List of countries by Fragile States Index

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Countries according to the 2020 Fragile States Index
  Very high alert (111–120)
  High alert (101–110)
  Alert (91–100)
  High warning (81–90)
  Elevated warning (71–80)
  Warning (61–70)
  Less Stable (51–60)
  Stable (41–50)
  More Stable (31–40)
  Sustainable (21–30)
  Very sustainable (0–20)
  Data unavailable

This is a list of countries by order of appearance in the Fragile States Index (formerly the Failed States Index) of the United States think tank Fund for Peace.

A fragile state has several attributes. Common indicators include a state whose central government is so weak or ineffective that it has little practical control over much of its territory; non-provision of public services; widespread corruption and criminality; refugees and involuntary movement of populations; and sharp economic decline.[1] Since 2005, the index has been published annually by the Fund for Peace and the magazine Foreign Policy. The list has been cited by journalists and academics in making broad comparative points about countries or regions.[2][3]

The report uses 12 factors to determine the rating for each nation, including security threats, economic implosion, human rights violations and refugee flows.

Indicators of a fragile state[edit]

The following factors are used by Fund For Peace to determine the overall status of a country.[4]

  • Cohesion
    • Security apparatus
    • Factionalized elites
    • Group grievance
  • Economic
    • Economic decline
    • Uneven economic development
    • Human flight and brain drain
  • Political
    • State legitimacy
    • Public services
    • Human rights and rule of law
  • Social
    • Demographic pressures
    • Refugees and internally displaced people
  • Cross-cutting
    • External intervention

Fragile States Index 2021[edit]

The table below shows the FSI for 2021,[5] with comparisons of each country's current score to previous years' indices.[6] A higher score (with a maximum of 120) indicates a weaker, more vulnerable, or more fragile situation in the country.

