List of counties in Minnesota

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

There are 87 counties in the U.S. state of Minnesota. There are also several historical counties.

On October 27, 1849, nine counties were established: Benton, Dahkotah, Itasca, Ramsey, Mahkahta, Pembina, Wabasha, Washington, and Wahnata. Six of these names still exist. With the foundation of Kittson County on March 9, 1878, Pembina County no longer existed.[1] When Minnesota was organized as a state, 57 of the present 87 counties were established. The last county to be created was Lake of the Woods County in 1923.[2]

The names of many of the counties allude to the long history of exploration. Over ten counties are named for Native American groups residing in parts of what is now Minnesota. Another fifteen counties are named after physical geographic features, and the remainder for politicians.

The FIPS county code is the five-digit Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) code which uniquely identifies counties and county equivalents in the United States. The three-digit number is unique to each individual county within a state, but to be unique within the entire United States, it must be prefixed by the state code. This means that, for example, the number 001 is shared by Aitkin County, Minnesota, Adams County, Wisconsin, and Adair County, Iowa. To uniquely identify Aitkin County, Minnesota, one must use the state code of 27 plus the county code of 001; therefore, the unique nationwide identifier for Aitkin County, Minnesota is 27001. The links in the column FIPS County Code are to the Census Bureau Info page for that county.[3]


FIPS code[3] County seat[4] Est.[1][4] Origin[5][6][7] Etymology Population[8] Area[4][8] Map
Aitkin County 001 Aitkin 1857 Pine County, Ramsey County William Alexander Aitken (1785–1851), early fur trader with Ojibwe Indians 16,102 1,819.30 sq mi
(4,712 km2)
State map highlighting Aitkin County
Anoka County 003 Anoka 1857 Ramsey County Dakota word meaning "both sides" 372,441 423.61 sq mi
(1,097 km2)
State map highlighting Anoka County
Becker County 005 Detroit Lakes 1858 Cass County, Pembina County George Loomis Becker, former state senator and third mayor of Saint Paul (1856–1857) 35,283 1,310.42 sq mi
(3,394 km2)
State map highlighting Becker County
Beltrami County 007 Bemidji 1866 Unorganized Territory, Itasca County, Pembina County, Polk County Giacomo Beltrami, Italian explorer who explored the northern reaches of Mississippi River in 1823. 46,718 2,505.27 sq mi
(6,489 km2)
State map highlighting Beltrami County
Benton County 009 Foley 1849 One of nine original counties; formed from residual St. Croix County, Wisconsin Territory. Thomas Hart Benton (1782–1858), former United States Senator from Missouri (1821–1851) 41,600 408.28 sq mi
(1,057 km2)
State map highlighting Benton County
Big Stone County 011 Ortonville 1862 Pierce County Big Stone Lake, a lake located in the county 5,105 496.95 sq mi
(1,287 km2)
State map highlighting Big Stone County
Blue Earth County 013 Mankato 1853 Unorganized Territory, Dakota County Blue Earth River, a river that flows through Minnesota 70,006 752.36 sq mi
(1,949 km2)
State map highlighting Blue Earth County
Brown County 015 New Ulm 1855 Blue Earth County Joseph Renshaw Brown (1805–1870), member of Minnesota territorial legislature (1854–55) and prominent pioneer 25,628 610.86 sq mi
(1,582 km2)
State map highlighting Brown County
Carlton County 017 Carlton 1857 Pine County,
Saint Louis County
Rueben B. Carlton (1812–1863), early settler and state senator (1857–1858) 36,825 860.33 sq mi
(2,228 km2)
State map highlighting Carlton County
Carver County 019 Chaska 1855 Hennepin County, Sibley County Jonathan Carver (1710–1790), early explorer and cartographer of the Mississippi river. 111,057 357.04 sq mi
(925 km2)
State map highlighting Carver County

