List of countries banning fossil fuel vehicles

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From 2005[1] an expanding list of countries have proposed and later decided to ban the future sale of passenger vehicles powered by so-called fossil fuels such as gasoline ("gas" or "petrol"), LPG and diesel. The intent to ban vehicles powered by fossil fuels is attractive to governments as it offers simpler target compliance compared with more encompassing phase-out of fossil fuels. Currently, the most up-to-date survey comes from the Center for Climate Protection entitled "Survey of Global Activity to Phase Out Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles"

Motivation[edit]

Various reasons are cited for banning further sale of fossil fuelled vehicles, including energy independence, health risk due to emissions and processing, reduced carbon footprint, efficiency and other factors.

Taxonomy[edit]

References in mainstream media to these bans also use terms or phrases like "banning gas cars"[2], "banning ICE cars" (Internal Combustion Engine), or "banning petrol cars"[3].

Scope[edit]

The so-called "banning" of fossil fuels vehicles has a defined scope and is generally applied in the form of a legislated decision to restrict further sales or registration of new vehicles powered with specific fuels from a future date. At the date of implementation current vehicles would still be registrable. As at 2017, most bans are over 10-years into the future and are not yet legislated. A ban on diesel and petrol engines is expected in Pakistan from 2021.

Industry Involvement in Promoting Electric Vehicles[4][edit]

To meet future demand for EVs, auto manufacturers need to plan and gear up for the relevant changes to design and manufacturing processes. Normally, government calls for reduced vehicle emissions are met with resistance from the private sector. According to Winfried Hermann, transport minister for Stuttgart, “We say, clean up your technology, they say it is impossible.”[5] Nevertheless, many automakers are now planning to sell most of their vehicle fleet in electric versions. According to Volvo’s CEO, the manufacturer aims for 50 percent of sales to be fully electric by 2025.[6]

Other companies including BMW and Renault have committed to significant increases in EV production in the next two years and plan on a full transition in the near future. The PSA Group, which owns Peugeot and Citroen, stated its intentions to electrify 80 percent of its fleet for production by 2023, and Toyota is manufacturing its first fully electrified Prius to meet California’s updated vehicle standards for 2020.[7] Toyota also announced it will be adding more than 10 EV models by the early 2020s, and has partnered with Panasonic to develop a new EV battery.[8] Companies that have already produced fully electrified cars, such as Nissan, are setting the pace by providing more variety to make EVs appealing to consumers with diverse needs. Aston Martin, Jaguar, and Land Rover, producers of luxury cars, have also spoken publicly about their company goals to move toward electrifying vehicles.[9] German-owned makers of Rolls-Royce and Mini Cooper vehicles plan to bring 25 electric models to market by 2025, in line with the goals that several European countries have targeted for the end of new ICE vehicle sales.[10] Additionally, they hope to stay ahead of shifting market demands and the impending European target goals by increasing research and development spending to 7 billion euros.[11] The largest auto manufacturer in Europe, Volkswagen, has pledged 20 billion euros for its electric car program, and its luxury brand Porsche, in collaboration with Audi, will release 20 electrified models by 2025.[12]

Ford Motors and General Motors are also taking the extra step to significantly invest in production efforts. In January 2018, the chairman of Ford announced that the company would more than double their investment in EV production, up to $11 billion, and have 40 models ready for production by 2022, addressing a wide variety of consumers’ aesthetic and logistical needs.[13] Sixteen of the 40 models will function as fully electric cars. In the case of General Motors, one of the largest automotive manufacturers in the world, company leadership aims to produce 18 battery electric cars and fuel cell-powered vehicles by 2023, two of which will come out this year. The company has already opened its market for EVs in China, where General Motors reported selling more cars than it did in the United States in 2017. In the summer of 2017, “it started selling a two-seat EV there, for just $5,300.”[14] Pressure from regulators in China, Europe, and California to slash carbon emissions from fossil fuels is partially responsible for the shift in attitude at these major companies.[15] Other influential forces include “Tesla Inc.’s success in creating electric sedans and SUVs that inspire would-be owners to line up outside showrooms and flood the company with orders.”[16] Fiat-Chrysler claims to be “going after Tesla,” producing four electrified Maserati models by 2022.[17]

