoons, value 3s, five silver table spoons, value 30s, two silver tea spoons, value 2s, one pair of tea tongs, value 3s, a silk gown, value 15s, two muslin gowns, value 20s, one muslin petticoat, value 20s, one pair of stone buckles, value 2s, a shagreen case, value 2 pence, a gold locket, value 2s, two gold mourning rings, value 4s, two silk cloaks, value 5s, one camblet cloak, value 1s, two linen table cloths, value 2s, the property of Lillias Warden; one silk gown, value 10s, and one muslin apron, value 2s, the property of Elizabeth Delayne; one satin petticoat, value 3s, one cotton gown, value 3s, and one dimity petticoat, value 2s, the property of Ann Pearson" on 26 May 1784.[158] Her prosecuter, Lillias Warden, asked the Judge to be merciful. Normally such a high value theft would result in a death sentence. However, the judge sentenced Mary to 7 years transportation instead.[159] Mary was aged about 30 at the time of her conviction and married to a man named John Lawrence.[160] In New South Wales, she married William WORSDELL on 31 May 1788.[161] Mary died in Sydney, NSW on 17 May 1804. Lady Penrhyn
LEMON Isaac Chelmsford 7 March 1785 7 Isaac was convicted at Chelmsford for stealing livestock, a bay gelding horse, value of 200s, on 7 March 1785.[162] Originally sentenced to death, Isaac's sentence was commuted to 7 years transportation. Isaac was held aboard the Ceres hulk. Isaac's occupation was listed as a labourer. Isaac died during the voyage on board the Alexander on 11 March 1787.[163] Alexander
LEVY Joseph London 26 May 1784 7 Joseph was convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing on 1 May 1784 one copper kettle, value 8s, on 26 May 1784.[164] On 21 February 1788, Joseph was charged with insolence to William PARR, a convict overseer. Joseph was sentenced to 100 lashes but this was later forgiven. Joseph died on 15 April 1788 at Port Jackson, and was said to be the first Jewish person to buried in Australia.[165][166] Scarborough
LEARY John Winchester 3 March 1783 Death commuted to 7 John was convicted at Winchester of assault and robbery of 133s upon the King's highway on 3 March 1783. His partners in this crime were Joseph MORLEY, Francis GARLAND and Henry ROACH.[167] Originally sentenced to death, John's sentence was commuted to 7 years transportation. John married Mary JACKSON on 20 February 1788 at Sydney Cove, NSW.[168] John was accused of beating Mary and they were ordered separated for a while in 1789. John left New South Wales in 1791. Scarborough
LEGG/LEGGE George Dorchester 16 March 1786 7 George was convicted at Dorchester for stealing a gold watch and other goods, value of 140s, on 16 March 1786. A report from the Dunkirk hulk described George as "tolerably decent and orderly".[169] George had previously been a shoemaker. On 9 January 1789 George was sentenced to receive 100 lashes for illegally disposing of 2 chickens he did not own. On 17 February 1790, George was sent to Norfolk Island. There George married Ann ARMSDEN on Norfolk Island. George eturned to port Jackson with Ann aboard the Francis in July 1794. George was a Night Watch member. George died on the 9 June 1807 during a storm, his remains were found in late July and buried on the 24 of that month.[170] Charlotte
LEARY Jeremiah Bristol 30 March 1784 Death commuted to 14 Jeremiah was convicted at Bristol with Thomas JONES for breaking, entering and stealing on 30 March 1784. Jeremiah was sent to Norfolk Island on 4 March 1790.[171] Jeremiah received the order to run "the Gauntlet among the Convicts" for theft in March 1790.[172] Jeremiah died on Norfolk Island on 18 December 1807. Friendship
LEGROVE Stephen London 14 January 1784 7 Stephen was convicted at the Old Bailey for feloniously stealing, on the 9th of December last, 118 Norwegian deal boards, value £10, on 14 January 1784.[173] Stephen was defended by John Sylvester and prosecuted by William Garrow. Stephen had been a Waterman on the Thames before his trial. Stephen was involved in the Mercury Mutiny, in which convicts rose up against the crew in April 1784 and returned to England, landing at Torbay, where he was recaptured.[174] See Charles PEAT for further information on the Mercury Mutiny. There is no record of Stephen's trial following his return from transportation. A report from the Dunkirk hulk describes Stephen as a "quiet" prisoner. Stephen received 50 lashes on 16 March 1789 for being absent from work. Stephen was a Night Watch member in August 1789. Stephen left New South Wales as a free man on 28 December 1791 aboard the Matilda. His term having expired on 14 January 1791. The Matilda struck a shoal and sank on its way to Peru. The survivors headed for Tahiti using four of the small boats. In April 1792, William Bligh made landfall at Tahiti in the HMS Providence and rescued the survivors from the Matilda, Stephen Legrove was among those taken on board. Stephen was later transferred to the ship's books as an Able Seaman, and was offloaded at the end of the voyage at Deptford, England on 8 August 1793.[175] There is no trace of Stephen in records after this date. Friendship
LEE Elizabeth London 23 February 1785 7 Elizabeth was convicted at the Old Bailey for feloniously stealing on the 4 January 1785 thirty gallons of wine, called Red Port, value £10, twelve gallons of other wine, called Malmsey Madeira, value £12, three gallons of White Port, value 20s, three gallons of Malmsey Madeira, value 40s, three gallons of Claret, value 40s, three gallons of raisin wine, value 6s, three gallons of orange wine, value 6s, three gallons of Brandy, value 36s, three gallons of rum, value 36s, three gallons of Geneva, value 20s, one gallon of Arrack, value 16s, four hundred and twenty-four glass bottles, value £3 10s, one hundred weight of tallow candles, value 50s, two linen stocks, value 4s, two pair of stockings, value 5s, one gold ring, with garnets set therein, value 10s, and two crown pieces, value 10s, on 23 February 1785.[176] Elizabeth was defended by William Garrow at her trial. Elizabeth had worked as a cook for the man from whom she stole, Thomas King.[177] Elizabeth was transferred to Norfolk Island on 17 February 1788.[178] Elizabeth left Norfolk Island in April 1793 abord the Chesterfield, bound for Bengal via Port Jackson. Lady Penrhyn
LEWIS Sophia London 25 October 1786 Death commuted to 7 Sophia was convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing on the 22 October 1786 one cambrick handkerchief, value 1s, one linen ditto, value 1s, a coat, value 40s, a pen-knife, value 6 pence, a green silk purse, value 6 pence, two guineas, value £2 2s, and 14 shillings and 6 pence in monies, on 25 October 1786.[179] Sophia was alluded to being prostitute during the trial. Sophia married James WALBOURNE on 24 March 1788 at Port Jackson.[180] James and Sophia has two sons, William and James Jr., and were sent to Norfolk Island on 4 November 1791. James was charged with assaulting Sophia in 1800, and they were ordered to divide their property and live apart, each with one child. Sophia took James Jr., and James took William.[181] Sophia did not accompany James when he left the colony for Ceylon in 1814. Sophia, having previously attempted suicide, committed suicide at Cockle Bay near Dawes point on 3 December 1816.[182] Lady Penrhyn
LEONARD/LEONELL Elizabeth London 20 October 1784 7 Elizabeth was convicted at the Old Bailey of assaulting and stealing money from another prisoner on 23 September 1784 whilst being held at New Prison, Clerkenwell, value 4s, on 20 October 1784.[183][184] Originally sentenced to death, the jury recommended mercy and Elizabeth's sentence was commuted to 7 years transportation.[185] Elizabeth's occupation was listed as servant and was about 24 at the time of her trial. She married John CULLYHORN/CALLAHAN on 19 February 1788 in Sydney Cove.[186] However, she left John to live with another man named John Curran, with whom she cohabited. On 13 January 1805, John Curran charged Elizabeth with stripping all movable contents from their home. She was ordered to work for the Crown for two years and sent to Van Diemens Land. She died on 20 May 1807, and was buried St David's, Hobart, Van Diemens land. Lady Penrhyn
LEVY Amelia Southwark 8 January 1787 7 Sometimes named Mary, Amelia was convicted with Ann MARTIN at Southwark for stealing silk handkerchiefs on 9 January 1787.[187] Her occupation was listed as Furrier and she was described as Jewish. On 17 January 1789, Amelia admitted to the theft of a white linen shift and was sentenced to 50 lashes spread out over three consecutive Saturdays. On 14 November 1789, Amelia received an additional 50 lashes for abusing Marine Sergeant Clayfield. On 4 March 1790, Amelia was sent to Norfolk Island on the Sirius.[188] Amelia married William Knight at Norfolk Island, and left the island in July 1794 aboard the Francis for Port Jackson. No further record of Amelia or her husband William Knight has been traced since. Lady Penrhyn
LIST/LISK George London 10 September 1783 Life George was convicted at the Old Bailey for assault on the King's highway (whilst aiding a robbery) on 10 September 1783.[189] George's occupation was listed as watchmaker.[190] George was about 28 at the time of his transportation. On 18 July 1791 George established a farm on a 30-acre grant at Prospect Hill George married Rose Burke in 1793 at Parramatta. In 1800 George was working a farm in Hawkesbury with William BUTLER.[191] George and William sold the farm in 1805 and George returned to Britain on 21 July 1805 aboard the Ferret.[192] Scarborough
LIMEBURNER John New Sarum 9 July 1785 7 John was convicted at Salisbury for stealing a waistcoat, linen shirt and stockings, value 20s, on 9 July 1785.[193] Originally sentenced to death, John's sentence was commuted to seven years transportation.[194] A report from the Dunkirk hulk described John as "tolerably decent and orderly." John married Elizabeth Ireland on 26 September 1790 at Rosehill, New South Wales. In 1847 The South Australian Register reported in an article dated Wednesday 3 November 1847: "John Limeburner, the oldest colonist in Sydney, died in September last, at the advanced age of 104 years. He helped to pitch the first tent in Sydney, and remembered the first display of the British flag there, which was hoisted on a swamp oak-tree, then growing on a spot now occupied as the Water-Police Court. He was the last of those called the 'first-fleeters' (arrivals by the first convict ships) and, notwithstanding his great age, retained his faculties to the last."[195] John established a farm on a 50-acre Land Grant at Prospect Hill on 5 August 1792. John died at Ashfield on 2 September 1847 and is buried at St. John's Ashfield. Charlotte