Rank Country 2021 score Change from 2020 Change from 2019 Change from 2018 Change from 2017
1  Yemen 111.7 Positive decrease 0.7 Positive decrease 1.8 Positive decrease 1.0 Negative increase 0.6
2  Somalia 110.9 Steady Positive decrease 1.4 Positive decrease 2.3 Positive decrease 2.5
3  Syria 110.7 Steady Positive decrease 0.8 Positive decrease 0.7 Negative increase 0.1
4  South Sudan 109.4 Positive decrease 1.4 Positive decrease 2.8 Positive decrease 4.0 Positive decrease 4.5
5  DR Congo 108.4 Positive decrease 1.0 Positive decrease 1.8 Positive decrease 2.3 Positive decrease 1.6
6 Central African Republic 107.0 Positive decrease 0.5 Positive decrease 1.9 Positive decrease 4.1 Positive decrease 5.6
7  Chad 105.8 Positive decrease 0.6 Positive decrease 2.7 Positive decrease 2.5 Positive decrease 3.6
8  Sudan 105.2 Negative increase 0.4 Positive decrease 2.8 Positive decrease 3.5 Positive decrease 5.4
9  Afghanistan 102.1 Positive decrease 0.8 Positive decrease 2.9 Positive decrease 4.5 Positive decrease 5.2
10  Zimbabwe 99.1 Positive decrease 0.1 Positive decrease 0.4 Positive decrease 3.2 Positive decrease 2.5
11  Ethiopia 99.0 Negative increase 4.4 Negative increase 4.8 Positive decrease 0.6 Positive decrease 2.1
12  Nigeria 98.0 Negative increase 0.7 Positive decrease 0.5 Positive decrease 1.9 Positive decrease 3.6
13  Haiti 97.5 Positive decrease 0.2 Positive decrease 1.8 Positive decrease 4.5 Positive decrease 7.8
14  Guinea 97.4 Negative increase 0.2 Positive decrease 2.0 Positive decrease 4.2 Positive decrease 5.0
15  Cameroon 97.2 Positive decrease 0.7 Negative increase 0.2 Negative increase 1.9 Negative increase 1.6
16  Burundi 97.1 Positive decrease 0.8 Positive decrease 1.1 Positive decrease 0.3 Positive decrease 1.8
17  Libya 97.0 Negative increase 1.8 Negative increase 4.8 Negative increase 2.4 Negative increase 0.7
 Eritrea 97.0 Negative increase 1.2 Negative increase 0.6 Positive decrease 0.2 Positive decrease 1.1
19  Mali 96.6 Negative increase 0.6 Negative increase 2.1 Negative increase 3.0 Negative increase 3.7
20  Iraq 96.2 Negative increase 0.3 Positive decrease 2.9 Positive decrease 6.0 Positive decrease 9.2
21  Niger 96.0 Negative increase 0.7 Positive decrease 0.2 Positive decrease 0.2 Positive decrease 1.4
22  Mozambique 93.9 Negative increase 2.2 Negative increase 5.2 Negative increase 5.2 Negative increase 4.9
23  Myanmar 93.8 Positive decrease 0.2 Positive decrease 0.5 Positive decrease 2.3 Positive decrease 1.9
24  Uganda 92.9 Negative increase 0.1 Positive decrease 2.4 Positive decrease 2.2 Positive decrease 3.1
25  Venezuela 92.6 Negative increase 1.4 Negative increase 3.3 Negative increase 6.4 Negative increase 9.7
26  Congo 92.4 Negative increase 0.3 Positive decrease 0.1 Positive decrease 0.7 Positive decrease 1.0
27  Guinea-Bissau 92.0 Positive decrease 0.9 Positive decrease 3.5 Positive decrease 6.1 Positive decrease 7.5
28  Côte d'Ivoire 90.7 Negative increase 1.0 Positive decrease 1.4 Positive decrease 3.9 Positive decrease 5.8
29  Pakistan 90.5 Positive decrease 1.6 Positive decrease 3.7 Positive decrease 5.8 Positive decrease 8.4
30  North Korea 90.0 Positive decrease 0.2 Positive decrease 2.7 Positive decrease 3.2 Positive decrease 3.3
31  Liberia 89.5 Positive decrease 0.5 Positive decrease 0.7 Positive decrease 3.1 Positive decrease 4.3
32  Kenya 89.2 Positive decrease 1.1 Positive decrease 4.3 Positive decrease 8.2 Positive decrease 7.2
33  Mauritania 89.1 Negative increase 0.4 Positive decrease 1.0 Positive decrease 3.1 Positive decrease 4.6
34  Lebanon 89.0 Negative increase 4.3 Negative increase 4.0 Negative increase 2.2 Negative increase 0.8
