List of countries' copyright lengths

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Copyright is the right to copy and publish a particular work. The terms "copy" and "publish" are quite broad. They also cover copying in electronic form, the making of translated versions, the creation of a television program based on the work, and putting the work on the Internet.

Copyright protection is automatic upon creation of the work. In some countries, registration with a Copyright Office has some benefits (like the ability to sue, or to receive more money in damages).

Worldwide map of copyright term length

This is a list of countries and their copyright terms, the lengths of their standard copyrights, in years. When a work's copyright term ends, the work passes into the public domain.

The list also includes entries for non-country entities: the European Union, Berne Convention, and the Universal Copyright Convention, which set minimum terms for their member states or signatories. The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), though not included, requires a copyright length of at least 50 years after death.

The Berne Convention stipulates that the duration of the term for copyright protection is the life of the author plus at least 50 years after his death. For some categories of works, the minimum duration is shorter. For example, the minimum term for applied art is 25 years. Movies have a minimum term of 50 years. Countries are of course free to choose a longer term of protection. Most countries have done so.

The member states of the European Union have, following an EC directive, increased the term to life of the author and 70 years after his death. Although this was not the original intention, this extension applies retroactively. Works that had ended up in the public domain because the author was dead for 50 years now received an additional twenty years of protection.

Most European countries, on the other hand, follow the principle that copyright protection is granted automatically upon creation of the work. This principle was first laid down in the Berne Convention (1886). The Berne Convention specifically forbids (in article 5) that a member country can require any formality for getting copyright protection.

In 1989, the Berne Convention became effective in the U.S., and from that moment on also U.S. authors automatically obtained copyright on their works. However, many U.S. texts on copyright still echo the old registration principle, which can be very confusing at times.

To confuse matters even more, the requirement for registration has not been abolished completely. To start a lawsuit against infringers, it is still necessary to register the work. Further, registration offers the possibility to obtain statutory damages, rather than only the actual damages from the infringer.

In most countries, the duration of copyright is dependent on the duration of the author's life. After he dies, his estate can exercise the copyright for at least 50 more years. In most countries, the term is even longer: 70 years after the author's death.

A work is protected by copyright if it is a literary or artistic work. This is quite a broad expression, and almost all products of creative and original effort are copyrighted. Note that copyright protects only specific expressions of an idea, not the idea itself.

A collection of facts may be copyrighted, assuming there is some creative activity involved in compiling the collection. Several countries provide a separate protection regime for collections of facts that qualify as "databases", but this regime has nothing to do with copyright.

Legend[edit]

  • 0, no copyright = Not copyrighted
  • Life + xx years = Copyrighted for authors' lifetime plus xx years after their deaths
  • xx years after publication, creation, etc. = copyrighted for xx years since publication, creation, etc., of works
  • Until year end = Copyrighted until the end of a calendar year, i.e. December 31
  • Berne = Country has signed the Berne Convention, see Berne in the "Countries, ..." column
  • TRIPS = The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international agreement administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO) that sets down minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property (IP) regulation as applied to nationals of other WTO Members.This also indicates that this country has at least a minimum of 50 years after the death of the creator til the copyright expires.
  • WCT = The World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty, (WIPO Copyright Treaty or WCT), is an international treaty on copyright law adopted by the member states of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in 1996.

Table[edit]

Countries, areas, and entities Copyright terms based on authors' deaths[Note 1] Copyright terms based on publication and creation dates[Note 1] Until year end?
Afghanistan Afghanistan Life + 50 years[1] 50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[1]


50 years from publication (published after authors' deaths)[1]
50 years from publication (audiovisual works)[1]
50 years from publication (photographic, painting works)[1]
50 years from creation (phonogram)[1]

Yes (Afghan calendar)[1]
 Albania Life + 70 years[2]:Art. 17 70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[2]:Art. 18


70 years from publication; 70 years from creation if unpublished (photographic or audiovisual work of joint authorship)[3]
25 years from production (works of applied art)[2]:Art. 20

Yes[2]:Art. 21
 Algeria Life + 50 years (except posthumous work)[4]:Art. 54 50 years from publication; 50 years from creation if unpublished (collective work, anonymous or pseudonymous work, audiovisual work, posthumous work)[4]:Arts. 56–58, 60


50 years from creation (photographs or the work of applied art[4]:Art. 59

Yes[4]:Arts. 54, 56–58, 60
 Andorra Life + 70 years[Note 2][5]:Art. 18(1), (4) 70 years from publication; 70 years from creation if unpublished (collective work with unknown authorship)[5]:Art. 18(3)


70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[5]:Art. 18(5)

Yes[5]:Art. 18(8)
 Angola Life + 50 years[6]


Life + 25 years (photographic works or applied arts)[6]

Yes[6]
 Anguilla Life + 50 years[7] 50 years from the death of the author, of the last surviving author for works with more than one author.[7]
 Antigua and Barbuda Life + 50 years[8][9]:s. 10(1) 50 years from publication; 50 years from creation if unpublished (anonymous or pseudonymous work, computer generated work, sound recording or film)[9]:s. 10(2), (4), 11(1)


50 years from creation (broadcast); 50 years after programme included in a cable programme service[9]:s. 12(1)
25 years from publication (typographical arrangement of a published edition)[9]:s. 13