LIMPUS Thomas London 10 September 1783 Life Thomas was previously convicted at the age of 17 in 1777 of the theft of a handkerchief and sentenced to 3 years hard labour.[196][197] Due to the rebellion of the American colonies, the hulks anchored on the Thames were established as a stop gap arrangement on which convicts were employed in moving gravel and filling pits, driving in posts to support new wharves, digging ditches and building drains.[197] The British Government were unable to find a place beyond the seas to send convicts sentenced to transportation, so Thomas was returned to dry land by 1780. Two years later, on 8 October 1782, Thomas is sentenced at Westminster before William Mainwairing to 7 years transportation to Africa for theft, on 4 September 1782, of a cambrick handkerchief, value 10 pence.[198] Thomas was transported on the Benkiasa and was landed at the island of Gorée on the West coast of Africa on 3 December 1782. Many convicts were sent to West Africa as soldiers to man the Slave Forts. However, Thomas did not go to West Africa as a soldier but simply as a transported felon, although what role he was supposed to fulfil there was unclear.[199] Many convicts died in Africa, and those who survived proved too unruly for soldiery and managing the region. Subsequently, transportation to Africa became seen as little more than tantamount to a death sentence.[200] John WOODHAM and Samuel RUGLASS were sent to Africa on the same ship as Limpus. They also found themselves among the First Fleet when recaptured in England. Gorée at the time was under the management of Joseph Wall. Thomas recalls working for him during his time on Gorée. Thomas returned to England in 1783. War with the French and Dutch was rife, and many French and Dutch ships stalked the West African coast. Like RUGLASS and WOODHAM, Thomas decided to sail away on a British ship than stay behind on the island.[201] Thomas was recaptured at King Street in Seven Dials, London in October 1783. Thomas was convicted at the Old Bailey for returning from transportation in 10 September 1783. In his defence, Thomas gives an account of what happened at Gorée: "My Lord, on the 3rd December last, I was landed on the island of Gorée, with nineteen more, the soldiers were drawn up in a circle on the parade, the Lieutenant of the island ordered us all into the middle of it, and told us we were all free men, and that we were to do the best we could, for he had no victuals,there was a ship lay in the bay, I went on shore several times and did work for the Governor, I remained there till the time I came home, which was last Saturday was three weeks, I did not chuse to go into the hands of the enemy, I got on board of this English vessel, I had engaged to go out in her again, I sent to our Captain yesterday by my mother, and he is clearing out his ship, and when that was done, he sent word he would come, we laid four days in the bay before the governor would receive us, he said his troops were starving already on the island, and it was very hard that he should have a parcel of men on the island; when we came away, the island was given up to the French."[202] John RUGLASS' trial for returning from transportation notes similar sentiments about being sent off and told to fend for themselves by Captain Lacey at Gorée.[201] Thomas was found guilty of returning from transportation at his trial and sentenced to death, however, this conviction was overturned and Thomas was granted the King's mercy and sentenced to transportation for life in America.[203] Thomas' second transportation was bound for Nova Scotia aboard the Mercury. Thomas was involved in the Mercury Mutiny, in which convicts rose up against the crew in April 1784 and returned to England, landing in Torbay. See Charles PEAT for further information on the Mercury Mutiny. Thomas was recaptured in Devon, his trial for returning from transportation sentenced him to death once again, however, once again he was granted mercy and given transportation for life.[204] The first fleet carried 67 of the Mercury convicts with them. Whilst held in the Dunkirk prison hulk, Thomas was described as a "quiet prisoner."[205] Given his previous experiences of transportation and being held aboard a prison hulk, this is hardly surprising.[206] Thomas was sent to Norfolk Island on 4 March 1790. On 13 September 1796, Thomas received a conditional pardon. Thomas was marked as dead in 1801 aged about 41. Thomas had been born on the 23 July 1760 in the parish of Saint Martin in the Fields, Westminster into a modest background. His parents, Henry and Mary, regularly relied upon the parish to make ends meet and Thomas is recorded as having spent Christmas at the age of 14 in the workhouse.[196] Thomas' father died in February 1776, which may have spurred Thomas to turn to crime.
LIGHTFOOT Samuel Exeter 14 March 1785 Death commuted to 7 Samuel was convicted at Exeter for stealing Steal 5 linen shirts and 5 linen handkerchiefs, value 81s, on 14 March 1785.[207] Originally sentenced to death, Samuel's sentence was commuted to 7 years transportation.[208] Samuel was about 34 at the time of his transportation in 1787. A report from Dunkirk hulk notes that Samuel had behaved "remarkably well." Samuel returned to England after his sentence had expired around 1792/1793. Samuel petitioned to return to New South Wales as a settler, with his wife. On 20 February 1794, Samuel received a 30-acre land grant on the North side of the harbour opposite Sydney Cove. Samuel and his wife arrived in the colony in 1803 aboard the Calcutta. Samuel went to Van Diemens Land in 1804. In April 1810, Samuel is recorded as an overseer in Hobart, Van Diemens Land. He died in Hobart on 17 May 1818 and was buried four days later. Charlotte
LONGSTREET Joseph Marlborough 5 October 1784 7 Joseph was convicted at Marlborough for stealing dyed Spanish wool, on the 5 October 1784.[209] Joseph died at sea during the voyage on 19 July 1787.[210] Alexander
LONG Joseph Gloucester 23 March 1785 Death commuted to 14 Joseph was convicted at Gloucester for stealing one silver watch, value 40s, on 23 March 1785.[211] On 2 October 1788, Joseph was sent to Norfolk Island on the Golden Grove.[212] On 28 January 1789, Joseph received 12 lashes for being absent from work. On 28 October 1789, Joseph received 100 lashes for lending shoes he was supposed to have been mending. Joseph was marked as dead on Norfolk Island on 15 June 1793. Alexander
LOCKLEY John London 22 February 1786 Death commuted to 7 John was convicted at the Old Bailey for assault and stealing 12 sets of silver watch cases, value £5, and one bag, value one penny, on 22 February 1786.[213] John was originally sentenced to death, however, although no court transcripts of John being granted the King's mercy exist, clearly he was granted such by a last minute reprieve. John's occupation was listed as a watchmaker.[214] The area of London in which he lived, Holborn and, was notorious for watchmaking at the time. John was defended by William Garrow at his trial. On 4 March 1790, John was sent to Norfolk Island from Port Jackson.[215] On 26 December 1807, John went to Van Diemens Land on the Porpoise. John drowned there on 16 April 1808. Alexander
LONG Mary London 25 October 1786 Life Mary was convicted at the Old Bailey for assault and highway robbery of, on 30 September 1786, a gold locket, value 20s, on 25 October 1786.[216] Originally sentenced to death,[217] Mary's was granted the King's Pardon and the sentence commuted to transportation for life in New South Wales on 23 Mary 1787.[218] Mary was included on a contractor’s list by error, and did not sail with First Fleet. Instead, Mary arrived aboard the Lady Juliana in the Second Fleet Prince of Wales
LOVE Mary Maidstone 15 March 1785 14 Mary was convicted at Maidstone with Elizabeth/Winifred BIRD for receiving stolen goods, on 15 March 1785.[219] Mary was a widow and about 60 at the time of her conviction.[220] Mary returned to England on the Britannia, arriving in London on 26 July 1797. Lady Penrhyn
LOCK Elizabeth Gloucester 26 March 1783 7 Elizabeth was convicted at Gloucester for burglary of 11s, on 26 March 1783.[221] Elizabeth's occupation was listed as servant. Elizabeth married Richard MORGAN on 30 March 1788 at Port Jackson.[222] Richard was sent to Norfolk Island in January 1790. Elizabeth followed him to Norfolk Island on 4 March 1790. Morgan and Lock did not reunite on Norfolk Island, as he had started living with another woman there. Elizabeth began cohabiting with a Marine, Thomas Scully.[223] Thomas left Norfolk Island on the Asia in 1795. Elizabeth may have gone with him because the last record of her in the colony was when she was rationed in 1795. Lady Penrhyn
Lucas Nathaniel London 7 July 1784 7 See NATHANIEL LUCAS for more information. Scarborough
LYNCH Humphrey New Sarum 5 March 1785 7 Humphrey was convicted at Salisbury for assault with a stick and highway robbery on 5 March 1785.[224] Originally sentenced to death, Humphrey's sentenced was commuted to 7 years transportation. Humphrey's occupation was listed as tailor. In 4 March 1790, Humphrey was sent to Norfolk Island. In June 1794, Humphrey is listed as living with Ann Stokes, a Second Fleerer brought on the Lady Juliana, on a farm at Queenborough, Norfolk Island. In 9 November 1807, Humphrey and Ann went to Van Diemens Land without children. Humphrey was granted 30 acres in the Clarence Plains region. On 26 February 1816, Humphrey's partner Ann died. A newspaper reported that Humphrey had bequeathed some sheep to a daughter. She has not been identified and may have been adopted.[225] Humphrey committed suicide by hanging from a tree on 31 December 1817. Humphrey was buried in January 1818. Alexander
LYNCH Ann Bristol 30 March 1786 14 Ann was convicted at Bristol for receiving stolen good on 30 March 1786.[226] Ann was about 40 at the time of her conviction. Ann cohabited and had a son with a marine, Thomas Cotterell, who had arrived on the Alexander. In 1790, Ann and her son were sent to Norfolk Island, after which Ann had no further association with Thomas Cotterell. On Norfolk Island, Ann cohabited and married another marine, Thomas Williams, who arrived on the Friendship. Thomas had arrived on Norfolk Island aboard the Sirius on 4 March 1790. Thomas Williams received a grant of 60 acres at Creswell Bay in February 1792. In September 1793, Thomas Williams was listed as a constable in the Creswell Bay and West Point streams area. He also worked as a miller. In August 1795 Thomas Williams went to Port Jackson on leave, returning to Norfolk Island in December 1795. By 1814 Thomas and ANn were living together in the Sydney area, although Ann does not appear with him in the 1821 register. In September 1823, Ann appears in the Muster but she disappears before the 1828 Muster. On 19 Novemebr 1823, a woman known as "Ann Williams" is listed in the New South Wales State Records as being admitted to hospital.[227] Charlotte
LYDE/LLOYD/LOYD John London 25 February 1784 7 John was convicted at the Old Bailey for stealing on the 21 February 1784 one wooden till, value 6 pence one half-guinea, value 10s and 6 pence two half-crowns, value 5s, and 20s in monies, on 25 February 1784.[228] John was sentenced to 7 years transportation and placed aboard the Mercury bound for Nova Scotia. John was involved in the Mercury Mutiny, in which convicts rose up against the crew in April 1784 and returned to England, landing in Torbay, where John was captured. See Charles PEAT for further information on the Mercury Mutiny. There is no record of Johns's trial following his return from transportation. However, the first fleet carried 67 of the Mercury convicts with them. A report from the Dunkirk Hulk describes John as "in general tolerably well behaved but troublesome at times."[229] John died on the 27 September 1811 in Sydney, NSW.[230] Friendship

