List of countries and capitals with currency and language

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This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories of the world by continent, displayed with their respective national flags and capitals, and including their respective currencies and native languages.

This list divides the world using the seven-continent model, with islands grouped into adjacent continents. The continents are:

In other models, Asia and Europe can be combined as Eurasia, while North and South America can be combined as the Americas (for a detailed description of how the world is divided into continents, including different models, see here).

There are sovereign states and dependent territories that can be considered to belong to more than one continent, according to geographical, political, or historical criteria.

Africa[edit]

Africa
Africa (orthographic projection).svg
Area 30,221,532 km2 (11,668,599 sq mi)
Population 1,032,532,974[1] (2011, 2nd)
Pop. density 30.51/km2 (about 80/sq mi)
Countries 57 (list of countries)
Languages Languages of Africa
Time zones UTC-1 to UTC+4
Further information: Geography of Africa

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see here.

Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent. At about 30.2 million km² (11.7 million sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers six percent of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4 percent of the total land area.[2] With 1.0 billion people (as of 2009, see table), it accounts for about 15% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagoes. It has 54 fully recognized sovereign states ("countries"), 10 territories and two de facto states with limited recognition.[3]

Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors, as well as later ones that have been dated to around seven million years ago – including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human) found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago.[4] Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones.[5] The African expected economic growth rate is at about 5.0% for 2010 and 5.5% in 2011.[6]

Flag Name Capital Currency Official language
Algeria Algeria Algiers Dinar Arabic
Angola Angola Luanda Kwanza Portuguese
Benin Benin Porto-Novo (official)
Cotonou (seat of government)
CFA franc French
Botswana Botswana Gaborone Pula English
Setswana
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Ouagadougou CFA franc French
Burundi Burundi Bujumbura Burundian franc Kirundi
French
Cameroon Cameroon Yaoundé CFA franc French
English
Cape Verde Cape Verde Praia Cape Verdean escudo Portuguese
Central African Republic Central African Republic Bangui CFA franc French
Sango
Chad Chad N'Djamena CFA franc French
Arabic
Comoros Comoros Moroni Comorian franc Comorian
Arabic
French
Republic of the Congo Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) Brazzaville CFA franc French
Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Yamoussoukro (official)
Abidjan (seat of government)
CFA franc French
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) Kinshasa Congolese franc French
Djibouti Djibouti Djibouti Djiboutian franc French
Arabic
Egypt Egypt Cairo Egyptian pound Arabic
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Malabo CFA Franc Spanish
French
Portuguese
Eritrea Eritrea Asmara Nakfa Tigrinya
Arabic
English
Ethiopia Ethiopia Addis Ababa Birr Amharic
Gabon Gabon Libreville CFA franc French
The Gambia Gambia Banjul Gambian dalasi English
Ghana Ghana Accra Ghana cedi English
Guinea Guinea Conakry Guinean franc French
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Bissau CFA franc Portuguese
Kenya Kenya Nairobi Kenyan shilling Swahili
English
Lesotho Lesotho Maseru Lesotho loti English
Sesotho
Liberia Liberia Monrovia Liberian dollar English
Libya Libya Tripoli Dinar Arabic
Madagascar Madagascar Antananarivo Malagasy ariary Malagasy
French
Malawi Malawi Lilongwe Kwacha English
Chichewa
Mali Mali Bamako CFA franc French
Mauritania Mauritania Nouakchott Ouguiya Arabic
Mauritius Mauritius Port Louis Mauritian rupee Mauritian Creole
French
English
Mayotte Mayotte Mamoudzou
Overseas department of France
Euro French
Morocco Morocco Rabat Moroccan dirham Arabic
Berber
Mozambique Mozambique Maputo Mozambican metical Portuguese
Namibia Namibia Windhoek Namibian dollar English
Niger Niger Niamey CFA franc French
Nigeria Nigeria Abuja Naira English
Réunion Réunion Saint-Denis
Overseas department of France
Euro French
Rwanda Rwanda Kigali Rwandan franc Kinyarwanda
English
French
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Jamestown (Saint Helena)
Georgetown (Ascension Island)
Edinburgh of the Seven Seas (Tristan da Cunha)
Saint Helena pound
Pound sterling
English
São Tomé and Príncipe Sao Tome and Principe São Tomé Dobra Portuguese
Senegal Senegal Dakar CFA franc French
Seychelles Seychelles Victoria Seychellois rupee Seychellois Creole
French
English
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Freetown Leone English
Somalia Somalia Mogadishu Somali shilling Somali
Arabic
Somaliland Somaliland Hargeisa Somaliland shilling Somali
Arabic
South Africa South Africa Pretoria (administrative/executive)
Cape Town (legislative)
Bloemfontein (judicial)
South African rand Afrikaans
English
Southern Ndebele
Northern Sotho
Southern Sotho
Swazi
Tsonga
Tswana
Venda
Xhosa
Zulu
South Sudan South Sudan Juba South Sudanese pound English
Sudan Sudan Khartoum Sudanese pound Arabic
English
Swaziland Swaziland Mbabane (administrative)
Lobamba (royal and legislative)
Lilangeni English
Swati
Tanzania Tanzania Dodoma (official)
Dar es Salaam (seat of government)
Tanzanian shilling Swahili
English
Togo Togo Lomé CFA franc French
Tunisia Tunisia Tunis Tunisian dinar Arabic
Uganda Uganda Kampala Ugandan shilling Swahili
English