Yes[9]:s. 10(1), 10(2), (4), 11(1), 12(1), 13
Argentina Argentina Life + 70 years[10]:Art. 5 50 years from publication (anonymous intellectual works belonging to institutions, corporations or legal persons)[10]:Art. 8 Phonograms: 70 years from first publication.[11][12][13][14] Photographs: 20 years from first publication.[15] Cinematographic works: 50 years after death of the last survivor among the producer, the director, the screenplay writer or the composer (for musical comedies).[15] Yes[10]:Art. 5
 Armenia Life + 70 years[16]:Art. 37 70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[16]:Art. 37 Yes[16]:Art. 37
 Aruba Life + 50 years[17](wikisource)
Australia Australia (including external territories) Life + 70 years[18]:s. 33


[Life + 50 years (death before 1955)][19]

70 years from publication (sound recordings, cinematograph films)[18]:s. 93, 94


50 years after making (television broadcasts and sound broadcasts)[18]:s. 95
25 years from publication (published editions of works)[18]:s. 96
[50 years from publication (photographs, no longer applicable since 1 January 2005)][19]

Yes[18]:ss. 93–96[19]
 Austria Life + 70 years[Note 3][20]:§ 60, 62[21] 70 years from publication; 70 years from creation if unpublished (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[20]:§ 61 Yes[20]:§ 64
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Life + 50 years (except posthumous work published at first time during 30 years)[22]:Art. 25(1), (2) 50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work; posthumous work published at first time during 30 years)[22]:Art. 25(2), 26(1), (3) Yes[22]:Art. 25(1), (2), 26(1), (3)
 Bahamas Berne (The Berne Convention states that all works except photographic and cinematographic shall be copyrighted for at least 50 years after the author's death, but parties are free to provide longer terms)
 Bahrain Life + 50 calendar years (except posthumous work)[23]:Art. 31(1) 50 calendar years from publication (cinematographic films, applied arts works and photographs; anonymous or pseudonymous works; corporate works; posthumous works)[23]:Art. 31(2)(a–d)


40 years from publication or 50 years from completion, whichever is earlier (computer software)[23]:Art. 31(3)

 Bangladesh Life + 50 years
 Barbados Life + 50 years[24][25]:s. 10(1) 50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[25]:s. 10(3)


50 years from making (computer-generated work)[25]:s. 10(4)
50 years from publication; 50 years from creation if unpublished (sound recordings and films)[25]:s. 11
50 years from creation (broadcast); 50 years after programme included in a cable programme service[25]:s. 12
25 years from publication (typographical arrangement of a published edition)[25]:s. 13

Yes[25]:ss. 10–13
 Belarus Life + 50 years[26]:Art. 22(1) 50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[26]:Art. 22(2)


50 years from fixation (performance)[26]:Art. 38(1)
50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from fixation (phonogram)[26]:Art. 38(2)
50 years from the first broadcast or cable transmission[26]:Art. 38(3)

Yes[26]:Arts. 22(4), 38(4)
 Belgium Life + 70 years[27]
 Belize Life + 50 years[28] 50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[28]
50 years from publication (sound recording or film)[28]
50 years from publication (computer-generated work)[28]
Yes
 Benin Life + 50 years
 Bermuda Life + 50 years[29]
Berne Convention signatories Life + 50 years[30]


Signatories may grant longer terms.[31]

50 years from publication or if not shown 50 years from creation (cinematographic works)[32]


50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[33]
25 years from creation (photographic works)[34]
Signatories may grant longer terms.[31]

Yes[35]
 Bhutan Life + 50 years[36]
 Bolivia Life + 50 years[37]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Life + 70 years[38]
 Botswana Berne, TRIPS, WCT[39]
 Brazil Life + 70 years[40]:art. 41 70 years from disclosure (audiovisual and photographic works)[40]:art. 44 Yes[40]:arts. 41, 44
 British Indian Ocean Territory unknown
 British Virgin Islands unknown
 Brunei Life + 50 years[41]
 Bulgaria Life + 70 years (EU)[42]
 Burkina Faso Life + 70 years[43]
 Burundi Life + 50 years

[44]