M[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Date of Trial Sentence Other information Transport ship
MAYNARD Dylan Riverton 7
M'DONNAUGH James Maidstone 7 aka McDONAUGH. James was born about 1752 at Greenwich, Kent. He was convicted at Maidstone (with Thomas MATSON) for the theft of a Leaden pipe, value either £2 or 40s, on 11 July 1785. His occupation was listed as Labourer.[231] James was sentences on 20 September 1790 in Australia to 200 lashes and to wear an iron collar for six months. He died in 1791, possibly suicide by hanging.[232] Alexander
M'LAUGHLIN Charles Durham 7 aka McLAUGHLIN/McLELLAN/McLENNAN/MacLAULIN. Charles was 15 at the time of his conviction. His native birthplace is listed as Devon.[233] Convicted at Durham for "Pettit Larceny" (perhaps to avoid a harsher death sentence) for the theft of a purse, value 1s, containing 14s and 6 pence on 21 July 1785. He is listed among the initial settlers of Norfolk Island on 14 February 1788. On 20 April 1788, Charles received 36 lashes for theft of rum. On 18 May 1788, 36 lashes for "seditious and threatening words." On 7 August 1788 36 lashes for stealing eggs. Charles received a fractured skull in May 1790 and was not expected to live. Charles was sentenced on 15 May 1791 to 6 weeks in irons on 2 weeks ration of corn and water for stealing potatoes, but punishment ceased on 12 June.[234] Charles is marked as having left the colony in January 1793. Alexander
M'LEAN Edward Maidstone 7 aka MacLEAN/MacCLEAN. Edward was born about 1731 in Tonbridge, Kent. He was convicted at Maidstone for stealing many items of clothing, value 159s, on 15 March 1784. Originally sentenced to death, this was commuted to seven years transportation.[235][236] His occupation was listed as Labourer. Scarborough
M'LEAN Francis Guildford 7 aka MacLEAN/McLEAN. Convicted with his brother Thomas M'LEAN at Guildford for burglary of items, value 63 shillings, on 24 March 1784. Originally sentenced to death, overturned to seven years transportation to America.[237] They escaped and were tried once again together for being at large before the expiration of their sentence. His occupation was listed as Labourer. On 13 April 1788 25 lashes were ordered against Charles for refusing to obey an order, however, the punishment was forgiven.[238] Both brothers left the colony in 1791, their sentences having expired. Alexander
M'LEAN Thomas Guildford 7 aka MacLEAN/McLEAN. Convicted with his brother Francis M'LEAN at Guildford for burglary of items, value 63 shillings, on 24 March 1784. Originally sentenced to death, overturned to seven years transportation to America.[239] They escaped and were tried once again together for being at large before the expiration of their sentence. His occupation was listed as Labourer. Thomas married Margaret BUNN on 16 March 1788. Both brothers left the colony in 1791, their sentences having expired. Thomas left Margaret behind.[240] Alexander
MACINTIRE John Durham 7
MANSFIELD John Chelmsford 7 Years Transportation Stole 8 pigs Alexander
MASON Betty Gloucester 14
McCORMICK Sarah Manchester 7
McCORMACK Mary Liverpool 7
McDEED Richard
McGRAH Redman
MACKRIE James
MARINER William Oxford 7
MARNEY William London 7
MARRIOTT Jane London 7
MARROTT John Gloucester 7
MARSHALL Mary London Life
MARSHALL Joseph London 14
MARSHALL Mary London 7
MARTIN Ann Southwark Lady Penrhyn
MARTIN Abraham New Sarum 7
MARTIN John London 7
MARTIN Stephen Bristol 7
MARTIN Thomas Exeter 7
MARTYN James Exeter 7
MASON Susannah London alias GIBBS
MATHER Ann London 7
MATHER Mather London 7
MATSON Thomas Maidstone 7
MAY Richard New Sarun 7
McCABE Eleanor London 7 alias MAGEE
McNA MAR William
MEYNELL John Nottingham alias William RADFORD
MESSIAH Jacob
MEECH Jane Exeter 7 Mrs. William MEECH
MIDGLEY Samuel Lancaster 7
MIDDLETON Richard London 7
MILES Edward 7
MILLS Matthew
MILTON Charles Maidstone 7
MITCHCRAFT Mary Kingston 7
MITCHELL Mary Kingston 7
MITCHELL Nathaniel Dorchester 7
MOLLANDS John Launceston 7
MOBBS Samuel London 7
MOOD Charles 7
MOORIN John London 7
MOORE William London 7
MORLEY John London 7
MORGAN Richard Gloucester 7
MORGAN Robert London 7
MORGAN William London 7
MORLEY Joseph
MORRIS Peter Bristol 7
MORRISBY John London 7
MORTIMORE John Exeter 7
MORTON Mary London 7 Tried at the Old Bailey for stealing three pieces containing seventeen handkerchiefs, value 18s on 23 February 1785.[241]
MOWBRAY John Lincoln 7
MOULD William Guildford 7
MOYLE Edward Launceston 7
MULLENS Hannah London Life Became wife of Charles PEAT.