Cass County 021 Walker 1851 Dakota County, Pembina County, Mankahto County, Wahnata County Lewis Cass (1782–1866), senator from Michigan (1845–1857) and United States Secretary of State (1831–1836) 31,446 2,017.60 sq mi
(5,226 km2)
State map highlighting Cass County
Chippewa County 023 Montevideo 1870 Pierce County, Davis County Chippewa River, a river that flows through Minnesota 12,172 582.80 sq mi
(1,509 km2)
State map highlighting Chippewa County
Chisago County 025 Center City 1851 Washington County, Ramsey County Chisago Lake, a lake located in the county 58,535 417.63 sq mi
(1,082 km2)
State map highlighting Chisago County
Clay County 027 Moorhead 1862 Pembina County Henry Clay (1777–1852), Kentucky statesman and ninth secretary of state of the United States (1825–1829) 66,258 1,045.24 sq mi
(2,707 km2)
State map highlighting Clay County
Clearwater County 029 Bagley 1902 Beltrami County Clearwater River and lake, both features located in the state 8,644 994.71 sq mi
(2,576 km2)
State map highlighting Clearwater County
Cook County 031 Grand Marais 1874 Lake County Named for Civil War veteran Major Michael Cook of Faribault, who was also a territorial and state senator 1857–62 5,639 1,450.60 sq mi
(3,757 km2)
State map highlighting Cook County
Cottonwood County 033 Windom 1857 Brown County Cottonwood River 11,319 639.99 sq mi
(1,658 km2)
State map highlighting Cottonwood County
Crow Wing County 035 Brainerd 1857 Ramsey County Crow Wing River 68,304 996.57 sq mi
(2,581 km2)
State map highlighting Crow Wing County
Dakota County 037 Hastings 1849 One of nine original counties. From the Dakota language, after a local tribe Dakota, meaning "Allies" 447,440 569.58 sq mi
(1,475 km2)
State map highlighting Dakota County
Dodge County 039 Mantorville 1855 Rice County, Unorganized Territory Henry Dodge (1782–1867), twice governor of Wisconsin.[9] 21,088 439.50 sq mi
(1,138 km2)
State map highlighting Dodge County
Douglas County 041 Alexandria 1858 Cass County, Pembina County Stephen Arnold Douglas (1813–1861), former United States Senator from Illinois (1847–1861) 39,953 634.32 sq mi
(1,643 km2)
State map highlighting Douglas County
Faribault County 043 Blue Earth 1855 Blue Earth County Jean-Baptiste Faribault (1775–1860), early settler and fur trader 13,873 713.63 sq mi
(1,848 km2)
State map highlighting Faribault County
Fillmore County 045 Preston 1853 Wabasha County Millard Fillmore (1800–1874), thirteenth president of the United States (1850–1853) 21,522 861.25 sq mi
(2,231 km2)
State map highlighting Fillmore County
Freeborn County 047 Albert Lea 1855 Blue Earth County, Rice County William S. Freeborn (1816–1900), member of the Territorial Legislature 30,515 707.64 sq mi
(1,833 km2)
State map highlighting Freeborn County
Goodhue County 049 Red Wing 1853 Wabasha County, Dakota County James Madison Goodhue, the first newspaper editor in Minnesota.[10] 48,035 758.27 sq mi
(1,964 km2)
State map highlighting Goodhue County
Grant County 051 Elbow Lake 1868 Stevens County, Wilkin County, Traverse County Ulysses S. Grant (1822–1885), eighteenth president of the United States (1869–1877) 6,139 546.41 sq mi
(1,415 km2)
State map highlighting Grant County
Hennepin County 053 Minneapolis 1852 Dakota County Father Louis Hennepin (1626–1705), early explorer of the Twin Cities area in the 17th century 1,258,713 556.62 sq mi
(1,442 km2)
State map highlighting Hennepin County
Houston County 055 Caledonia 1854 Fillmore County Sam Houston (1793–1863), the second and fourth president of the Republic of Texas and seventh governor of Texas 18,582 558.41 sq mi
(1,446 km2)
State map highlighting Houston County
Hubbard County 057 Park Rapids 1883 Cass County Lucius Frederick Hubbard (1836–1913), ninth governor of Minnesota (1882–1887) 22,132 922.46 sq mi
(2,389 km2)
State map highlighting Hubbard County
Isanti County 059 Cambridge 1857 Ramsey County Division of the Dakotas called the Izatys, meaning [those that] dwell at Knife Lake, after where they resided. 43,182 439.07 sq mi
(1,137 km2)
State map highlighting Isanti County
Itasca County 061 Grand Rapids 1849 One of nine original counties; formed from residual La Pointe County, Wisconsin Territory. Lake Itasca, source of the Mississippi River (located in northwestern Minnesota). 45,365 2,665.06 sq mi
(6,902 km2)
State map highlighting Itasca County
Jackson County 063 Jackson 1857 Brown County Henry Jackson, member of the first territorial legislature and the first merchant in St. Paul 9,919 701.69 sq mi
(1,817 km2)
State map highlighting Jackson County
Kanabec County 065 Mora 1858 Pine County From the Ojibwe language Kan-a-bec-o-si-pi (Ginebigo-ziibi), meaning Snake River, which flows through the county 16,602 524.93 sq mi
(1,360 km2)
State map highlighting Kanabec County
Kandiyohi County 067 Willmar 1858 Meeker County, Renville County, Pierce County, Davis County, Stearns County From the Sioux language for "buffalo fish" 43,813 796.06 sq mi
(2,062 km2)
State map highlighting Kandiyohi County
Kittson County 069 Hallock 1879 Pembina County Norman Kittson (1814–1888), businessman and mayor of Saint Paul (1858–1859) 4,060 1,097.08 sq mi
(2,841 km2)
State map highlighting Kittson County
Koochiching County 071 International Falls 1906 Itasca County From the Ojibwe language Gojijiing (Place of inlets), which was the Cree name for Rainy Lake and Rainy River. 11,751 3,102.36 sq mi
(8,035 km2)
State map highlighting Koochiching County
Lac qui Parle County 073 Madison 1871 Redwood County French phrase meaning "lake which talks". 6,630 764.87 sq mi
(1,981 km2)
State map highlighting Lac qui Parle County
Lake County 075 Two Harbors 1856 Itasca County Lake Superior, which forms one of its edges 10,855 2,099.16 sq mi
(5,437 km2)
State map highlighting Lake County
Lake of the Woods County 077 Baudette 1923 Beltrami County Lake of the Woods, a lake located within the county. 3,778 1,296.70 sq mi
(3,358 km2)
State map highlighting Lake of the Woods County
Le Sueur County 079 Le Center 1853 Dakota County Pierre-Charles Le Sueur (1657–1704), fur trader and early explorer of the Minnesota River Valley 29,255 448.50 sq mi
(1,162 km2)
State map highlighting Le Sueur County
Lincoln County 081 Ivanhoe 1873 Lyon County Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865), sixteenth president of the United States (1861–1865) 5,521 537.03 sq mi
(1,391 km2)
State map highlighting Lincoln County
Lyon County 083 Marshall 1871 Redwood County Nathaniel Lyon (1818–1861), United States Army general killed during the Civil War 25,427 714.17 sq mi
(1,850 km2)
State map highlighting Lyon County
McLeod County 085 Glencoe 1856 Carver County, Sibley County Martin McLeod early pioneer and member of the territorial legislature (1849–1856) 36,785 491.91 sq mi
(1,274 km2)
State map highlighting McLeod County
Mahnomen County 087 Mahnomen 1906 Norman County Ojibwa word meaning "wild rice". 5,280 556.14 sq mi
(1,440 km2)
State map highlighting Mahnomen County
Marshall County 089 Warren 1879 Kittson County William Rainey Marshall (1825–1896), fifth governor of Minnesota (1866–1870) 8,810 1,772.24 sq mi
(4,590 km2)
State map highlighting Marshall County
Martin County 091 Fairmont 1857 Faribault County, Brown County Morgan Lewis Martin (1805–1887), delegate to Congress from Wisconsin Territory 19,657 709.34 sq mi
(1,837 km2)
State map highlighting Martin County
Meeker County 093 Litchfield 1856 Davis County Bradley B. Meeker (1813–1873), Associate Justice of the Minnesota Territorial Supreme Court (1849–1853) 23,490 608.54 sq mi
(1,576 km2)
State map highlighting Meeker County
Mille Lacs County 095 Milaca 1857 Ramsey County Mille Lacs Lake, a lake located within the county. 27,427 574.47 sq mi
(1,488 km2)
State map highlighting Mille Lacs County
Morrison County 097 Little Falls 1856 Benton County William & Allan Morrison, fur trading brothers[11] 34,250 1,124.50 sq mi
(2,912 km2)
State map highlighting Morrison County
Mower County 099 Austin 1855 Rice County John Edward Mower (1815–1879), member of the Minnesota territorial legislature in the 1850s 40,058 711.50 sq mi
(1,843 km2)
State map highlighting Mower County