50 years from publication (phonograms)[44]
 Cambodia Life + 50 years[45]
 Cameroon Life + 50 years[46]
 Canada Life + 50 years[47][48] 50 years from publication or 75 years from creation, whichever is shorter (anonymous works).[47]
70 years from date of publication (sound recordings and performances)[49][50]
Yes[47]
 Cape Verde Life + 50 years[3]
 Cayman Islands unknown
 Central African Republic Berne, TRIPS
 Chad Berne, TRIPS
Chile Chile Life + 70 years[51]
China China, People's Republic of (Mainland only) Life + 50 years (citizens' works)[52]:para. 1 50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (works of legal entities, cinematographic works, films or photographic works)[52]:paras. 2–3 Yes[52]
 Colombia Life + 80 years[53]:Art. 21 80 years from publication (cinematographic works)[53]:Art. 37 Yes[53]:Art. 28
 Comoros Berne
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the Berne, TRIPS
 Congo, Republic of the Life + 50 years[54]
 Costa Rica Life + 70 years[55]
 Côte d'Ivoire Life + 99 years (except posthumous works published within this period)[56]:Art. 45(1) 99 years from publication (photographic or audiovisual works or works of applied art; anonymous or pseudonymous works; posthumous works)[56]:Art. 45(3)(a–c) Yes[56]:Art. 45
 Croatia Life + 70 years[57]
 Cuba Life + 50 years
 Curaçao Life + 50 years[58]
 Cyprus Life + 70 years
(EU, WCT)[59]
 Czech Republic Life + 70 years[60]:Art. 27(1) 70 years from publication (anonymous works)[60]:Art. 27(3) Yes[60]:Art. 27(7)
 Denmark Life + 70 years[61] 70 years following the death of the copyright holder. Examples of protected works are literature, music, theatre, film, the visual arts – including photography, architecture, decorative arts – and computer programmes. It is the expression of the work which is protected – that is to say, the work's singular design or presentation. Copyright applies from the moment of creation of the work. Thus, protection does not depend on any kind of registration.[62]
 Djibouti Life + 25 years (Berne, TRIPS)[63]:Art. 59 25 years from publication or if unpublished 25 years from completion (film)[63]:Art. 62


25 years from completion (a photographic work or a work of applied art)[63]:Art. 63

Yes[63]:Art. 65
 Dominica Life + 70 years[64]
 Dominican Republic Life + 50 years[65]
 Ecuador Life + 70 years[66]
Egypt Egypt Life + 50 years[67]
 El Salvador Life + 50 years[68]
 Equatorial Guinea Berne
 Eritrea the latter of Life + 0 years or 50 years since publication[69]
 Estonia Life + 70 years (EU)[70]:§ 38(1) 70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[70]:§ 40 Yes[70]:§ 43
 Ethiopia Life + 50 years[71]
 European Union Members Life + 70 years[72]:Art. 1 (1) 70 years from publication or if unpublished 70 years from creation (anonymous works. The terms "shall be calculated from the first day of January of the year following the event which gives rise to them"(art.3).)[72]:Art. 1 (3), (6) Yes[72]:Art. 8 (1)
 Fiji Life + 50 years[73]
 Finland Life + 70 years[74] 50 years from publication (sound recordings, television broadcasts and sound broadcasts)[75]:Arts. 46, 48

50 years from creation (photographic works)[75]:Art. 49a

Yes[75]:Art. 43
France France Life + 70 years (except posthumous works published after this term)[Note 4][76]:Arts. L123-1, L123-2


The following additions to copyright term formerly applied to all works, but the French Cour de Cassation has found them to be superseded by later copyright treaties, thus limiting the copyright term to life + 70 years total, at least for non-musical works of authors who did not "die for France".[77]


+ 6 years 152 days for musical work published through 1920[76]:Art. L123-8
+ 8 years and 120 days for musical work published through 1947[76]:Art. L123-9
+ 30 years for all works if the author died on active service[76]:Art. L123-10

70 years from publication (pseudonymous, anonymous or collective works)[76]:Art. L123-3


25 years from publication (posthumous works published after Art. L123-1 term)[76]:L123-4

Yes[76]:Arts. L123-1, L123-3, L123-4, but not Arts. L123-8 or L123-9
 Gabon Berne, TRIPS, WCT
 Gambia Life + 50 years[78]
 Georgia Life + 70 years[79]
Germany Germany Life + 70 years[80] 25 years from first publication or first public performance if copyright has expired before such publication or performance, or if the work has never been protected in Germany and the author died more than 70 years before the first publication[81] Yes[82]
 Ghana Life + 70 years[83]
Greece Greece Life + 70 years[Note 5][84]:Arts. 29, 31(3) 70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous works)[84]:Art. 31(1) Yes[84]:Arts. 29, 31
 Grenada Berne, TRIPS[85]
 Guatemala Life + 75 years[86]:Art. 43 75 years from publication or if unpublished 75 years from creation (computer programs and collective works; anonymous or pseudonymous works; audiovisual works)[86]:Arts. 44, 45, 47 Yes[86]:Art. 48
 Guinea TRIPS, WCT
 Guinea-Bissau Berne, TRIPS
 Guyana Life + 50 years[87]
 Haiti Berne, TRIPS[88]
 Honduras Life + 75 years[89] 70 years from publication or, if unpublished within 50 years, 70 years from creation (works of applied art and photographs)[90] Yes[90]
Hong Kong Hong Kong[Note 6] Life + 50 years (literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works with known authorship)[91]:s. 17(2)


Life + 50 years (films)[91]:s. 19[Note 7]

50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works with unknown authorship)[91]:s. 17(3)


50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (sound recordings)[92]:s. 18
50 years from creation (broadcast); 50 years after programme included in a cable programme service[92]:s. 20
25 years from publication (typographical arrangement of published editions)[92]:s. 21

Yes[92]:s. 17, 18, 20, 21
 Hungary Life + 70 years[93]:s. 31(1)(2)


If there are multiple authors, life of last surviving author + 70 years[93]:s. 31(4)

70 years and shall be counted from the first day of the year following the first disclosure of the work in case the person of the author is unknown. However, should the author become known during this period of time, the term of protection shall be counted as the person of the author would have been known.[93]:s. 31(3)