There is no transcription of her trial. However, Hannah is mentioned in the Old Bailey Punishment Summary for 10 January 1787 as having received His Majesty's pardon after being capitally convicted at former sessions on the condition of being transported for the following terms, to the Eastern coast of New South Wales, or some one or other of the islands adjacent.[242] Scarborough

Lady Penrhyn
MULLIS Stephen Exeter 7
MULLOCK Jesse New Sarum 7
MUNRO Lydia Kingston 14 Lady Penrhyn
MUNROE John London 7 alias NURSE. About 14 years old when convicted. Tried at the Old Bailey (With George ROBINSON and George BANNISTER) for stealing one marcella petticoat, value 8s, one child's dimity cloak, value 3s, one linen gown, value 1s 6 pence and one pair of cotton stockings, value 6 pence on 21 April 1784.[243]
MURPHY James 7
MURPHY William Liverpool 7

N[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Sentence Other information Transport ship
NEWLAND John London 7 Scarborough
NETTLETON Robert Kingston upon 7 Alexander
NEAL John London 7 Scarborough
NEAL James Bristol 7 Friendship
NEEDHAM Elizabeth London 7 Lady Penrhyn
NICHOLLS John London 7 Scarborough
NORTON Phebe London 7 Lady Penrhyn
NUNN Robert London 7 Scarborough

O[edit]

Surname First name From Sentence Other information Transport ship
O'CRAFT John Exeter 7 Also known as John OAKRAFT. Born c1750. Convicted in Exeter, 17 March 1783 for theft of clothes and money worth 80s. Charlotte
OGDEN James Manchester 7 (1768? - 1820) A labourer from Manchester. Convicted 20 January 1785 for theft of a purse. Alexander
OKEY William Gloucester 7 Alexander
OLDFIELD Thomas Manchester 7 Friendship
OLDFIELD Isabella Manchester 7 Friendship
ORFORD Thomas London 7 Alexander
OSBORNE Thomas London 7 Alexander
OSBORNE Elizabeth London 7 alias JONES Lady Penrhyn
OWLES John Croydon 7 Alexander
OWEN John London 7 Scarborough
OWEN Joseph Shewsbury 14 Friendship

P[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Sentence Other information Transport ship
PAIGE Paul Lincoln 7
PANE William Nottingham 7
PARRY Edward Stafford 7
PARR William Liverpool 7
PALMER John Henry London 7
PARKER John London 7
PARISH William London 7
PARTRIDGE Richard London Death commuted to Life Originally sentenced to 7 years transportation to America at the Old Bailey for stealing one linen shift, value 3s, one linen apron, value 3s, one pair of cotton stockings, value 6 pence, and one pair of linen cover sluts, value 6 pence on 30 April 1783. He was part of a group of 24 convicts lead principally by John KELLAN which overthrew their transportation vessel bound for America, the Swift and returned to Britain. He was tried at the Old Bailey for returning from transportation and sentenced to death by hanging. The King, however, thought fit to extend his mercy upon them and commute their sentences to transportation for life on 10 September 1783.
PARRIS Peter Exeter 7
PARKINSON Jane Manchester aka PARTINGTON
PARKER Elizabeth Gloucester 7 Accompanied by her daughter Ann Friendship

then from Cape
Charlotte

PARSELY Ann London 7 Sentenced 1787 to 7 years transportation for stealing.

In 1791, bore a son to naval lieutenant James Furzer.
Settled in Sydney on expiry of her jail term.[244]

Prince of Wales
PARKER Mary London 7
PARTRIDGE Sarah London 7 alias ROBERTS
PARRY Sarah London Life
PERROT Edward Bearcro Bristol 7
PETRIE John London 7
PEYTON Samuel London 7
PERCIVAL Richard London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing one silver watch, value 30s, one silver milk pot, value 10s, one silver spoon, value 5s, one pair of steel scissors with silver bows, value 2s, one pair of leather shoes, value 5s, a quantity of sugar, value 1s, half 2 pound of tobacco, value 2s, one linen towel, value 6 pence and four hundred and eighty copper halfpence, value 20s on 7 July 1784.[245] On 23 February 1785, his sentence of seven years transportation was transferred from transportation to America to transportation to Africa,[246] a possible term for Australia, unless these sentences were later changed from Africa to Australia.
PETTITT John London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing one flute, called an English flute, value 4s, and two fifes, value 1s, on 21 April 1784.[247]
PEAULET James London 7
PEAT Charles London Life Originally convicted at the Old Bailey on 5 December 1781 and sentenced to death for stealing by highway robbery a silk purse, value 3 pence, and 23 shillings in monies on Finchley Common, which was notorious for highwaymen. The jury recommended mercy during his trial.[248][249] The sentence of death was later overturned and Charles was sentenced to transportation for life in Nova Scotia. However, he was found "at large" in England, his return from transportation is recorded in the Old Bailey Punishment Summaries of 10 September 1783.[250] He was tried for this at the Old Bailey on 7 July 1784. During the trial, Charles stated that the ship he had been sent on for the purpose of transportation had been "Bound for Virginia." George Holt, the steward of the ship Mercury stated that the vessel was bound "for Baltimore in Maryland, from thence to Honduras, and from thence to Virginia, (for we had sixteen or seventeen thousand pounds cargo on board) and from thence to Nova Scotia, to deliver the servants, as they are entitled indented servants" (The convicts). Although, interestingly, Charles insists during the trial that he had been sentenced to five years in Virginia not Nova Scotia. That would have been convenient given that at the time of his sentencing the American War of Independence was nearing its end. The court then brought forward John Owen as a witness, who stated that he knew Charles Peat and that upon being sentenced to death at trial in 1781 "he remained in Newgate a great while; he afterwards received his Majesty's mercy, and in July 1783, he accepted of the conditions, I was present then, and brought him to the bar, the conditions were, his being transported to Nova Scotia for the term of his natural life." He then notes that he was held in the Woolwich Hulks until a ship was ready to transport him to Nova Scotia. Following John Owen's statement, Charles gives his own account to the court, in which he states that after received his Majesty's pardon, on 4 June 1782 he was apprehended in Smithfield, and brought to prison. He then states I pleaded Not Guilty to this indictment, not with intent to give the Court any unnecessary trouble, but to explain the hardness of my case; the robbery I was cast for was attended with such circumstances of behaviour on my part, that the Court thought me not unworthy of clemency, and I was accordingly recommended to his Majesty's mercy, and I was afterwards pardoned on condition of serving in the royal army in the East Indies; but some difficulty arising in putting this pardon into execution, my prosecutor applied to Mr. Townsend, now Lord Sydney, for a free pardon; then I had a pardon on condition of serving on board any of his Majesty's ships or vessels of war; I went on board His Majesty's Ship the Prince Edward, two months after, having been six months at my liberty, and I was taken up for not complying with the terms of my pardon, and committed to Newgate, where I continued six months, and was had up every Sessions, and was informed I should be discharged: during the time I was in Newgate, I had a severe illness, which rendered me insensible, and whilst I was in that state I was brought before Counsellor Harrison, who sat as Deputy Recorder. When the sentence of the Court was read to me to be transported to Nova Scotia for the term of my natural life, it may be said I acquiesced, but I was then in a state of insensibility: I apply to Mr. Akerman, that during my long confinement, I never was charged with any offence; I have served his Majesty in the royal navy, and had the honour of bearing a commission. Whilst I was on board the hulk, I had the mortification of seeing my fellow sufferers die daily, to the amount of two hundred and fifty? several who have had pardons similar to mine. The court asked John Owen if he could positively identify Charles Peat as the same Charles Peat convicted of highway robbery in December 1781 at the Old Bailey. He said he could not and the court and jury decided that they were not satisfied with the evidence brought against Charles. He was given a decision of not guilty if he made out his case and they were sure every enquiry was made.[251] It would seem however, that evidence came to light to convict Charles as he was sentenced to transportation for life in the Old Bailey Punishment Summaries for 23 February 1785.[252]
Became husband of Hannah MULLENS Lady Penrhyn
Scarborough
PECK Joshua Exeter 7
PERKINS Edward Plymouth 7
PETHERICK John Plymouth 7
PENNY John 7
PHILLIMORE William London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey on 10 December 1783.[253] Unusually, details of his trial is not transcribed.
PHILLIPS Richard London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing 16lbs of lead, value 4s on 10 December 1783.[254]
PHILLIPS Mary Taunton 7
PHYFIELD Roger Shrewsbury aka TWYFIELD Friendship
PHYN Mary London 7
PIGOTT Samuel Exeter 7
PINDER Mary Lincoln 7
PIPKIN Elizabeth London 7
PILES Mary London 7 aka PILE. Originally convicted at the Old Bailey on 15 January 1783 to be fined 1 shilling and to serve twelve months in a House of Correction for stealing one linen apron, value 5s, five caps, value 40s, one muslin handkerchief, value 3s, one metal watch, value £3, one steel chain, value 1 penny and 16 shillings in monies.[255] Convicted once again at the Old Bailey for stealing 29s and 6 pence in monies on 6 April 1785. During the trial she was referred to as "the female highwayman."[256]
POPE David Southwark 7
POWER John London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey with a man named Charles Young of stealing 2092 pounds weight of wood, called Red Sanders wood, value £20 the property of the East India company on 14 December 1785.[257] The trial in question results in a verdict of not guilty. However, interesting both Young and Power are listed in the Old Bailey Punishment Summaries as sentenced to 7 years transportation.[258] Both defended by William Garrow who said in his defence that "There is no evidence at all against Power" when cross-examining the witness Judah Bottlebold and that "what [Bottlebold] says against Power alone, is not evidence."
PONTIE John London Life Convicted at the Old Bailey (with John Matthew COX aka BANBURY JACK) of stealing thirteen yards of lace, value £5 on 7 July 1784.[259] Originally sentenced to death, overturned to transportation for life on 23 February 1785.
POOLE Jane Wells 7 Charlotte
POORE/POWER/POOR William Dorchester 7 Charlotte
POWLEY Elizabeth
POWELL Ann London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey of stealing one pair of stays, value 10s, one gown, value 10s, one apron, value 2s, and one black silk cloak, value 10s on 13 December 1786.[260]
PRICE James Gloucester 7
PRICE John Southwark 7
PRIOR Catherine Son John Matthew