Luganda

None Western Sahara None Disputed territory between  Morocco and the  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Moroccan dirham
Algerian dinar
Mauritanian ouguiya
See respective claimants
Zambia Zambia Lusaka Zambian kwacha English
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Harare US dollar| English
Shona
Sindebele

Asia[edit]

Asia
Globe centered on Asia, with Asia highlighted. The continent is shaped like a right-angle triangle, is the largest continent in the world, with Europe to the west, oceans to the south and east, and Australia visible to the south-east.
Area 44,579,000 km2 (17,212,000 sq mi)[7]
Population 3,879,000,000 (1st)[8]
Pop. density 87/km2 (225/sq mi)
Countries 48 (list of countries)
Languages List of languages
Time zones UTC+2 to UTC+12
Further information: Geography of Asia

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see here.

Asia (Listeni/ˈʒə/ or /ˈʃə/) is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area (or 30% of its land area) and with approximately 4.3 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population. During the 20th century Asia's population nearly quadrupled.[9]

Asia is defined as comprising the eastwards four-fifths of Eurasia. It is located to the east of the Suez Canal, the Ural river, and the Ural Mountains, and south of the Caucasus Mountains (or the Kuma-Manych Depression) and the Caspian and Black Seas.[10][11] It is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean and on the north by the Arctic Ocean.

Given its size and diversity, Asia – a toponym dating back to classical antiquity – "is more a cultural concept" incorporating diverse regions and peoples than a homogeneous physical entity.[12] Asia differs very widely among and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, cultures, environments, economics, historical ties and government systems.