70 years counted from the first day of the year following the first disclosure of a collective work or a cinematographic creation.[93]:s. 31(5)(6)
25 years from the first day of the year following the first disclosure if copyright protection of a scope consistent with the author's economic rights shall be due to the person who, following the expiration of the term of protection or the period of time determined in the term of protection shall be counted from a date other than the first day of the year following the death of the author, the author dying last, or the joint author, discloses according to the law a work previously not disclosed to the public.[93]:s. 31(7), 32

Yes[93]:s. 31(2)
 Iceland Life + 70 years[94]
India India[95] Life + 60 years (except posthumous works)[Note 8][96]:s. 22 60 years from publication (posthumous works, photographs, cinematograph films, sound recordings, works of public undertakings, and works of international organisations)[96]:ss. 24–27, 28A, 29 Yes[96]:ss. 22, 24–27, 28A, 29
 Indonesia Life + 50 years[97] Life+70 years 70 years the duration of copyright protection to the author's for books,[98]
 Iran Life + 50 years[99] 30 years from publication (photographic or cinematographic works)[100]
 Iraq Life + 50 years[101] 5 years from publication (photographic works)[102]
Republic of Ireland Ireland Life + 70 years[103]
 Israel Life + 70 years[104] 50 years from publication (photographs created till May 2007)[105] Yes[106]
 Italy Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][107]:Art. 25
70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[107]:Art. 27


20 years from publication (copyright of State, the provinces, the communes, the academies or public cultural organizations, or to private legal entities of a non-profit making character)

Yes[107]:s. 25, s. 32ter
 Jamaica Life + 95 years[108]
Japan Japan Life + 50 years[109]:Art. 51(2) 70 years from publication or if unpublished 70 years from creation (cinematographic works)[109]:Art. 54(1)


50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (works of a legal person or other corporate body)[109]:Art. 53(1)

Yes[109]:Art. 57
Jordan Jordan Life + 50 years[110]
 Kazakhstan Life + 50 years[111]
 Kenya Life + 50 years (literary, musical or artistic work other than photographs)[112]:s. 23(2)1 50 years from the latest of creation or publication (audio-visual works and photographs)[112]:s. 23(2) Yes[112]:s. 23
 Kiribati Life + 50 years[78]
 Kosovo Life + 70 years[113] 70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)

70 years from the death of the last surviving co-author.
70 years after the lawful disclosure of the collective work

Yes
 Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Life + 50 years (Berne)[114] Works authored by "an institution, enterprise or organization", 50 years from publication[114]
 Korea, Republic of Life + 50 years[115]:Art. 36 50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (organizational works)[115]:Art. 38 Yes[115]:Art. 40
 Kuwait TRIPS[116]
 Kyrgyzstan Life + 50 years[117]
 Laos Life + 50 years.[Note 9] 50 years after making available. Also:
  • Anonymous/pseudonymous work: 50 years from the date the work was made available to the public;
  • Cinematographic work: 50 years from making available, failing that, 50 years from making;
  • Applied art: 25 years from date of creation.

Related: Performances, phonograms, broadcasts: 50 years since the date of performance, fixation, and broadcast, respectively.

 Latvia Life + 70 years[120]:Art. 36
[Life + 50 years][121]
70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[122] Yes[120]:Art. 38
 Lebanon Life + 50 years[123]
    • 50 years after lawful publication ; failing publication, 50 years after work completion.
    • moral rights : perpetual
    • economic rights: 50 years from performance.
    • moral rights : perpetual.
    • broadcasters' rights: 20 years after first broadcasting.[124]
 Lesotho Life + 50 years[78]
 Liberia Life + 50 years[125]
 Libya Life + 25 years with 50-year minimum (as of 1968; may have changed since)
 Liechtenstein Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][126]
 Lithuania Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][127]
 Luxembourg Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][128]
 Macau(b) Life + 50 years[129]:Art. 21(1) 50 years from publication (anonymous works)[129]:Art. 23


50 years from publication (audiovisual works)[129]:Art. 106
25 years from completion (works of applied art and photographic works)[129]:Arts. 148 & 155

Yes[129]:Art. 21(3)
 Macedonia Life + 70 years[130]
 Madagascar Life + 70 years[131]
 Malawi Life + 50 years[132]
Malaysia Malaysia Life + 50 years[133] The general duration of protection for literary, musical or artistic works is 50 years after the death of the author. This may be extended for posthumous publications by up to another 50 years if the work was only published well after the death of the author[134]
 Maldives Life + 50 years from death.
 Mali Life + 50 years[135]
 Malta Life + 70 years[136] Yes[137]
 Marshall Islands 0, no copyright.[Note 10][138][139] At this stage the Republic of Marshall Islands is not member to any international convention [or treaty] on copyright[140] 0, no copyright.[Note 10]
 Mauritania Berne, TRIPS
 Mauritius Life + 50 years[141]
 Mexico Life + 100 years (effective 23 July 2003 non-retroactively)[142]


[Life + 75 years (before the law change on 23 July 2003, applicable for deaths before 23 July 1928)][143]
[Life + 50 years (before the law change on 1 January 1994, applicable for deaths before 1 January 1944)][144]

  • 75 years from the first fixation of the recording or the first performance/recording of the performance, respectively. TPP would expand this to 95 years in most cases.
  • 50 years from first publication of the book, the first fixation of the recording, or the first broadcast. TPP would expand this to 95 years in most cases.[145]
Micronesia Life + 50 years[146]
 Moldova Life + 70 years[147]
 Monaco Life + 50 years[148]
 Mongolia Life + 50 years[149]
 Montenegro[Note 11] Life + 70 years[150]
 Morocco Life + 50 years[151] 70 years after a work’s lawful publication; if no lawful publication has taken place within 50 years of the making, copyright lasts for 70 years after the work’s communication to the public; if no lawful communication to the public has taken place within 50 years of the making, copyright lasts for 70 years after the work is made; and

moral rights last perpetually.