born at sea
14 Nov 1787

PRIOR Thomas Reading 7
PRITCHARD Thomas
PUGH Edward Gloucester 7
PULLEY Elizabeth Norfolk 1783 7

R[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Sentence Other information Transport ship
RANDALL/REYNOLDS John Manchester 7 Alexander
RANKIN Felicity California 100
REYMOND George London 7
RAMFEY John Kinston 7
REPEAT Charles Warwick 7
READ William Croydon 7
REARDON Bartholomew Winchester 7
READ Ann London Life Lady Penrhyn
RISDALE Thomas Bristol Life alias CROWDER
RICHARD James East Grinstead 7
RICHARDSON James Maidstone 7
RISBY Edward Gloucester 7
RICHARDSON William London 7
RICHARDSON Hardwicke London 7
RICHARDSON John London 7
RICHARD David London 7
RICHARDSON Samuel London 7
RICKSON William Chelmsford 7
RICHARDS John Winchester 7 alias WILLIAMS
RICHARD James Launceston 7
RICE John Exeter 7
ROPE Anthony Chelmsford 7
ROGERS Daniel Croydon 7
ROBINSON George Lincoln 7
ROGERS Isaac Gloucester 14
ROBINSON Thomas Kingston upon 7
ROBERTS John Liverpool 7
ROBINSON George London 7 About 14 years old when convicted. Tried at the Old Bailey (With George BANNISTER and John MONROE alias NURSE) for stealing one marcella petticoat, value 8s, one child's dimity cloak, value 3s, one linen gown, value 1s 6 pence and one pair of cotton stockings, value 6 pence on 21 April 1784.[261]
ROMAIN John London 7 There is no transcription of John's trial at the Old Bailey. However, he is mentioned in the Old Bailey Punishment Summary for 11 May 1784 as having his transportation location changed from America to Africa.[262]
ROWE John Launceston 7
ROWE William Launceston 7
ROBERTS William Bodmin 7 Scarborough
ROBINSON William Exeter 7
ROACH Henry Exeter 7
ROBINS John Exeter 7 alias MAJOR
ROUS Walton alias BATLEY
ROLT Mary London
ROSSON Isabella London 7 Tried at the Old Bailey for stealing one tambour muslin, value 2s on 10 January 1787.[263]
RUSSEL John London 7
RUGLASS John London Life There is no transcription of John's Trial. However, he is mentioned in the Old Bailey Punishment Summaries as being sentenced to be transported for life on 23 February 1785.[264]
RUSSLER John London Life
RUSE James Bodmin 7 aka RUCE
RUTH Robert Exeter 7
RYAN John

S[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Sentence Other information Transport ship
SALTMARSH William Kingston 7 Alexander
SANDERSON Thomas Lincoln 7
SANDS William Lincoln 7 Alexander
SAMPSON Peter London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey (with Charles ALLEN) of burglarious breaking and entering a dwelling and stealing one linen sheet, value 10s, eight damask table cloths, value 40s, one sheet, value 10s, eight shirts, value 3s and 1 penny and one counterpane, value 10s.[20] Scarborough
SANDLIN Ann London 7 alias LYNES Lady Penrhyn
SCATTERGOOD Robert Stafford 7 Alexander
SCOTT Elizabeth London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey (with Sarah AULT) for stealing four bridles, value 11s, one bradoon, value 2s, two strap irons, value 1s, and two leather straps, value 1s.[31] Prince of Wales
SELSHIRE Samuel London 7 Scarborough
SEYMOUR John Sherborne 7 Scarborough
SHEARMAN William Reading 7 Alexander
SHAW Joseph Stafford 7 Alexander
SHEPHERD Robert Durham 7 Alexander
SHARP George Durham 7 Alexander
SHORE William Lancaster 7 Alexander
SHORE John Manchester 7 Pardoned before the fleet sailed,

so did not embark.

SHIERS James London Life Scarborough
SILVERTHORN John New Sarum 7 Alexander
SIDAWAY Robert London Life aka SIDEWAY, SIDEAWAY Friendship
SLATER Sarah London 7 Lady Penrhyn
SMALL John Exeter 7 Charlotte
SMART Richard Gloucester 7 Alexander
SMART Daniel Gloucester 7 Alexander
SMITH Thomas Lancaster 7 Alexander
SMITH William Liverpool 7 Alexander
SMITH Edward London 7 Scarborough
SMITH William London 7 Scarborough
SMITH Thomas London 7 alias HAYNES Scarborough
SMITH James London 7 Scarborough
SMITH John Guildford 7 Scarborough
SMITH William Bodmin 1 Scarborough
SMITH Ann Winchester 7 Mrs John SMITH.