Flag Name Capital Currency Official language
Afghanistan Afghanistan Kabul Afghani Pashto
Dari (Persian)
Akrotiri and Dhekelia Akrotiri and Dhekelia Episkopi Cantonment Euro English
Greek
Armenia Armenia Yerevan Dram Armenian
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan [Europe] Baku Manat Azerbaijani
Bahrain Bahrain Manama Bahraini dinar Arabic
Bangladesh Bangladesh Dhaka Taka Bengali
Bhutan Bhutan Thimphu Bhutanese ngultrum Dzongkha
British Indian Ocean Territory British Indian Ocean Territory Diego Garcia
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
US dollar
UK pound
English
Brunei Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei dollar Bahasa Melayu
Cambodia Cambodia Phnom Penh Riel Khmer
China China Beijing Renminbi (yuan) Standard Chinese
Christmas Island Christmas Island Flying Fish Cove
External territory of Australia
Australian dollar English
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cocos (Keeling) Islands West Island
External territory of Australia
Australian dollar English
Tagalog
Cyprus Cyprus [Europe] Nicosia Euro Greek
Turkish
East Timor East Timor (Timor-Leste) Dili US Dollar Portuguese
Tetum
Georgia (country) Georgia [Europe] Tbilisi Lari Georgian
Hong Kong Hong Kong Special administrative region of China/Victoria Hong Kong dollar English
Cantonese
India India New Delhi Indian rupee Hindi
English
Indonesia Indonesia Jakarta Rupiah Indonesian
Iran Iran Tehran Rial Persian
Iraq Iraq Baghdad Iraqi dinar Kurdish
Arabic
Israel Israel Jerusalem (seat of government, proclaimed capital) New Shekel Hebrew
Arabic
Japan Japan Tokyo Yen Japanese
Jordan Jordan Amman Jordanian dinar Arabic
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Astana Tenge Kazakh
Russian
Iraqi Kurdistan Kurdistan Erbil Dinar Kurdish
Kuwait Kuwait Kuwait City Kuwaiti dinar Arabic
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan Bishkek Som Kyrgyz
Russian
Laos Laos Vientiane Kip Lao
Lebanon Lebanon Beirut Lebanese pound Arabic
Macau Macau Special administrative region of China/Macau Macanese pataca Portuguese
Cantonese
Malaysia Malaysia Kuala Lumpur (official)
Putrajaya (seat of government)
Ringgit Malaysian
Maldives Maldives Malé Maldivian rufiyaa Dhivehi
Mongolia Mongolia Ulaanbaatar Tögrög Mongolian
Burma Myanmar (Burma) Naypyidaw Kyat Burmese
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh Stepanakert
De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by United Nations as de jure part of Azerbaijan
Armenian dram Armenian
Nepal Nepal Kathmandu Nepalese rupee Nepali
Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus Nicosia
De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by United Nation as de jure part of Cyprus
Turkish lira Turkish
North Korea North Korea Pyongyang North Korean won Korean
Oman Oman Muscat Rial Arabic
Pakistan Pakistan Islamabad Pakistani Rupee English
Urdu
State of Palestine Palestine Ramallah (West Bank seat of government)
Gaza (Gaza Strip seat of government)
East Jerusalem (capital)
State of Palestine (flag displayed) proclaimed on territory
Israeli Shekel Arabic
Philippines Philippines Manila Philippine Peso Filipino
English
Qatar Qatar Doha Riyal Arabic
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Riyadh Saudi riyal Arabic
Singapore Singapore Singapore Singapore dollar English
Chinese
Malay
Tamil
South Korea South Korea Seoul South Korean won Korean
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Jayawardenepura-Kotte Sri Lankan rupee Sinhala
Tamil
Syria Syria Damascus Syrian pound Arabic
Taiwan Taiwan Taipei
De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by United Nations as part of China.
New Taiwan dollar Standard Chinese
Tajikistan Tajikistan Dushanbe Somoni Tajik
Thailand Thailand Bangkok Baht Thai
Turkey Turkey [Europe] Ankara Turkish lira Turkish
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan Ashgabat Turkmen new manat Turkmen
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi UAE dirham Arabic
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan Tashkent Uzbekistan som (O'zbekiston so'mi) Uzbek
Vietnam Vietnam Hanoi đồng Vietnamese
Yemen Yemen Sana'a Yemeni rial Arabic
Notes
  1. The Russian Federation is classified as a European country by the United Nations Statistics Division. Russia is historically the successor of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, a medieval state of northeastern Europe. The Russian conquest of Northern Asia begins in the late 16th century. Today, most of the territory of Russia is in Asia, but most of its population lives in the European part.

Europe[edit]

Europe
Europe orthographic Caucasus Urals boundary.svg
Area 10,180,000 km2 (3,930,000 sq mi)[n]
Population 739,165,030[n] (2011), 3rd)
Pop. density 72.5/km2
Countries 50 (list of countries)
Languages List of languages
Time zones UTC to UTC+6
Further information: Geography of Europe

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see here.

Europe (Listeni/ˈjʊərəp/ EWR-əp or /ˈjɜrəp/ YUR-əp[13]) is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally divided from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting the Black and Aegean Seas.[14] Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Black Sea and connected waterways to the southeast. Yet the borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are somewhat arbitrary, as the primarily physiographic term "continent" can incorporate cultural and political elements.