70 years for Performers’ rights, if no lawful publication has taken place within 50 years of the performance, copyright lasts for 70 years after the work’s first performance.

70 years for Broadcasters’ rights: if no lawful publication has taken place within 50 years of the work’s creation, copyright lasts for 70 years after the work’s creation.[152]

 Mozambique Life + 70 years[153]
 Myanmar TRIPS
 Namibia Life + 50 years (except posthumous works)[154]:s. 3(2)(a) 50 years from publication (posthumous works)[154]:s. 3(2)(a)


50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (cinematograph films, photographs and computer programs)[154]:s. 3(2)(b)

Yes[154]:s. 3
 Nauru Life + 50 years[155][156]:s. 2(3), s. 3(4) 50 years after publication (sound recordings,[155][156]:s. 12(3) cinematograph films[155][156]:s. 13(3)(b) (except for newsreels, or if registered under the Cinematograph Films Act 1938),[155][156]:Second television and sound broadcasts,[155][156]:s. 14(2) photographs,[155][156]:s. 3(4)(b) engravings,[155][156]:s. 3(4)(a) posthumous literary, dramatic and musical works[155][156]:s. 2(3) and anonymous literary, dramatic and musical works)[155][156]:Second Schedule

25 years after publication (published editions of literary, dramatic or musical works)[155][156]:s. 15(2)
50 years after occurrence of event (newsreels)[155][156]:s. 13(8)
50 years after death of last author to die (works of joint authorship)[155][156]:Third Schedule

Yes[155][156]
   Nepal Life + 50 years 25 years from creation (applied art and photographic work)[157]
Netherlands Netherlands Life + 70 years[158] 70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work, corporate works with no listed natural author)[159]

25 years from publication (works first published more than 70 years after the death of the author)[160]

Yes[161]
 Caribbean Netherlands Life + 50 years[162]
New Zealand New Zealand Life + 50 years (literary, dramatic, musical, or artistic work)[163]:s. 22(1) 50 years from creation (computer-generated work)[163]:s. 22(2) Yes[163]:s. 22
 Nicaragua Life + 70 years[164]
 Niger Life + 50 years[165]
 Nigeria Life + 70 years (literary, musical or artistic works other than photographs)[166] 70 years from publication (literary, musical or non-photograph artistic works in the case of government or a body corporate)


50 years from publication (cinematograph films and photographs)
50 years from publication (sound recordings)
50 years from publication (broadcasts)[166]

Yes[166]
 Norway Life + 70 years


Life + 15 years, but no less than 50 years after publication ("«simple» photographs")[167][168]

70 years following the year of death of the author. I.e. an author that died in 1940 will have his works protected until January 1, 2011. In a collective or joint work, this is counted from the death of the longest surviving author. For a motion picture, the following are to be considered authors: main director, scriptwriter, dialogue author, and composer of original musical score.

70 years for anonymous works from the year when the work was created. If such an unpublished work, whose copyright has expired, is then later published, the publisher is entitled for a copyright for 25 years from the year of publication[167]

"Norway also has some peculiar laws that protect «simple» photographs. I.e. photographs, such as snapshots, that are below the threshold of originality to merit copyright protection are given neighbouring rights protection. [..] The Norwegian copyright act does not address public domain directly. The Norwegian copyright law defines two basic rights for authors: economic rights and moral rights. [..] For material that is outside the scope of copyright, the phrase «i det fri» («in the free») is used. This corresponds roughly to the term «public domain» in English. Norwegian copyright law makes a distinction between copyright and neighbouring rights. Only creative and artistic works are subject to copyright. Some other types of works are protected by so‐called neighbouring rights."[167]

Yes[168]
Oman Oman Life + 70 years[169] 90 years from the year following the publication

120 years from the year following the completion[170]

Yes
Pakistan Pakistan Life + 50 years[171] Yes[171]
 Palau Life + 50 years[172]
 Panama Life + 50 years[173]
 Papua New Guinea Life + 50 years[174]
 Paraguay Life + 70 years[175]
 Peru Life + 70 years[176]
Philippines Philippines Life + 50 years[177]:s. 213.1 50 years from publication (photographic works), or 50 years from creation if unpublished within 50 years of creation[177]:s. 213.5 Yes[177]:s. 214
Poland Poland Life + 70 years[178]
 Portugal Life + 70 years
[Life + 50 years][179]
 Qatar Life + 50 years[180]
 Romania Life + 70 years[181]
 Russia Life + 70 years[182]

Life + 74 years (for those who fought in or worked during the war of 1941–45)

Date of rehabilitation + 70 (74) years (for unlawfully prosecuted and posthumously rehabilitated)


Protection applies if copyright term of Life + 50 years (or Life + 54 years) did not expire by 1 January 1993. [183]

50 years from publication (radio and television broadcasts)[184]

50 years from creation if unpublished, or 50 years from publication (sound records)[185]

70 years from publication (anonymous works)[182]

70 years from publication if published within 70 years from death (posthumous publication)

70 years from publication if published before 3 August 1993 by a corporation (cinematographic, television, radio works, print periodicals and compilations).[183] Protection term applies to "the whole work" only, i.e. individual authors of each protectable part of the whole work retain their own copyright[186]

All copyrights to works published prior to October Revolution (7 November 1917) are believed to have expired.