Accompanied by
young daughter
Ann

Charlotte
SMITH Hannah Winchester 7 Charlotte
SMITH William Dorchester 7 Charlotte
SMITH Edward Exeter 7 Charlotte
SMITH John Exeter 7 Charlotte
SMITH Ann London 7 Lady Penrhyn
SMITH Catherine London 7 Prince of Wales
SMITH Catherine London 7 Lady Penrhyn
SMITH Mary London 7 Lady Penrhyn
SNALEHAM William London 7 Scarborough
SPARKS Henry
SPENCER Daniel Dorchester 14 Charlotte
SPENCER John alias PEARCE
SPENCE Mary Wigan 5 Prince of Wales
SPRINGMORE Charlotte London 7 Convicted at the Old Bailey (with Mary HARRISON) of unlawfully, wilfully, maliciously, and feloniously, making an assault upon Susannah Edhouse, with intent to burn, spoil, and destroy her clothes, and did spoil, burn, and deface, a certain garment of her the said Susannah, being one cloth cotton gown, value 10 s. her property, being part of the apparel which she had on her person, and then wore. A second count, for making an assault on her, with intent to spoil and deface the garments and clothes of the said Susannah, and then and there spoiling and defacing the same. Tried on 19 October 1785 (Said to be a prostitute during their trial).
SPRINGHAM Mary London 7 Lady Penrhyn
SQUIRES James Kingston 7 aka SQUIRE Charlotte

(Originally on the Friendship)

STANLEY William New Sarum 7 Alexander
STRONG James Dorchester 7 Alexander
STOW James Lincoln 7 Alexander
STONE Charles London 7 Alexander
STONE Henry London 7
STONE Martin Warwick 7 Alexander
STOKEE John Durham 7
STOGDELL John London 14 Alexander
STUART James London 7 Scarborough
STANTON Thomas Launceston 7 alias ABDIN, EBDEN, ELDON, IBDEN Scarborough
STEPHENS John Morris Dorchester 7 Charlotte
STEWART Margaret Exeter 7 Charlotte
STRECH Thomas Shrewsbury 7 aka STRETCH Friendship
SUMMERS John Gloucester 7 Tried on the 13th of July 1784 in Gloucester for stealing a knapsack. Alexander

T[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Sentence Other information Transport ship
TAYLOR Josh Manchester 7
TAYLOR Henry
TAYLOR Sarah Kingston 7
TENANT Thomas Hilton Chelmsford alias Phillip DIVINE
TEAGUE Cornelius Bodmin 7
TENCHALL James aka TENNINGHILL
THACKERY Elizabeth Manchester 7 The last survivor of the First Fleet. Friendship

then from Cape
Charlotte

THOMPSON William Durham 7
THOMAS James London 7
THOMPSON James London 7
THOMAS James London 7
THOMAS John London 7
THOMPSON William London 7
THOUDY James
THOMAS Elizabeth Wigan 7
THORNTON Ann London 7
TUNMINS Thomas Warwick 7
TILLEY Thomas Stafford 7
TILL Thomas London 7
TODD Nicholas London 7
TROTTER Joseph Maidstone 7 Alexander
TRACE John Exeter 7
TRIPPETT Susannah London 7
TURNER Ralph Manchester 7
TUSO Joseph London Life
TURNER John
TUCKER Moses Plymouth 7
TURNER Thomas
TURNER John
TURNER Mary Worcester 7
TWYNEHAM William Reading 7
TWYFIELD Ann Shrewsbury 7 aka DAWLEY
TYRRELL William Winchester 7

U[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Date of
conviction
Sentence Other information Transport ship
UNDERWOOD James New Sarum 11 Mar 1786 Death commuted

to 14

James was convicted at Salisbury for stealing 5 sheep with intent to steal fat & kidneys, value 100s, on 11 March 1786.[265] Originally sentenced to death, James' sentence was commuted to 14 years transportation. James was aged about 44 at the time of his transportation.[266] James was described in a report from the Dunkirk Hulk as "tolerably decent and orderly." This James Underwood should not be confused with the Third Fleeter of the same name who was a shipwright and became very successful in the colony. On 4 July 1788, James was marked as "Run from the Colony'"and does not appear in later records. This was when the Alexander, Prince of Wales and the Borrowdale were preparing to leave the colony. It is possible that James stowed way on one of these ships and escaped in 1788. However, it is also possible James died in Australia away from the colony. Charlotte
USHER John Maidstone 17 Mar 1785 7 John was convicted at Maidstone for stealing 5 yards of linen, value 39s, on 17 March 1787.[267] John was about 16 at the time of his trial, and his occupation was listed as jeweller. On 4 March 1790, John was sent to Norfolk Island on the Supply. On 12 May 1790, John was sentenced to 50 lashes for theft. On Norfolk Island, John began cohabiting with Margaret Carter, a Second Fleeter who arrived aboard the Lady Juliana. On 21 July 1792, John settled on a 12-acre lease near Sydney Town, Norfolk Island. A son to John and Margaret, John Carter was born on Norfolk Island in 1792. Margaret died on Norfolk Island in 1796.[268] In October 1796, John was employed as an overseer. John returned to Port Jackson in 1801 aboard the Porpoise. No further records can be traced and it is possible that he returned to England shortly after this.[269] Alexander

V[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Date of Trial Sentence Other information Transport ship Age as of
May 1787
VICKERY William Exeter 20 March 1786 7 William was convicted at Exeter for stealing money, value 120s, on 20 March 1786.[270] A report from the Dunkirk hulk described William as "tolerably decent and orderly". On 4 March 1790, William was sent to Norfolk Island on the Sirius.[271] William may have been the convict ‘Vinry’ who received 100 lashes on 15 February 1791 for stealing cobs of corn. On 14 July 1808 William left Norfolk Island on the Lady Nelson as a Third Class Settler, bound for Van Diemens Land. There, William held 30 acres at Clarence Plains, where he died on 28 November 1828. Charlotte c25
VINCENT Henry London 21 April 1784 7 Henry was convicted at the Old Bailey with two other men of stealing on the 31 March 1784 200lbs of currants, value £4, and one wooden cask, value 1s, on 21 April 1784.[272][273] Henry died on 7 March 1788 at Port Jackson, NSW, approximately two months after the arrival of the First Fleet in New South Wales.[274] Scarborough c27

W[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Date of
conviction
Sentence Other information Transport ship Age as of
May 1787
WAGER Benjamin London 7
WAINWRIGHT Ellen Preston 7 alias Esther ECCLES
WADE Mary London 14 alias CACKLANE
WALBOURNE James London 7
WADDICOMB Richard Exeter 7
WALKER John London 7
WALL William Oxford 7
WALSH William London 7
WARD Ann London 7
WARD John Lowth 7
WARE Charlotte
WATERHOUSE William Kingston 7
WATKINS Mary Friendship

then from Rio
Charlotte

WATSAN John Maidstone 7
WATSON Thomas Exeter 7
WELCH James Maidstone 7
WELCH John Durham 7
WELCH John London Death commuted to Life Originally sentenced to 7 years transportation to America at the Old Bailey for stealing one large copper, value 10s, one copper saucepan, value 3s, and one brass boiling pot, value 3s on 11 Septemnber 1782. He was part of a group of 24 convicts lead principally by John KELLAN which overthrew their transportation vessel bound for America, the Swift and returned to Britain. He was tried at the Old Bailey for returning from transportation and sentenced to death by hanging. The King, however, thought fit to extend his mercy upon them and commute their sentences to transportation for life on 10 September 1783.
WELSH John London 7
WEST Benjamin London 7
WESTWOOD John London 7
WESTLALE Edward Exeter 7
WHEELER Samuel Croydon 7
WHITAKER George Maidstone 7
WHITE James Maidstone 7
WHITING William Gloucester 7
WHITTON Edward Maidstone Life Scarborough
WILCOCKS Samuel Dorcester 7
WILTON William Bristol 7
WILSON Charles London Death commuted to Life Originally sentenced to transportation to America, he was part of a group of 24 convicts lead principally by John KELLAN which overthrew their transportation vessel bound for America, the Swift and returned to Britain. He was tried at the Old Bailey for returning from transportation and sentenced to death by hanging. The King, however, thought fit to extend his mercy upon them and commute their sentences to transportation for life on 10 September 1783.
WILSON Peter Manchester 7
WILLIAMS Charles London 7
WILLIAMS Daniel Preston 7
WILLIAMS Frances Mold 7
WILLIAMS James London 7
WILLIAMS John Bodmin 7 alias FLOYD
WILLIAMS John Maidstone 7 alias Black Jack
WILLIAMS John Exeter 7
WILLIAMS Mary London 7
WILLIAMS Peter Exeter 7 alias FLAGGETT
WILLIAMS Robert Launceston 7
WILCOCKS Richard Exeter 7
WICKHAM Mary New Sarum 14
WILDING John Bury 7 alias WARREN

Died during passage to NSW

Scarborough
WISEHAMMER John Bristol 7
WOOD George London 7
WOOD Mark
WOODCOCK Francis Shrewsbury 7
WOODCOCK Peter London 7
WOODHAM Samuel London Life
WOLFF Jack London 7 Scarborough
WOOLCOT John Exeter Life
WOOLLEY Samuel London 15 Husband of Sarah WOOLLEY.

Sentenced together.