Europe is the world's second-smallest continent by surface area, covering about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi) or 2% of the Earth's surface and about 6.8% of its land area. Of Europe's approximately 50 states, Russia is by far the largest by both area and population, taking up 40% of the continent (although the country has territory in both Europe and Asia), while the Vatican City is the smallest. Europe is the third-most populous continent after Asia and Africa, with a population of 733 million or about 11% of the world's population.[15]

Europe, in particular Ancient Greece, is the birthplace of Western culture.[16] It played a predominant role in global affairs from the 15th century onwards, especially after the beginning of colonialism. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European nations controlled at various times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania, and large portions of Asia. In 1900, Europe's share of the world's population was 25%.[17] Both World Wars were largely focused upon Europe, greatly contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the United States and Soviet Union took prominence.[18] During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east. European integration led to the formation of the Council of Europe and the European Union in Western Europe, both of which have been expanding eastward since the revolutions of 1989 and the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Flag Name Capital Currency Official language
Åland Islands Åland Islands Mariehamn
Autonomous region of Finland (recognized by international treaty)
Euro Swedish
Albania Albania Tirana Lek Albanian
Andorra Andorra Andorra la Vella Euro Catalan
Austria Austria Vienna Euro German
Belarus Belarus Minsk Belarusian ruble Belarusian
Russian
Belgium Belgium Brussels Euro Dutch
French
German
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Convertible mark Bosnian
Croatian
Serbian
Bulgaria Bulgaria Sofia Lev Bulgarian
Croatia Croatia Zagreb Kuna Croatian
Czech Republic Czech Republic Prague Czech koruna Czech
Denmark Denmark Copenhagen Danish krone[a] Danish
Estonia Estonia Tallinn Euro Estonian
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands Tórshavn
Self-governing territory of the Danish Realm
Faroese króna Faroese
Danish
Finland Finland Helsinki Euro Finnish
Swedish
France France Paris Euro
CFP franc
French
Germany Germany Berlin Euro German
Gibraltar Gibraltar Gibraltar
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Gibraltar pound English
Greece Greece Athens Euro Greek
Guernsey Guernsey Saint Peter Port
British Crown dependency
Pound sterling English
French
Hungary Hungary Budapest Forint Hungarian
Iceland Iceland Reykjavík Icelandic króna Icelandic
Republic of Ireland Ireland Dublin Euro English

Irish

Isle of Man Isle of Man Douglas
British Crown dependency
Pound sterling English
Manx
Italy Italy Rome Euro Italian
Jersey Jersey Saint Helier
British Crown dependency
Pound sterling English
French
Kosovo Kosovo Pristina
De facto sovereign state recognized by over 80 UN member states
A United Nations mandate in Serbian territory was put in place starting in 1999.
Euro Albanian
Serbian
Latvia Latvia Riga Euro Latvian
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Vaduz Swiss franc German
Lithuania Lithuania Vilnius Euro Lithuanian
Luxembourg Luxembourg Luxembourg Euro Luxembourgish
French
German
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia Skopje Macedonian denar Macedonian
Malta Malta Valletta Euro Maltese
English
Moldova Moldova Chişinău Moldovan leu Romanian
Monaco Monaco Monaco Euro French
Montenegro Montenegro Podgorica Euro Montenegrin
Netherlands Netherlands Amsterdam Euro
US dollar
NA guilder
Aruban florin
Dutch
Norway Norway Oslo Norwegian krone Norwegian
Bokmål
Nynorsk
Poland Poland Warsaw Złoty Polish
Portugal Portugal Lisbon Euro Portuguese
Romania Romania Bucharest Romanian leu Romanian
Russia Russia Moscow Russian ruble Russian
27 others co-official
San Marino San Marino San Marino Euro Italian
Serbia Serbia Belgrade Serbian dinar Serbian
Slovakia Slovakia Bratislava Euro Slovak
Slovenia Slovenia Ljubljana Euro Slovene
Spain Spain Madrid Euro Spanish
Catalan
Galician
Basque
Svalbard Svalbard Longyearbyen
Special territory of Norway (recognized by international treaty)
Norwegian krone Norwegian
Sweden Sweden Stockholm Swedish krona Swedish
Switzerland Switzerland Bern Swiss franc German
French
Italian
Romansh
Transnistria Transnistria Tiraspol
De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by United Nations as de jure part of Moldova
Transnistrian ruble Russian
Moldovan
Ukrainian
Ukraine Ukraine Kiev Ukrainian hryvnia Ukrainian
United Kingdom United Kingdom London Pound sterling English
Vatican City Vatican City Vatican City Euro Italian
Notes