 Rwanda Berne, TRIPS
 Saint Helena Life + 50 years
 St. Kitts and Nevis Life + 50 years[78]
 St. Lucia Life + 50 years[187]
 St. Vincent and the Grenadines Life + 75 years (literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work)[188] 75 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (sound recording or film)[188]:s. 9(1)


50 years from creation (computer-generated work)[188]:s. 8(4)
50 years from creation (broadcast); 50 years after programme included in a cable programme service[188]:s. 10(1)

Yes[188]:ss. 8–10
 Samoa Life + 75 years[189]
 San Marino Life + 50 years[190]
 São Tomé and Príncipe unknown
 Saudi Arabia Life + 50 years[191]
 Senegal Life + 70 years[192]
Serbia Serbia[Note 12] Life + 70 years[150]
 Seychelles Life + 50 years[193] 50 years from publication (audio-visual works)[193]:s. 9(1)(ii), (v)


25 years from creation (applied art)[193]:s. 9(1)(iv)

Yes[193]:s. 9(1)
 Sierra Leone Life + 50 years[194]:s. 21 50 years from publication (photograph, film, or broadcast)[194]:s. 25


50 years from creation (sound recording)[194]:s. 23

 Singapore[195] Life + 70 years (except posthumous work)[196][197]:s. 28(2) 70 years from publication (posthumous work, photograph)[197]:s. 28(3), (6)


70 years from publication (sound recordings and cinematograph films)[197]:s. 92, 93
50 years after making (television broadcasts, sound broadcasts, cable programmes)[197]:s. 94, 95
25 years from publication (published editions of works)[197]:s. 96

Yes[197]:ss. 28, 92–96
 Sint Maarten Life + 50 years[58]
 Slovakia Life + 70 years[198]
 Slovenia Life + 70 years[199]
 Solomon Islands Life + 50 years[200]
 Somalia unknown
South Africa South Africa Life + 50 years (literary or musical works or artistic works, other than photographs)[201]:s. 3(2)(a) 50 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from creation (cinematography films, photographs, computer programs)[201]:s. 3(2)(b)


50 years from publication (sound recordings; broadcasts; programme-carrying signals; and published editions)[201]:s. 3(2)(c)

Yes[201]:s. 3
Spain Spain Life + 70 years
[Life + 80 years (1879–87, transitional provision apply[202]), Life + 60 years (1987–94)][203]
Yes[203]:Art. 30
 Sri Lanka Life + 70 years[204] 70 years from publication or if unpublished 50 years from completion (audiovisual work)[204]
25 years from publication (applied art)[204]
Yes[204]
 Sudan Life + 50 years[205]:s. 13(2) 25 years from publication (photographic pictures and cinematographic films and other audiovisual works; works published under unknown pseudonym or anonymously)[205]:s. 13(3)(a), (c)
 Suriname Life + 50 years[206] 50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work) (art. 39) Yes
 Swaziland Life + 50 years[207]
 Sweden Life + 70 years[208] Yes[208]
Switzerland Switzerland Life + 70 years effective 1 July 1993 non-retroactively, but Life + 50 years for computer programs[209]


[Life + 50 years (before the law change on 1 July 1993, applicable for deaths through 1942)][210]

50 years after performance (performers' rights)[211]:Art. 39 Yes[211]:Art. 32
 Syria Life + 50 years[212]:Art. 22 10 years from production (photographic, fine arts or plastic arts)[212]:Art. 25
 Taiwan Life + 50 years (except posthumous works first published 40 to 50 years after death)[213]:Art. 30 50 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[213]:Art. 32


50 years from publication; 50 years from creation if unpublished (corporate works; photographic works, audiovisual works, sound recordings, and performances)[213]:Arts. 33, 34
10 years from publication (posthumous works first published 40 to 50 years after death)[213]:Art. 30

Yes[213]:Art. 35
Tajikistan Tajikistan Berne
 Tanzania Life + 50 years[214]
Thailand Thailand Life + 50 years[215] 50 years from publication or 50 years from creation if not published within 50 years from creation
 Timor Leste Life + 50 years[97]
 Togo Life + 50 years[216]
 Tonga Life + 50 years[217]
 Trinidad and Tobago Life + 50 years[218]
 Tunisia Life + 50 years[219]
  • Authors’ rights :
    • economic rights: reproduction right; right of adaptation and translation; public performance right; broadcasting right; right of communication to the public by cable or satellite or any other means; right of communication of a broadcast work in a public place.
    • moral rights: right to claim authorship; right to object modification; right of disclosure; right of withdrawal.
  • Performers' rights: The law contains no provisions regarding performers.
  • Broadcasters' rights: The law contains no provisions regarding broadcasters.[220]
Turkey Turkey Life + 70 years[221]
 Turkmenistan Life + 50 years[222]
 Tuvalu Life + 50 years[78]
 Uganda TRIPS
 Ukraine Life + 70 years
[Life + 25 years (1963—1994), Life + 50 years (1994—2001)][223]
70 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)
70 years from publication (published within 30 years from authors' deaths)[223]
Yes[223]
 United Arab Emirates Life + 50 years[224]
United Kingdom United Kingdom Life + 70 years