 Angola 89.0 Negative increase 1.7 Negative increase 1.2 Positive decrease 0.4 Positive decrease 2.1
36  Burkina Faso 87.1 Negative increase 1.2 Negative increase 3.2 Negative increase 0.6 Positive decrease 0.9
37  Palestine[a] 86.0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
38  Togo 85.1 Positive decrease 0.7 Positive decrease 2.3 Positive decrease 0.1 Negative increase 1.2
39  Egypt 85.0 Positive decrease 1.0 Positive decrease 3.4 Positive decrease 3.7 Positive decrease 4.8
 Bangladesh 85.0 Positive decrease 0.7 Positive decrease 2.7 Positive decrease 5.3 Positive decrease 4.1
 Rwanda 85.0 Positive decrease 1.0 Positive decrease 2.5 Positive decrease 4.3 Positive decrease 5.8
42  Zambia 84.9 Negative increase 0.4 Positive decrease 0.8 Positive decrease 2.3 Positive decrease 2.9
43  Iran 84.5 Negative increase 1.1 Negative increase 1.5 Negative increase 0.2 Positive decrease 1.3
44  Equatorial Guinea 84.1 Negative increase 1.1 Negative increase 1.5 Negative increase 0.7 Positive decrease 0.9
45  Sierra Leone 83.4 Positive decrease 1.0 Positive decrease 3.4 Positive decrease 5.7 Positive decrease 5.9
46  Malawi 83.2 Positive decrease 0.8 Positive decrease 0.1 Positive decrease 2.3 Positive decrease 4.8
47  Eswatini 82.5 Positive decrease 0.5 Positive decrease 2.8 Positive decrease 5.0 Positive decrease 6.3
 Comoros 82.5 Negative increase 1.3 Negative increase 0.8 Positive decrease 0.1 Positive decrease 2.3
49  Philippines 82.4 Negative increase 1.4 Positive decrease 0.7 Positive decrease 3.1 Positive decrease 2.0
 Djibouti 82.4 Positive decrease 0.3 Positive decrease 2.7 Positive decrease 4.7 Positive decrease 6.5
51    Nepal 82.2 Positive decrease 0.4 Positive decrease 2.5 Positive decrease 5.7 Positive decrease 8.8
52  Timor-Leste 80.9 Positive decrease 1.8 Positive decrease 4.6 Positive decrease 7.4 Positive decrease 9.6
 Papua New Guinea 80.9 Positive decrease 1.4 Positive decrease 2.2 Positive decrease 3.9 Positive decrease 5.5
54  Cambodia 80.6 Negative increase 0.3 Positive decrease 1.9 Positive decrease 3.4 Positive decrease 5.1
55  Sri Lanka 80.5 Positive decrease 1.3 Positive decrease 3.5 Positive decrease 4.4 Positive decrease 6.1
 Gambia 80.5 Positive decrease 1.7 Positive decrease 3.4 Positive decrease 6.6 Positive decrease 8.9
57  Turkey 79.7 Negative increase 0.6 Positive decrease 0.6 Positive decrease 2.5 Positive decrease 1.1
58  Madagascar 79.5 Steady Positive decrease 1.4 Positive decrease 4.1 Positive decrease 4.5
59  Honduras 79.4 Negative increase 2.6 Negative increase 1.6 Negative increase 2.1 Negative increase 0.3
 Guatemala 79.4 Negative increase 0.2 Positive decrease 2.0 Positive decrease 2.4 Positive decrease 3.7
61  Solomon Islands 79.3 Positive decrease 0.4 Positive decrease 2.6 Positive decrease 3.8 Positive decrease 5.5
 Tanzania 79.3 Negative increase 1.2 Positive decrease 0.8 Positive decrease 0.1 Positive decrease 1.0
 Colombia 79.3 Negative increase 2.7 Negative increase 3.6 Negative increase 2.7 Negative increase 0.4
64  Lesotho 77.9 Positive decrease 0.4 Positive decrease 1.8 Positive decrease 2.2 Positive decrease 3.8
65  Nicaragua 77.1 Steady Positive decrease 1.0 Negative increase 1.8 Positive decrease 0.3
66  India 77.0 Negative increase 1.7 Negative increase 2.6 Negative increase 0.7 Positive decrease 0.9
67  Jordan 76.8 Negative increase 1.4 Negative increase 0.9 Steady Positive decrease 1.9
68  Kyrgyzstan 76.4 Negative increase 2.5 Negative increase 0.2 Positive decrease 2.2 Positive decrease 3.9
69  Laos 76.0 Positive decrease 0.9 Positive decrease 2.7 Positive decrease 4.7 Positive decrease 6.4
70  Brazil 75.8 Negative increase 2.8 Negative increase 4.0 Negative increase 7.1 Negative increase 7.6