North America[edit]

North America
Location North America.svg
Area 24,709,000 km2 (9,540,000 sq mi)
Population 528,720,588 (2008, 4th)
Pop. density 22.9/km2 (59.3/sq mi)[b]
Countries 23 (list of countries)
Languages List of languages
Time zones UTC-10 to UTC
Further information: Geography of North America

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in North America with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see here.

North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[19] It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea.

North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 4.8% of the planet's surface or about 16.5% of its land area. As of July 2008, its population was estimated at nearly 529 million people across 23 independent states. North America is the third-largest continent in area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth in population after Asia, Africa, and Europe.

Flag Name Capital Currency Official language
Anguilla Anguilla The Valley
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
East Caribbean Dollar English
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda St. John's East Caribbean Dollar English
Aruba Aruba Oranjestad
Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Aruban florin Papiamento
Dutch
The Bahamas Bahamas Nassau Bahamian Dollar English
Barbados Barbados Bridgetown Barbadian Dollar English
Belize Belize Belmopan Belize Dollar English
Bermuda Bermuda Hamilton
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Bermudian Dollar English
Bonaire Bonaire Kralendijk
Special municipality of the Netherlands
United States Dollar Dutch
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands Road Town
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
United States Dollar English
Canada Canada Ottawa Canadian Dollar French
English
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands George Town
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Cayman Islands Dollar English
Clipperton Island Clipperton Island uninhabited
Overseas territory of France
Euro French
Costa Rica Costa Rica San José Costa Rican colon Spanish
Cuba Cuba Havana Cuban peso Spanish
Curaçao Curaçao Willemstad
Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands Antillean guilder Papiamento
Dutch
Dominica Dominica Roseau East Caribbean Dollar English
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Santo Domingo Dominican peso Spanish
El Salvador El Salvador San Salvador United States Dollar Spanish
Greenland Greenland Nuuk
Self-governing territory of the Danish Realm
Danish Krone Greenlandic
Grenada Grenada St. George's East Caribbean Dollar English
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe Basse-Terre
Overseas department of France
Euro French
Guatemala Guatemala Guatemala City Guatemalan quetzal Spanish
Haiti Haiti Port-au-Prince Haitian gourde French
Honduras Honduras Tegucigalpa Honduran lempira Spanish
Jamaica Jamaica Kingston Jamaican Dollar English
Martinique Martinique Fort-de-France
Overseas department of France
Euro French
Mexico Mexico Mexico City Mexican peso Spanish
Montserrat Montserrat Plymouth (official)
Brades (seat of government)
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
East Caribbean Dollar English
Navassa Island Navassa Island -
Insular area of the United States of America
United States Dollar English
Nicaragua Nicaragua Managua Nicaraguan cordoba Spanish
Panama Panama Panama City United States Dollar
Panamanian balboa
Spanish
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico San Juan
Insular area of the United States of America
United States Dollar English
Spanish
Saba Saba The Bottom
Special municipality of the Netherlands
United States Dollar
Saint Barthélemy Saint Barthélemy Gustavia
Overseas collectivity of France
Euro French
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis Basseterre East Caribbean Dollar English
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia Castries East Caribbean Dollar English
Collectivity of Saint Martin Saint Martin Marigot
Overseas collectivity of France
Euro French
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint-Pierre
Overseas collectivity of France
Euro French
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Kingstown East Caribbean Dollar English
Sint Eustatius Sint Eustatius Oranjestad
Special municipality of the Netherlands
United States Dollar
Sint Maarten Sint Maarten Philipsburg
Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands Antillean guilder
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain Trinidad and Tobago Dollar English
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands Cockburn Town
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
United States Dollar English
United States United States Washington, D.C. United States Dollar English
United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands Charlotte Amalie
Insular area of the United States of America
United States Dollar English

South America[edit]

South America
South America (orthographic projection).svg
Area

17,840,000 km2

(6,890,000 sq mi)
Population 387,489,196 (2011, 5th)
Pop. density 21.4 per km2 (56.0 per sq mi)
Countries 12 (list of countries)
Languages List of languages
Time zones UTC-2 to UTC-5
Further information: Geography of South America

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in South America with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see here.