Murray County 101 Slayton 1857 Brown County William Pitt Murray (1825–1910), Minnesota statesman and member of the territorial legislature (1852–1855) and 1857 8,049 704.43 sq mi
(1,824 km2)
State map highlighting Murray County
Nicollet County 103 St. Peter 1853 Dakota County Joseph Nicolas Nicollet (1786–1843), early explorer and cartographer of the Upper Mississippi River 34,242 452.29 sq mi
(1,171 km2)
State map highlighting Nicollet County
Nobles County 105 Worthington 1857 Brown County William H. Nobles, member of the Minnesota territorial legislature in 1854 and 1856 21,727 715.39 sq mi
(1,853 km2)
State map highlighting Nobles County
Norman County 107 Ada 1881 Polk County Early Norwegian, also known as Norman, settlers. 6,329 876.27 sq mi
(2,270 km2)
State map highlighting Norman County
Olmsted County 109 Rochester 1855 Fillmore County, Wabasha County, Rice County David Olmsted, first mayor of Saint Paul and member of territorial legislature (1849–1850) 164,784 653.01 sq mi
(1,691 km2)
State map highlighting Olmsted County
Otter Tail County 111 Fergus Falls 1858 Pembina County, Cass County Otter Tail Lake, a lake located within the county 60,626 1,979.71 sq mi
(5,127 km2)
State map highlighting Otter Tail County
Pennington County 113 Thief River Falls 1910 Red Lake County Edmund Pennington (1848-1926), executive of the Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Railroad 13,714 616.54 sq mi
(1,597 km2)
State map highlighting Pennington County
Pine County 115 Pine City 1856 Chisago County, Ramsey County Giant forests of Eastern White Pine and Red Pine that flourish in the county 30,197 1,411.04 sq mi
(3,655 km2)
State map highlighting Pine County
Pipestone County 117 Pipestone 1857 Brown County Name of a sacred Dakota quarry of red pipestone found in the county 9,245 465.89 sq mi
(1,207 km2)
State map highlighting Pipestone County
Polk County 119 Crookston 1858 Pembina County James K. Polk (1795–1849), eleventh president of the United States (1845–1849) 30,412 1,970.37 sq mi
(5,103 km2)
State map highlighting Polk County