Charlotte
WOOLLEY Sarah London 14 Wife of Samuel WOOLLEY.

Sentenced together.

Charlotte
WORSDELL William Launceston 7
WRIGHT Ann London 7
WRIGHT Benjamin London 7
WRIGHT James Maidstone 7
WRIGHT Joseph London 7 Scarborough
WRIGHT Thomas Reading 7
WRIGHT William London 7

Y[edit]

Reference - First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong[2]

Surname First name From Date of
conviction
Sentence Other information Transport ship Age as of
May 1787
YARDSLEY Thomas Shrewsbury 4 Aug 1784 7 aka YASLEY Scarborough c28
YATES Nancy York 9 Jul 1785 Death commuted

to 7

aka YEATS

About 17 yrs old when convicted.

Lady Penrhyn c19
YOUNG John London 20 Oct 1784 7 Alexander c25
YOUNG Simon London 21 Apr 1784 Death commuted

to 7

Scarborough c25
YOUNGSON Elizabeth Lancaster 1 Mar 1787 Death commuted

to 7

aka YOUNGSTER Prince of Wales c15
YOUNGSON George Lancaster 1 Mar 1787 7 Prince of Wales c20

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wallabadah – Places to See Retrieved on 4 May 2009
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w First Fleet Database of the University of Wollongong
  3. ^ IFHAA Shipping Pages – Australia's First Fleet – 1788 Retrieved 2010-7-27
  4. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=abel&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=2
  5. ^ http://historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/001
  6. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840915-18-person298&div=t17840915-18#highlight
  7. ^ http://firstfleet.thruhere.net/convict.php?id=1
  8. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/0002
  9. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=o17841208-3-defend1744&div=o17841208-3#highlight
  10. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=s17841208-1-punish877&div=s17841208-1#highlight
  11. ^ Old Bailey Trial of Esther Abrahams
  12. ^ http://firstfleet.thruhere.net/convict.php?id=3
  13. ^ SMH: Online transcripts illuminate world of First Fleeters Retrieved 2010-7-29
  14. ^ http://firstfleet.thruhere.net/convict.php?id=4
  15. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/16
  16. ^ http://www.monaropioneers.com/akers-t.htm
  17. ^ http://www.firstfleetershunter.com.au/uploads/Family%20History/Thomas%20Akers.pdf
  18. ^ a b http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840526-40-punish196&div=t17840526-40#highlight
  19. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17861213-14-punish76&div=t17861213-14#highlight
  20. ^ a b http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840707-16-punish87&div=t17840707-16#highlight
  21. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17861025-55-punish313&div=t17861025-55#highlight
  22. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17870110-26-punish145&div=t17870110-26#highlight
  23. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17870418-67-punish320&div=t17870418-67#highlight
  24. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17861025-72-punish419&div=t17861025-72#highlight
  25. ^ a b Kenneally 2006, p. 93
  26. ^ "October 1786, trial of TAMASIN ALLEN, alias BODDINGTON (t17861025-72)". Old Bailey Proceedings Online. p. 1305. Retrieved October 4, 2013. 
  27. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17870110-22-defend230&div=t17870110-22#highlight
  28. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17861213-20-punish110&div=t17861213-20#highlight
  29. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840526-9-punish54&div=t17840526-9#highlight
  30. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840526-91-punish415&div=t17840526-91#highlight
  31. ^ a b http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17870221-49-punish249&div=t17870221-49#highlight
  32. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=bails&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=26
  33. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/175
  34. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17860830-91-punish457&div=t17860830-91#highlight
  35. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=baker&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=27
  36. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/185
  37. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/186
  38. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=baker&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=28
  39. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17861025-1-punish7&div=t17861025-1#highlight
  40. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840421-22-punish128&div=t17840421-22#highlight
  41. ^ a b http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17851214-30-punish166&div=t17851214-30#highlight
  42. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840707-15-punish81&div=t17840707-15#highlight
  43. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17820911-28-defend349&div=t17820911-28#highlight
  44. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=o17830910-4-defend1315&div=o17830910-4#highlight
  45. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/238
  46. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=barrett&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=39
  47. ^ https://alwaysaskew.wordpress.com/2014/01/04/the-execution-of-thomas-barrett/
  48. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17831210-61-person787&div=t17831210-61#highlight
  49. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840526-13-defend173&div=t17840526-13#highlight
  50. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17830226-45-defend547&div=t17830226-45#highlight
  51. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=s17830910-1-person1471&div=s17830910-1#highlight
  52. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17830910-32-person368&div=t17830910-32#highlight
  53. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=o17831210-1-punish747&div=o17831210-1#highlight
  54. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17870418-69-defend593&div=t17870418-69#highlight
  55. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=s17840915-1-person1392&div=s17840915-1#highlight
  56. ^ Kenneally 2006, p. 92
  57. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840421-15-defend237&div=t17840421-15#highlight
  58. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=o17850223-3-defend1313&div=o17850223-3#highlight
  59. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17820703-48-defend446&div=t17820703-48#highlight
  60. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=s17830910-1-person1471&div=s17830910-1#highlight
  61. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17850511-27-defend366&div=t17850511-27#highlight
  62. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17860719-42-defend478&div=t17860719-42#highlight
  63. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=o17850223-4-defend1387&div=o17850223-4#highlight
  64. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17830430-23-punish130&div=t17830430-23#highlight
  65. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17870110-22-defend230&div=t17870110-22#highlight
  66. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17831210-139-defend1345&div=t17831210-139#highlight
  67. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=&gender=&term=&ship=&notes=&givenname=joseph&format=names&sort=Surname&-recid=101
  68. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17860426-107-punish486&div=t17860426-107#highlight
  69. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?-db=ff.fp3&-format=detail.htm&-op=cn&-recid=102&-find=
  70. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17861025-54-punish308&div=t17861025-54#highlight
  71. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=&gender=&term=&ship=&notes=&givenname=sarah&format=names&sort=Surname&-recid=103
  72. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17860830-63-punish330&div=t17860830-63#highlight
  73. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=burkitt&gender=&term=&ship=&notes=&format=names&sort=Surname&-recid=104
  74. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/350
  75. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840707-15-punish81&div=t17840707-15#highlight
  76. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17830910-51-punish301&div=t17830910-51#highlight
  77. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840225-16-defend239&div=t17840225-16#highlight
  78. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=o17840421-2-punish712&div=o17840421-2#highlight
  79. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840707-36-punish198&div=t17840707-36#highlight
  80. ^ Chapman 1986, p. 58
  81. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840707-32-defend419&div=t17840707-32#highlight
  82. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=s17850223-1-punish580&div=s17850223-1#highlight
  83. ^ Chapman 1981, p.78
  84. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17841208-46-defend755&div=t17841208-46#highlight
  85. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/431
  86. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?-db=ff.fp3&-format=detail.htm&-op=cn&-recid=32821&-find=
  87. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840526-39-punish192&div=t17840526-39#highlight
  88. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=daniels&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=32813
  89. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/420
  90. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840225-5-defend79&div=t17840225-5#highlight
  91. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=davidson&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=32827
  92. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=s17850223-1-punish581&div=s17850223-1#highlight
  93. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/422
  94. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17861025-54-punish308&div=t17861025-54#highlight
  95. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17830430-23-punish130&div=t17830430-23#highlight
  96. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=o17840421-2-punish712&div=o17840421-2#highlight
  97. ^ Loise Wilson: Robert Forrester, First Fleeter Retrieved 2010-7-24
  98. ^ "April 1785, trial of ANN FOWLES (t17850406-7)". Old Bailey Proceedings Online. Retrieved October 4, 2013. 
  99. ^ Chapman 1986, p. 89
  100. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17841208-93-defend1015&div=t17841208-93#highlight
  101. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840707-36-punish198&div=t17840707-36#highlight
  102. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/537
  103. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=hadon&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=32954
  104. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=hagley&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=32921
  105. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/26
  106. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/563
  107. ^ John Hudson, orphan and chimney sweep
  108. ^ Short film about John Hudson
  109. ^ Old Bailey Trial of John Hudson
  110. ^ Old Bailey Trial of Edward Humphreys
  111. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=inett&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33001
  112. ^ http://firstfleet.thruhere.net/convict.php?id=361
  113. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/1066
  114. ^ http://home.dictionaryofsydney.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/eNewsletter-December-2006.pdf
  115. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17841208-78-defend945&div=t17841208-78#highlight
  116. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=o17850223-4-defend1377&div=o17850223-4#highlight
  117. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=ingraham&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33002
  118. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/620
  119. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=irvine&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33003
  120. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17830430-55-defend709&div=t17830430-55#highlight
  121. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17830910-9-defend152&div=t17830910-9#highlight
  122. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17830910-28-person269&div=t17830910-28#highlight
  123. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=s17830910-1-person1471&div=s17830910-1#highlight
  124. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17830226-27-defend342&div=t17830226-27#highlight
  125. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=s17830910-1-person1471&div=s17830910-1#highlight
  126. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=kimberly&gender=&term=&ship=&notes=&format=names&sort=Surname&-recid=33037
  127. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/658
  128. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=knowler&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33039
  129. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17830910-70-defend845&div=t17830910-70#highlight
  130. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=s17830910-1-person1447&div=s17830910-1#highlight
  131. ^ a b http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/s_mutiny.html
  132. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=knowland&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33242
  133. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840526-46-defend491&div=t17840526-46#highlight
  134. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=lankey&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33044
  135. ^ http://historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/666
  136. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=lane&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33074
  137. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/661