South America is a continent located in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.[20][21]

It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean; North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. It is formed by twelve sovereign states - Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela - the French Guiana, which is an overseas region of France, and the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Netherlands may also be considered part of South America, as well as Trinidad and Tobago. The South American states that border the Caribbean Sea – Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana – are also known as Caribbean South America.

South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers (6,890,000 sq mi). Its population as of 2005 has been estimated at more than 371,090,000. South America ranks fourth in area (after Asia, Africa, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America). The word America was coined in 1507 by cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann, after Amerigo Vespucci, who was the first European to suggest that the lands newly discovered by Europeans were not India, but a New World unknown to Europeans.

Flag Name Capital Currency Official language
Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires Peso Spanish
Bolivia Bolivia Sucre (official)
La Paz (seat of government)
Boliviano Spanish
Quechua
Aymara
Brazil Brazil Brasília Real Portuguese
Chile Chile Santiago Peso Spanish
Colombia Colombia Bogotá Peso Spanish
Ecuador Ecuador Quito United States dollar Spanish
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands Stanley
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Falkland Islands pound English
French Guiana French Guiana Cayenne
Overseas department of France
Euro French
Guyana Guyana Georgetown Guyanese dollar English
Paraguay Paraguay Asunción Guaraní Spanish
Guaraní
Peru Peru Lima Nuevo sol Spanish
Suriname Suriname Paramaribo Surinamese dollar Dutch
Uruguay Uruguay Montevideo Uruguayan peso Spanish
Venezuela Venezuela Caracas Bolívar fuerte Spanish

Oceania[edit]

Oceania
An orthographic projection of geopolitical Oceania.
Geopolitical Oceania
Area

8,560,000 km2

(3,310,000 sq mi)
Population 38,304,000 (2013, 5th)
Pop. density 4.47 per km2 (11.57 per sq mi)
Countries 14 (list of countries)
Languages List of languages
Time zones UTC-2 to UTC-5
Further information: Geography of Oceania

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Oceania with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see here.

Oceania (UK /ˌʃɪˈɑːnɪə/ or /ˌsɪˈɑːnɪə/;[22] US /ˌʃˈænə/)[23] is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean.[24] Opinions of what constitutes Oceania range from the coral atolls and volcanic islands of the South Pacific (ethnologically divided into the subregions of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia)[25] to the entire insular region between Asia and the Americas, including Australasia and the Maritime Southeast Asia.The term is sometimes used more specifically to denote a continent comprising Australia and proximate islands,[26][27][28][29] or biogeographically as a synonym for either the Australasian ecozone (Wallacea and Australasia) or the Pacific ecozone (Melanesia, Polynesia, and Micronesia apart either from New Zealand[30] or from mainland New Guinea).[31]