Pope County 121 Glenwood 1862 Pierce County, Cass County, Unorganized Territory John Pope (1822–1892), United States Army general during the Dakota War of 1862 11,400 670.14 sq mi
(1,736 km2)
State map highlighting Pope County
Ramsey County 123 Saint Paul 1849 One of nine original counties; formed from residual St. Croix County, Wisconsin Territory. Alexander Ramsey (1815–1903), first governor of Minnesota Territory (1849–1853) 536,075 155.78 sq mi
(403 km2)
State map highlighting Ramsey County
Red Lake County 125 Red Lake Falls 1896 Polk County Red Lake River, a river that flows through Minnesota. 3,911 432.43 sq mi
(1,120 km2)
State map highlighting Red Lake County
Redwood County 127 Redwood Falls 1862 Brown County Redwood River, a river that flows through Minnesota. 15,288 879.73 sq mi
(2,278 km2)
State map highlighting Redwood County
Renville County 129 Olivia 1855 Nicollet County, Pierce County, Sibley County Joseph Renville (1779–1846), interpreter for early explorations of the Louisiana Purchase 14,348 982.92 sq mi
(2,546 km2)
State map highlighting Renville County
Rice County 131 Faribault 1853 Dakota County, Wabasha County Henry Mower Rice (1816–1894), former United States Senator from Minnesota (1858–1863) 67,948 497.57 sq mi
(1,289 km2)
State map highlighting Rice County
Rock County 133 Luverne 1857 Brown County Large rocky plateau located within the county, known as "the mound." 9,551 482.61 sq mi
(1,250 km2)
State map highlighting Rock County
Roseau County 135 Roseau 1894 Kittson County, Beltrami County Roseau River and Roseau Lake, both of which are located nearby 15,252 1,662.51 sq mi
(4,306 km2)
State map highlighting Roseau County
Saint Louis County 137 Duluth 1855 Itasca County, Newton Saint Louis River, a river that flows through Minnesota 200,514 6,225.16 sq mi
(16,123 km2)
State map highlighting Saint Louis County
Scott County 139 Shakopee 1853 Dakota County Winfield Scott (1786–1866), United States Army general who served from (1808–1861) 155,814 356.68 sq mi
(924 km2)
State map highlighting Scott County
Sherburne County 141 Elk River 1856 Benton County Moses Sherburne (1813–1873), Associate Justice of the Minnesota Territorial Supreme Court (1853–1857) 102,206 436.30 sq mi
(1,130 km2)
State map highlighting Sherburne County
Sibley County 143 Gaylord 1853 Dakota County Henry Hastings Sibley (1811–1891), first governor of Minnesota (1858–1860) 15,084 588.65 sq mi
(1,525 km2)
State map highlighting Sibley County
Stearns County 145 St. Cloud 1855 Cass County, Nicollet County, Pierce County, Sibley County Charles Thomas Stearns (1814–1888), early settler of St. Cloud and member of the Minnesota territorial legislature (1849–1858) 160,977 1,344.52 sq mi
(3,482 km2)
State map highlighting Stearns County
Steele County 147 Owatonna 1855 Rice County, Blue Earth County, Le Sueur County Franklin Steele (1813–1880), early settler of Minneapolis and developer of Saint Anthony Falls 37,421 429.55 sq mi
(1,113 km2)
State map highlighting Steele County
Stevens County 149 Morris 1862 Pierce County, Unorganized Territory Isaac Ingalls Stevens (1818–1862), first governor of Washington Territory (1853–1857) 9,728 562.06 sq mi
(1,456 km2)
State map highlighting Stevens County
Swift County 151 Benson 1870 Chippewa County Henry Adoniram Swift (1823–1869), third governor of Minnesota (1863–1864) 9,719 743.53 sq mi
(1,926 km2)
State map highlighting Swift County
Todd County 153 Long Prairie 1855 Cass County John Blair Smith Todd, commander of Fort Ripley (1849–56); general in the Civil War; delegate in Congress from Dakota Territory (1861 and 1863–65); governor of Dakota Territory (1869–71) 25,667 942.02 sq mi
(2,440 km2)
State map highlighting Todd County
Traverse County 155 Wheaton 1862 Pierce County, Unorganized Territory Lake Traverse, a lake located in the county. 3,136 574.09 sq mi
(1,487 km2)
State map highlighting Traverse County
Wabasha County 157 Wabasha 1849 One of nine original counties. Named after M'dewakanton Dakota Indian Chief Wabasha III 21,683 525.01 sq mi
(1,360 km2)
State map highlighting Wabasha County
Wadena County 159 Wadena 1858 Cass County, Todd County Wadena Trading Post, in turn for a Ojibway word meaning "a little round hill". 14,241 535.02 sq mi
(1,386 km2)
State map highlighting Wadena County