  138. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=lawrell&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33047
  139. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/670
  140. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/662
  141. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=lane&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33042
  142. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=larne&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33040
  143. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=lambeth&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33041
  144. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/660
  145. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17820911-110-defend1140&div=t17820911-110#highlight
  146. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17821204-19-person207&div=t17821204-19#highlight
  147. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=o17821204-1-person887&div=o17821204-1#highlight
  148. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=o17830910-4-defend1329&div=o17830910-4#highlight
  149. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=lavell&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33046
  150. ^ Jordan, Robert. (2002) 'The Convict Theatres of Early Australia 1788-1840', Strawberry Hills, NSW: Currency House.
  151. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/669
  152. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=lara&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33045
  153. ^ a b http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/672
  154. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17850914-96-defend1007&div=t17850914-96#highlight
  155. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17851019-81-person857&div=t17851019-81#highlight
  156. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=langley&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33043
  157. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/663
  158. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840526-75-defend672&div=t17840526-75#highlight
  159. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=s17840526-1-person1310&div=s17840526-1#highlight
  160. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=lawrence&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33048
  161. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/671
  162. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/678
  163. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=lemon&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33055
  164. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840526-43-defend471&div=t17840526-43#highlight
  165. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/681
  166. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=levy&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33058
  167. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=leary&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33052
  168. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/674
  169. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=legge&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33054
  170. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/676
  171. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/673
  172. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=leary&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33051
  173. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840114-38-defend381&div=t17840114-38#highlight
  174. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=&gender=&term=&ship=Friendship&age=&notes=&-recid=33050
  175. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/677
  176. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17850223-68-defend709&div=t17850223-68#highlight
  177. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=lee&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33053
  178. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/675
  179. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17861025-87-person1159&div=t17861025-87#highlight
  180. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/682
  181. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=lewis&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33059
  182. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/682
  183. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17841020-68-defend668&div=t17841020-68#highlight
  184. ^ http://www.londonlives.org/browse.jsp?id=LMOBPS45028_n2916-1&div=LMOBPS45028PS450280648#highlight
  185. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=leonell&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33056
  186. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/679
  187. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=levy&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33057
  188. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/680
  189. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17830910-50-defend646&div=t17830910-50#highlight
  190. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=lisk&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33063
  191. ^ http://www.prospecthill.spathaky.name/history/settlers.htm
  192. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/686
  193. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=limeburner&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33061
  194. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/684
  195. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/48544655
  196. ^ a b Hitchcock, Tim & Shoemaker, Robert (2015) London Lives: Poverty, Crime and the Making of a Modern City 1690-1800, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: p.1
  197. ^ a b Curthoys, Ann. (ed) (2005) Connected Worlds: History in Transnational Perspective, Canberra, Australia: Australia National University Press: p.79
  198. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/685
  199. ^ Curthoys, Ann. (ed) (2005) Connected Worlds: History in Transnational Perspective, Canberra, Australia: Australia National University Press: p.80
  200. ^ Christopher, Emma. (2011) A Merciless Place: The Fate of Britain's Convicts after the American Revolution, Oxford: Oxford University Press: p. 264.
  201. ^ a b Curthoys, Ann. (ed) (2005) Connected Worlds: History in Transnational Perspective, Canberra, Australia: Australia National University Press: p.82
  202. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17830910-41-defend531&div=t17830910-41#highlight
  203. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=o17831210-1-defend1436&div=o17831210-1#highlight
  204. ^ http://genuki.cs.ncl.ac.uk/DEV/CourtRecords/QS32-62.html
  205. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=limpus&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33062
  206. ^ Curthoys, Ann. (ed) (2005) Connected Worlds: History in Transnational Perspective, Canberra, Australia: Australia National University Press: p.86
  207. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=lightfoot&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33060
  208. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/683
  209. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=long&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33069
  210. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/691
  211. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=long&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33067
  212. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/689
  213. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17860222-24-defend368&div=t17860222-24#highlight
  214. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=lock&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33066
  215. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/688
  216. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17861025-25-person419&div=t17861025-25#highlight
  217. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=s17861025-1-person1582&div=s17861025-1#highlight
  218. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=o17870523-4-defend1014&div=o17870523-4#highlight
  219. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/692
  220. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=love&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33070
  221. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=lock&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33065
  222. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/687
  223. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/1234
  224. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=lynch&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33073
  225. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/696
  226. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=lynch&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33072
  227. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/695
  228. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840225-83-defend846&div=t17840225-83#highlight
  229. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=lloyd&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33064
  230. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/694
  231. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=mcdonaugh&gender=&term=&ship=&notes=&givenname=james&format=names&sort=Surname&-recid=33105
  232. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/703
  233. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/707
  234. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=mclaughlin&gender=&term=&ship=&notes=&format=names&sort=Surname&-recid=33107
  235. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/708
  236. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=&gender=&term=&ship=&notes=&givenname=edward&format=names&sort=Surname&-recid=33078
  237. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=maclean&gender=&term=&ship=&notes=&format=names&sort=Surname&-recid=33079
  238. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/709
  239. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=maclean&gender=&term=&ship=&notes=&format=names&sort=Surname&-recid=33080
  240. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/710
  241. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17850223-62-punish278&div=t17850223-62#highlight
  242. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=o17870110-1-punish395&div=o17870110-1#highlight
  243. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840421-22-punish128&div=t17840421-22#highlight
  244. ^ Chapman 1986, p. 143
  245. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840707-98-defend937&div=t17840707-98#highlight
  246. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=s17850223-1-person1574&div=s17850223-1#highlight
  247. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840421-23-defend437&div=t17840421-23#highlight
  248. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17811205-1-defend45&div=t17811205-1#highlight
  249. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=s17811205-1-person735&div=s17811205-1#highlight
  250. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=s17830723-1-person1275&div=s17830723-1#highlight
  251. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840707-6-defend102&div=t17840707-6#highlight
  252. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=s17850223-1-person1585&div=s17850223-1#highlight
  253. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=o17830910-5-punish661&div=o17830910-5#highlight
  254. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17831210-16-punish104&div=t17831210-16#highlight
  255. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17830115-3-defend82&div=t17830115-3#highlight
  256. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17850406-68-defend781&div=t17850406-68#highlight
  257. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17851214-113-defend1025&div=t17851214-113#highlight
  258. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=s17851214-1-person1149&div=s17851214-1#highlight
  259. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840707-32-defend419&div=t17840707-32#highlight
  260. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17861213-75-punish387&div=t17861213-75#highlight
  261. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840421-22-punish128&div=t17840421-22#highlight
  262. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=s17850511-1-person907&div=s17850511-1#highlight
  263. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17870110-72-punish373&div=t17870110-72#highlight
  264. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=o17850223-2-punish577&div=o17850223-2#highlight
  265. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=underwood&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33349
  266. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/977
  267. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=usher&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33350
  268. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/1717
  269. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/978
  270. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=vickery&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33352
  271. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/980
  272. ^ http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17840421-72-defend823&div=t17840421-72#highlight
  273. ^ http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/details.aspx?surname=vincent&gender=&term=&ship=&age=&notes=&-recid=33353
  274. ^ http://www.historyaustralia.org.au/twconvic/981
Books
  • Chapman, Don (1986). 1788: The People of the First Fleet. Doubleday Australia. ISBN 0868242659. 
  • Kenneally, Thomas (2006). The Commonwealth of Thieves. Random House Australia. ISBN 9781741666137. 

External links[edit]