Flag Name Capital Currency Official language
American Samoa American Samoa Pago Pago
Insular area of the United States of America
United States dollar English
Samoan
Ashmore and Cartier Islands Ashmore and Cartier Islands
External territory of Australia
Australia Australia Canberra Australian dollar None[c]
Baker Island Baker Island Insular area of the United States of America
Cook Islands Cook Islands Avarua
Self-governing parliamentary democracy in free association with New Zealand
New Zealand dollar
Cook Islands dollar
English
Cook Islands Māori
Coral Sea Islands Coral Sea Islands External territory of Australia
Fiji Fiji Suva Fijian dollar
French Polynesia French Polynesia Papeete
Overseas collectivity of France
CFP Franc French
Guam Guam Hagåtña Insular area of the United States of America
Howland Island Howland Island Insular area of the United States of America
Jarvis Island Jarvis Island Insular area of the United States of America
Johnston Atoll Johnston Atoll Insular area of the United States of America
Kingman Reef Kingman Reef Insular area of the United States of America
Kiribati Kiribati Tarawa
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands Majuro
Federated States of Micronesia Micronesia Palikir
Midway Atoll Midway Atoll Insular area of the United States of America
Nauru Nauru Yaren (seat of government)
France
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Nouméa
Sui generis collectivity (special collectivity) of France
CFP Franc French
New Zealand New Zealand Wellington New Zealand Dollar Maori
New Zealand Sign
English
Niue Niue Alofi Self-governing parliamentary democracy in free association with New Zealand
Norfolk Island Norfolk Island Kingston Self-governing territory of Australia
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands Saipan Insular area of the United States of America
Palau Palau Ngerulmud
Palmyra Atoll Palmyra Atoll Insular area of the United States of America
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea Port Moresby
Pitcairn Islands Pitcairn Islands Adamstown Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Samoa Samoa Apia
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands Honiara
Tokelau Tokelau Nukunonu (main settlement, although each atoll has its own administrative centre) Dependent territory of New Zealand
Tonga Tonga Nukuʻalofa
Tuvalu Tuvalu Funafuti
Vanuatu Vanuatu Port Vila Vanuatu vatu Bislama
French
English
Wake Island Wake Island
Insular area of the United States of America
United States dollar
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna Mata-Utu
Overseas collectivity of France
CFP Franc French

Antarctica[edit]

Antarctica
This map uses an orthographic projection, near-polar aspect. The South Pole is near the center, where longitudinal lines converge.
Area 14,000,000 km2 (5,400,000 sq mi)[32]
Main article: Antarctica
Further information: Geography of Antarctica

Antarctica (Listeni/æntˈɑrtɨkə/ or /ænˈtɑrktɨkə/)[d] is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole. It is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14.0 million km2 (5.4 million sq mi), it is the fifth-largest continent in area after Asia, Africa, North America, and South America. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1 mile (1.6 km) in thickness.

Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents.[35] Antarctica is considered a desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm (8 inches) along the coast and far less inland.[36] The temperature in Antarctica has reached −89 °C (−129 °F). There are no permanent human residents, but anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at the research stations scattered across the continent. Only cold-adapted organisms survive there, including many types of algae, animals (for example mites, nematodes, penguins, seals and tardigrades), bacteria, fungi, plants, and protista. Vegetation where it occurs is tundra.

Although myths and speculation about a Terra Australis ("Southern Land") date back to antiquity, the first confirmed sighting of the continent is commonly accepted to have occurred in 1820 by the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny. The continent, however, remained largely neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of resources, and isolation. The Antarctic Treaty was signed in 1959 by 12 countries; to date, 49 countries have signed the treaty. The treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific research, and protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations.

Antarctica is regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System, which defines it as all land and ice shelves south of 60°S, and has no government and belongs to no country. However, the following territorial claims in Antarctica have been made:

Moreover, the following dependent territories are situated in the wider Antarctic Region:

Flag Name Capital Currency Official Language
Bouvet Island Bouvet Island
Dependent territory of Norway
French Southern and Antarctic Lands French Southern Territories Alfred Faure (Crozet Islands)
Port-aux-Français (Kerguelen Islands)
Martin-de-Viviès (Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands)
Overseas territory of France
Euro French
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands
External territory of Australia
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands King Edward Point
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Pound sterling English