If there are multiple authors, life of last surviving author + 70 years[225]:s. 12

For films, life + 70 years for the last to die of: principal director, author of screenplay, author of dialogue, or composer of music specifically created for and used in the film.[225]:s. 13B

70 years if the author is unknown

70 years after release; if not released, 70 years after making (sound recordings).[226] Recordings which entered the public domain prior to January 1, 2013 are not retroactively covered.

50 years from end of calendar year when the broadcast was first made (broadcasts)[225]:s. 14

Yes[225]:s. 12, 13
United States United States[227] Life + 70 years (works published since 1978 or unpublished works)[228] 95 years from publication or 120 years from creation whichever is shorter (anonymous works, pseudonymous works, or works made for hire, published since 1978)[229]


95 years from publication for works published 1964–77; 28 (if copyright not renewed) or 95 years from publication for works published 1923–63 (Copyrights prior to 1923 have expired, not including copyrights on sound recordings published prior to February 15, 1972, covered only under state laws.)[230]

Yes[231]
Universal Copyright Convention minimum terms Life + 25 years (general works)[232] 25 years from publication (specific works not based on authors' deaths)[232]


10 years (photographic works or to works of applied art)[233]

 Uruguay Life + 50 years[234]
 Uzbekistan Life + 50 years[235]
 Vanuatu Life + 50 years[236] 25 years after the work is made (works of applied art)[236]

50 years after the latest of: the date the work is made, the date the work is made available to the public or the date of first publication (works published anonymously or under a pseudonym, collective works and audiovisual works)[236]
50 years after the death of the last author to die (works of joint authorship)[236]

Yes[236]
  Vatican City Life + 70 years[237]
 Venezuela Life + 60 years[238]:Art. 25 60 years from publication; 60 years from creation if unpublished (an audiovisual work, a broadcast work or a computer program)[238]:Art. 37


60 years from publication (anonymous or pseudonymous work)[238]:Art. 27

Yes[238]:Arts. 25–27
 Vietnam Berne
 Yemen Life + 30 years • 10 years from the date of issue from January 1 of the year of issue for photographs;

• 25 years from the date of production from January 1 of the production year for motion picture or television film.[239]

After expiry of copyright, the work "may be announced to be the ownership of the State" (emphasis added).[239]

 Zambia Life + 50 years[240]
 Zimbabwe Life + 50 years[241][242]:s. 5(3), 6(3)(a) 50 years from publication (photographs)[242]:s. 6(3)(b)


50 years from creation (Sound recordings)[242]:s. 16(2)
50 years from publication (cinematograph films, broadcasts)[242]:s. 17(2), s. 18(2)

Yes[242]:s. 6, 16–18

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Terms of protection were taken from a variety of sources, including WIPO, UNESCO and the University of Pennsylvania (see External links). Where no more specific information is available for a country, an indication of its probable minimum copyright term can be gained from its status as:
    • a signatory of the Berne Convention ("Berne"); minimum term of life + 50 years, except for photographs.
    • a member of the WTO ("TRIPS"); minimum term of life + 50 years.
    • a candidate for membership of the European Union ("EU"); term must be life + 70 years before accession.
  2. ^ An audiovisual work is copyrighted in Andorra for the same term, computed from the last of the following persons to survive: the principal director, the author of the scenario, the author of the dialogue and the composer of music specifically created for the audiovisual work.
  3. ^ A cinematographic work is copyrighted in Austria for the same term, computed from the last surviving person among the following: the principal director of the film and the authors of the screenplay, the dialogues and the musical work specially created for the cinematographic work.
  4. ^ An audiovisual work is copyrighted in France for the same term, computed from the last surviving person among the following: the author of the scenario, the author of the dialogue, the author of the musical compositions, with or without words, specially composed for the work and the main director.
  5. ^ An audiovisual work is copyrighted in Greece for the same term, computed from the last of the following persons to survive: the principal director, the author of the screenplay, the author of the dialogue and the composer of the music specifically created for use in the audiovisual work.
  6. ^ The Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau have their own status, distinct from that of the rest of China, under international copyright and trade law
  7. ^ Computed from the last of the following persons with known identity to survive: (a) the principal director; (b) the author of the screenplay; (c) the author of the dialogue; or (d) the composer of music specially created for and used in the film.
  8. ^ Literary, dramatic, musical, and non-photograph artistic works.
  9. ^ The law entered into force January 16, 2012.[118][119]
  10. ^ a b Unauthorized sale or commercial use of sound & audio-visual recordings is prohibited (Unauthorized Copies of Recorded Materials Act, 1991).
  11. ^ Montenegro is assumed to have succeeded to the copyright obligations of Serbia and Montenegro. See Serbia also.
  12. ^ Serbia is deemed to be a successor state of Serbia and Montenegro, which itself was a successor state to Yugoslavia for international copyright treaties, notably the Berne Convention, effective 17 June 1930