Automotive manufacturers are not the only corporate presence that make a significant impact on EV adoption. Other industries that use predominantly fossil fuel-powered vehicles, such as trucking and transportation services, would send crucial market signals by demonstrating a greater willingness to use electric trucks and other emission-free technologies. A Council on Foreign Relations article describes major corporations acting as EV and green technology consumers as exhibiting “corporate responsibility.” The article also draws a parallel to the success of corporate and public commitment to investment in renewables. “When large corporates [such as Google and Apple announcing their intent to run on 100 percent renewables] publicly committed to investing in renewables, states and cities competed to adopt clean energy policies to attract investment, leading corporates to invest billions in renewables across the country.” A similar opportunity exists for clean cars. Ride-hailing, an industry entirely reliant on personal car ownership, has recognized the opportunity to incentivize and encourage EV adoption. Lyft, for example, has announced their intention to provide one billion rides per year in EVs. Uber, meanwhile, is incentivizing the switch to EVs by offering to pay more to participating drivers.[18] In the logistics world, UPS is involved in an ongoing effort to electrify its entire London fleet (170 trucks), which includes developing a smart schedule for charging the trucks so that the grid remains stable. They are also moving to electrify 1,500 trucks in their New York fleet.[19] While industries on both the supply and demand side of EV uptake have legacies of reliance on the fossil fuel industry to overcome, these big names have a prime opportunity to set a meaningful example for other companies as well as individuals.

List of countries[edit]

Countries[edit]

Country Ban announced Ban commences Scope Selectivity
 United Kingdom 2017 2040[20] Gasoline and Diesel New vehicle sales
 Austria 2016 2020[21] Gasoline and diesel New vehicle sales
 China 2017 2040[22] Gasoline and diesel Production & New vehicle sales
 Costa Rica 2018 2021[23] Gasoline and diesel New vehicle sales
 Denmark 2008 2019[24] 5,000 EVs On the Road Incentives
 France 2017 2040[25] Gasoline and diesel New vehicle sales
 Germany 2016 "2030"[26] Combustion engine New vehicle sales
 India 2017 2030[27] Gasoline and diesel New vehicle sales
 Ireland 2018 2030[28] Gasoline and diesel New vehicle sales
 Israel 2018 2030[29] Gasoline and diesel New vehicle sales
 Japan 1996 Ongoing[30] Incentives New vehicle sales
 Netherlands 2017 2030[31] All vehicles New vehicle sales
 Norway 2016 2025[32] Gasoline and diesel New vehicle sales
 Portugal 2010 Ongoing[33] Incentives New vehicle sales
 Scotland 2017 2032[34] Gasoline and diesel New vehicle sales
 South Korea 2016 2020[35] Incentives New vehicle sales
 Spain 2017 Ongoing[36] Incentives New vehicle sales
 Taiwan 2018 2040[37] Non-electric New vehicle sales

Cities & Territories[edit]

City or Territory Country Ban announced Ban commences Scope Selectivity
Athens  Greece 2016 2025[38] Diesel All vehicles
Auckland  New Zealand 2017 2030[39] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, Electric Buses by 2025
Barcelona  Spain 2017 2030[40] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, Electric Buses by 2025
Brussels  Belgium 2018 2025[41] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles
Cape Town  South Africa 2017 2030[42] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, Electric Buses by 2025
Copenhagen  Denmark 2017 2030[43] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, Electric Buses by 2025
Delhi  India 2014 Ongoing[44] Diesel All vehicles
Hamburg  Germany 2018 2018[45] Diesel All vehicles
Heidelberg  Germany 2017 2030[46] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, Electric Buses by 2025
London  England 2017 2030[47] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, Electric Buses by 2025
Los Angeles  United States 2017 2030[48] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, Electric Buses by 2025
Madrid  Spain 2016 2025[49] Diesel All vehicles
Milan  Italy 2017 2030[50] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, Electric Buses by 2025
Mexico City  Mexico 2016 2025[51] Diesel All vehicles
Oslo  Norway 2016 2019[52] Gasoline and Diesel All vehicles
Oxford  England 2017 2020[53] Gasoline and Diesel All vehicles
Paris  France 2016 2025[54] Diesel All vehicles
Quito  Ecuador 2017 2030[55] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, Electric Buses by 2025
Rome  Italy 2018 2024[56] Diesel All vehicles
Seattle  United States 2017 2030[57] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, Electric Buses by 2025
Tokyo  Japan 2000 2003[58] Diesel All vehicles
Vancouver  Canada 2017 2030[59] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, Electric Buses by 2025


References[edit]

  1. ^ http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/story?id=1518556
  2. ^ http://www.businessinsider.com/countries-banning-gas-cars-2017-10//
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  4. ^ https://climateprotection.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Survey-on-Global-Activities-to-Phase-Out-ICE-Vehicles-FINAL.pdf
  5. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/27/world/europe/diesel-driving-ban-germany-stuttgart.html
  6. ^ https://electrek.co/2018/04/25/volvo-electrification-plan-fully-electric/
  7. ^ https://www.nbcnews.com/business/autos/these-countries-want-ban-all-vehicles-run-gas-or-diesel-n781431
  8. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-autos-electric-factbox/factbox-automakers-put-pedal-to-the-metal-on-electric- vehicles-idUSKBN1GX2RH
  9. ^ https://www.wired.com/story/general-motors-electric-cars-plan-gm/
  10. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-autos-electric-factbox/factbox-automakers-put-pedal-to-the-metal-on-electric- vehicles-idUSKBN1GX2RH
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