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In the Faroe Islands the currency has a separate design and is known as the króna, but is not a separate currency.
  2. ^ This North American density figure is based on a total land area of 23,090,542 km2 only, considerably less than the total combined land and water area of 24,709,000 km².
  3. ^ English does not have de jure status.
  4. ^ The word was originally pronounced without /k/, but the spelling pronunciation has become very common. The "c" was originally added to the spelling for etymological reasons and then began to be pronounced.[33][34]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision" United Nations (Department of Economic and Social Affairs, population division)
  2. ^ Sayre, April Pulley. (1999) Africa, Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 0-7613-1367-2.
  3. ^ See List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa.
  4. ^ Homo sapiens: University of Utah News Release: Feb. 16, 2005[dead link]
  5. ^ Visual Geography. "Africa. General info". Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  6. ^ IMF WEO Oct. 2010. Retrieved 2010 October 15.
  7. ^ National Geographic Family Reference Atlas of the World. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society (U.S.). 2006. p. 264. 
  8. ^ "Continents of the World". The List. Worldatlas.com. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  9. ^ "Like herrings in a barrel". The Economist (The Economist online, The Economist Group) (Millennium issue: Population). 23 December 1999. .
  10. ^ "Asia". eb.com, Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2006. 
  11. ^ National Geographic Atlas of the World (7th ed.). Washington, DC: National Geographic. 1999. ISBN 978-0-7922-7528-2.  "Europe" (pp. 68–9); "Asia" (pp. 90–1): "A commonly accepted division between Asia and Europe is formed by the Ural Mountains, Ural River, Caspian Sea, Caucasus Mountains, and the Black Sea with its outlets, the Bosporus and Dardanelles."
  12. ^ "Asia". AccessScience. McGraw-Hill. Retrieved 26 July 2011. 
  13. ^ OED Online gives the pronunciation of "Europe" as: Brit. ˈjʊərəp, ˈjɔːrəp, U.S. ˈjɜrəp, ˈjʊrəp.
  14. ^ National Geographic Atlas of the World (7th ed.). Washington, DC: National Geographic. 1999. ISBN 0-7922-7528-4.  "Europe" (pp. 68–9); "Asia" (pp. 90–1): "A commonly accepted division between Asia and Europe ... is formed by the Ural Mountains, Ural River, Caspian Sea, Caucasus Mountains, and the Black Sea with its outlets, the Bosporus and Dardanelles."
  15. ^ "Global: UN Migrants, Population". Migration News. January 2010 Volume 17 Number 1.
  16. ^ Lewis & Wigen 1997, p. 226
  17. ^ World Population Growth, 1950–2050. Population Reference Bureau.
  18. ^ National Geographic, 534.
  19. ^ "North America". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  20. ^ South America[dead link]. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2001–6. New York, Columbia University Press": "fourth largest continent ..., the southern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere."
  21. ^ "LANIC country page". Lanic.utexas.edu. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  22. ^ Pronunciation: The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X — p.1282 "Oceania /ˌəʊsɪˈɑːnɪə, -ʃɪ-/".
  23. ^ "Oceania". Dictionary.com. Random House, Inc. 2012. 
  24. ^ For a history of the term, see Douglas & Ballard (2008) Foreign bodies: Oceania and the science of race 1750–1940
  25. ^ "Oceania"[dead link]. 2005. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Columbia University Press.
  26. ^ Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings, United Nations Statistics Division. Revised August 28, 2007. Accessed on line October 11, 2007.
  27. ^ The Atlas of Canada. Revised Date Modified: August 17, 2004. Accessed on line January 31, 2011.
  28. ^ "Encarta Mexico "Oceanía"". Mx.encarta.msn.com. Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. Retrieved 2009-04-17. 
  29. ^ Lewis, Martin W.; Kären E. Wigen (1997). The Myth of Continents: a Critique of Metageography. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-520-20742-4, ISBN 0-520-20743-2. Interestingly enough, the answer [from a scholar who sought to calculate the number of continents] conformed almost precisely to the conventional list: North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Oceania (Australia plus New Zealand), Africa, and Antarctica. 
  30. ^ Udvardy. 1975. A classification of the biogeographical provinces of the world
  31. ^ Steadman. 2006. Extinction & biogeography of tropical Pacific birds
  32. ^ United States Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Antarctica". The World Factbook. Government of the United States. Retrieved 22 October 2011. 
  33. ^ Crystal, David (2006). The Fight for English. Oxford University Press. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-19-920764-0. 
  34. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Antarctic". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 November 2011. 
  35. ^ National Satellite, Data, and Information Service. "National Geophysical Data Center". Government of the United States. Archived from the original on 13 June 2006. Retrieved 9 June 2006. 
  36. ^ Joyce, C. Alan (18 January 2007). "The World at a Glance: Surprising Facts". The World Almanac. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2009. 

External links[edit]