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  183. ^ a b Article 6 of Federal Law 231
  184. ^ "Article 1330 of Civil Code". Consultant.ru. Retrieved 2014-12-11. 
  185. ^ "Article 1317 of Civil Code". Consultant.ru. Retrieved 2014-12-11. 
  186. ^ Civil Code of the RSFSR, Articles 484-487
  187. ^ s. 10, Copyright Act, 1995[dead link]
  188. ^ a b c d e "Copyright Act, 2003" (PDF). 2003. Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  189. ^ WIPO (2012-04-02). "Copyright Act 1998". Wipo.int. Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  190. ^ Art. 36, Legge n. 8 del 25 gennaio 1991
  191. ^ "Royal Decree No: M/41 2nd Rajab 1424 H August 30, 2003" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  192. ^ "Loi 2008-09 du 25-01-2008 sur le droit d'auteur et les droits voisins" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-08-26. 
  193. ^ a b c d Copyright Act, 2014
  194. ^ a b c Sierra Leone Copyright Act 2011
  195. ^ See also the Intellectual Property Office of Singapore factsheet. Archived December 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  196. ^ Literary, dramatic or musical work, or in an artistic work other than a photograph
  197. ^ a b c d e f Copyright Act
  198. ^ § 21, Law on Copyright and Rights Related to Copyright (Copyright Act) No. 618/2003
  199. ^ Art. 59, Copyright and Related Rights Act of 30 March 1995[dead link]
  200. ^ s. 3, Copyright Act (Ch. 138)
  201. ^ a b c d Copyright Act, 1978
  202. ^ See Ley de 10 de enero de 1879, de la propiedad intelectual (Spanish)
  203. ^ a b Art. 26
  204. ^ a b c d "INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ACT, No. 36 OF 2003" (PDF). PARLIAMENT OF SRI LANKA. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  205. ^ a b Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Protection Act 1996[dead link]
  206. ^ SASUR -Wet auteursrecht art. 38|date=January
  207. ^ Copyright Act No. 36 of 1912
  208. ^ a b Art. 43, Act 1960:729, as modified by Act 1995:1273
  209. ^ Art. 29 Urheberrechtgesetz/ Loi sur le droit d’auteur par. 2
  210. ^ Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher, LL.M., M.A. "BGE 124 III 266". servat.unibe.ch. Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  211. ^ a b Urheberrechtgesetz/ Loi sur le droit d’auteur
  212. ^ a b Law No. 12/2001
  213. ^ a b c d e Copyright Act
  214. ^ s. 14, Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act, 1999
  215. ^ s. 19, Copyright Act, B.E. 2537 (1994)[dead link]
  216. ^ Art. 36, Loi no. 91-12 portant protection du droit d'auteur, du folklore et des droits voisins
  217. ^ s. 13, Copyright Act (Cap. 121)
  218. ^ s. 19, Copyright Act, 1997[dead link]
  219. ^ Art. 18, Loi no. 94-36[dead link]
  220. ^ "Copyright and related rights in Tunisia". Euromed Audiovisual. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  221. ^ Art. 27, Law No. 5846 of 5 December 1951[dead link]
  222. ^ Art. 1094, Civil Code of Turkmenistan[dead link]
  223. ^ a b c Art. 28, Law of Ukraine on Copyright and Related Rights, 1993 with amendments 2004
  224. ^ s. 20, Federal Law No. 7 of 2002
  225. ^ a b c d Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, as amended by s. 5, Duration of Copyright and Rights in Performances Regulations 1995
  226. ^ Copyright term for sound recordings increases from 50 to 70 years today. MusicWeek, November 1, 2013.
  227. ^ See also Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States by Peter B. Hirtle.
  228. ^ 17 U.S.C. § 302(a)
  229. ^ 17 U.S.C. § 302(c)
  230. ^ 17 U.S.C. § 30417 U.S.C. § 301(c)
  231. ^ 17 U.S.C. § 305
  232. ^ a b Article IV 2(a), Universal Copyright Convention
  233. ^ Article IV 3, Universal Copyright Convention
  234. ^ Art. 14, Law on Copyright No. 9.739 of 17 December 1937
  235. ^ Art. 38, Law No. 272-I of 30 August 1996
  236. ^ a b c d e Art. 19, Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000
  237. ^ "N. XII. Legge sil diritto di autore" (PDF). 1960. Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  238. ^ a b c d Ley sobre el Dercho de Autor as modified by the Decreto del 14 de agosto de 1993[dead link]
  239. ^ a b "Intellectual Property Law. Law No. 19 for the Year 1994." (PDF). Official Gazette No. 20 issued on 27 Jumada I, 1415 A.H. corresponding to 31 October 1994. 1994-10-31. Retrieved 2014-04-13. 
  240. ^ s. 12, Copyright and Performance Rights Act, 1994
  241. ^ Literary, dramatic, and musical works; non-photograph artistic works.
  242. ^ a b c d e Copyright Act (Chapter 26:1)[dead link]

External links[edit]