Waseca County 161 Waseca 1857 Steele County Dakota word meaning "rich and fertile" 18,981 423.25 sq mi
(1,096 km2)
State map highlighting Waseca County
Washington County 163 Stillwater 1849 One of nine original counties; formed from residual St. Croix County, Wisconsin Territory. George Washington (1732–1799), first president of the United States (1789–1797) 278,936 391.70 sq mi
(1,014 km2)
State map highlighting Washington County
Watonwan County 165 St. James 1860 Brown County Watonwan River, a river that flows through Minnesota. 11,077 434.51 sq mi
(1,125 km2)
State map highlighting Watonwan County
Wilkin County 167 Breckenridge 1858 Cass County, Pembina County Alexander Wilkin (1820–1864), Minnesota politician and soldier killed in the Civil War 6,306 751.43 sq mi
(1,946 km2)
State map highlighting Wilkin County
Winona County 169 Winona 1854 Fillmore County, Wabasha County Named after Wee-No-Nah, Sister, or Cousin of Chief Wabasha III 49,721 626.30 sq mi
(1,622 km2)
State map highlighting Winona County
Wright County 171 Buffalo 1855 Cass County, Sibley County Silas Wright (1795–1847), former United States Senator from New York (1833–1844) 151,150 660.75 sq mi
(1,711 km2)
State map highlighting Wright County
Yellow Medicine County 173 Granite Falls 1871 Redwood County Yellow Medicine River, a river that flows through Minnesota. 9,467 757.96 sq mi
(1,963 km2)
State map highlighting Yellow Medicine County

Historical counties[edit]

The new Seal of Minnesota contains 98 gold "boxes" around the edge, symbolizing the state's 87 counties and 11 recognized Native American tribes.
  • St. Clair County, Indiana (1801–12) (Transferred to Illinois in 1809)
  • St. Charles County, Louisiana (1809–13) (Transferred to Missouri in 1812)
  • Madison County (IL) (1812–18) Formed from St. Clair County (IL)
  • Michilimackinac County, Michigan Territory (1818–37)
  • Crawford County, Michigan and Wisconsin Territories (1818–40)
  • Chippewa County, Michigan Territory (1827–37)
  • Dubuque County (MI) (1834–37)
  • Fayette County (WI) (1837–49)
  • St. Croix County, Wisconsin Territory (1840–49)
  • La Pointe County, Wisconsin Territory (1845–49) Formed from St. Croix
  • Mahkatah County (1849–51) (Mahkahto) (One of Original 9 counties) Dissolved to Pembina and Cass
  • Wahnata County (1849–51) (One of Original 9 counties) Dissolved to Pembina and Cass
  • Buchanan County (1857–61) Formed from Pine County, Dissolved back to Pine
  • Pierce County (1853–62) Formed from Dakota County
  • Superior County Name change to Saint Louis County then to Lake.
  • Davis County (1855–62) Formed from Cass, Nicollet, and Sibley Counties
  • Toombs County (1858–62) Formed from Pembina. Name Changed to Andy Johnson.
  • Newton County (1855–56) Formed from Itasca County and Un-Organized. Name Changed from Doty County, then to Saint Louis County.
  • Monroe County merged with Mille Lacs.
  • Lincoln County (1861–68) Formed from Renville County
  • Lac qui Parle County (1862–68) Formed from Davis
  • Manomin County (1857–1869) Formed from Ramsey County, Merged into Anoka County.
  • Monongalia County (1861–70) Formed from Ramsey County, Pierce County, and un-Organized. Dissolved to Kandiyohi County.
  • Aiken County (1857–72) Formed from Pine and Ramsey Counties, Change name to Aitkin County
  • Pembina County (1849–78) (One of Original 9 counties) Name Change to Kittson County
  • Saint Louis County. Name change from Superior, then to Lake.
  • Breckenridge County (1858–62) Formed from Pembina. Name Change to Clay in 1862
  • Andy Johnson County (1862–68) Formerly Toombs county. Named was changed to Wilkin.
  • Midway County (1857–58) Area created from Brown county, overlapped Pipestone county. Dissolved in 1858 when the State of Minnesota was formed and the rest of the territory not added to the state became unorganized.


  1. ^ a b "Minnesota Place Names". Minnesota Historical Society. Archived from the original on August 14, 2007. Retrieved September 17, 2007.
  2. ^ "Minnesota County History". Association of Minnesota Counties. Archived from the original on August 13, 2007. Retrieved September 2, 2007.
  3. ^ a b "EPA County FIPS Code Listing". EPA. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
  4. ^ a b c National Association of Counties. "NACo – Find a county". Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved February 24, 2012.
  5. ^ Upham, Warren (1969). Minnesota Geographic Names. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society.
  6. ^ "County Name Origins". Association of Minnesota Counties. Archived from the original on May 27, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  7. ^ "Origin of Minnesota County Name". Minnesota Secretary of State. Archived from the original on November 8, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  8. ^ a b "Minnesota QuickFacts". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 18, 2024.
  9. ^ "Dodge County History" (PDF). Dodge County website. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 11, 2008. Retrieved February 17, 2008.
  10. ^ "The History of Goodhue County". Goodhue County, Minnesota website. Archived from the original on June 6, 2008. Retrieved February 17, 2008.
  11. ^ MCHS – William Morrison – Fur Trader Archived July 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine

External links[edit]