71  Azerbaijan 75.1 Negative increase 3.8 Negative increase 1.9 Negative increase 0.5 Positive decrease 1.2
 Tajikistan 75.1 Positive decrease 0.4 Positive decrease 2.6 Positive decrease 4.4 Positive decrease 6.7
73  Bolivia 74.9 Positive decrease 0.1 Negative increase 2.0 Positive decrease 0.3 Positive decrease 1.9
74  Algeria 73.6 Positive decrease 1.0 Positive decrease 1.8 Positive decrease 2.2 Positive decrease 3.2
 Russia 73.6 Negative increase 1.0 Positive decrease 1.1 Positive decrease 3.6 Positive decrease 5.6
76  Senegal 73.4 Positive decrease 1.2 Positive decrease 3.8 Positive decrease 6.2 Positive decrease 8.9
77  Bosnia-Herzegovina 72.9 Negative increase 2.7 Negative increase 1.6 Negative increase 1.6 Positive decrease 0.1
78  Benin 72.8 Negative increase 0.3 Positive decrease 0.8 Positive decrease 2.9 Positive decrease 4.8
79  Georgia 72.6 Negative increase 1.4 Negative increase 0.6 Positive decrease 1.4 Positive decrease 3.9
80  Uzbekistan 72.0 Positive decrease 1.1 Positive decrease 3.7 Positive decrease 7.1 Positive decrease 9.5
81  Micronesia 71.7 Negative increase 0.5 Positive decrease 1.3 Positive decrease 2.7 Positive decrease 4.7
82  El Salvador 71.6 Negative increase 2.7 Negative increase 1.8 Negative increase 0.4 Positive decrease 1.5
83  São Tomé and Príncipe 71.5 Negative increase 1.2 Negative increase 0.4 Positive decrease 0.6 Positive decrease 0.6
 Morocco 71.5 Negative increase 0.3 Positive decrease 1.5 Positive decrease 2.5 Positive decrease 3.4
85  Peru 71.4 Negative increase 3.8 Negative increase 3.2 Negative increase 1.3 Negative increase 1.1
86  Ecuador 71.2 Negative increase 1.8 Steady Positive decrease 3.0 Positive decrease 6.1
87  Thailand 70.9 Negative increase 0.1 Positive decrease 2.2 Positive decrease 4.1 Positive decrease 5.3
88  Fiji 70.4 Negative increase 0.5 Positive decrease 1.3 Positive decrease 4.1 Positive decrease 6.5
89  South Africa 70.0 Positive decrease 0.1 Positive decrease 1.1 Positive decrease 2.9 Positive decrease 2.3
90  Mexico 69.9 Negative increase 2.7 Negative increase 0.2 Positive decrease 1.6 Positive decrease 4.4
91  Ukraine 69.8 Negative increase 0.8 Positive decrease 1.2 Positive decrease 2.8 Positive decrease 4.2
 Armenia 69.8 Negative increase 5.6 Negative increase 3.1 Negative increase 0.3 Positive decrease 1.2
93  Saudi Arabia 69.7 Negative increase 0.9 Positive decrease 0.7 Positive decrease 0.5 Positive decrease 1.5
94  Tunisia 69.2 Negative increase 1.1 Positive decrease 0.9 Positive decrease 2.9 Positive decrease 5.0
95  China 68.9 Positive decrease 1.0 Positive decrease 2.2 Positive decrease 3.5 Positive decrease 5.8
96  Bhutan 68.3 Positive decrease 1.2 Positive decrease 3.7 Positive decrease 6.0 Positive decrease 7.7
97  Turkmenistan 68.2 Positive decrease 0.9 Positive decrease 3.2 Positive decrease 4.4 Positive decrease 6.2
98  Belarus 68.0 Negative increase 2.2 Positive decrease 0.2 Positive decrease 2.5 Positive decrease 4.4
99  Maldives 67.6 Negative increase 1.4 Positive decrease 2.2 Positive decrease 4.8 Positive decrease 6.8
 Indonesia 67.6 Positive decrease 0.2 Positive decrease 2.8 Positive decrease 4.7 Positive decrease 5.3
101  Serbia 67.4 Negative increase 1.3 Positive decrease 0.6 Positive decrease 0.7 Positive decrease 2.6
 Gabon 67.4 Positive decrease 1.7 Positive decrease 3.1 Positive decrease 5.1 Positive decrease 6.4
103  Moldova 67.0 Negative increase 1.0 Positive decrease 0.1 Positive decrease 2.5 Positive decrease 5.0
104  Bahrain 66.7 Negative increase 2.8 Negative increase 2.9 Negative increase 2.3 Negative increase 1.8
105  Paraguay 66.4 Negative increase 1.2 Positive decrease 0.6 Positive decrease 3.4 Positive decrease 5.2
106  Guyana 66.1 Negative increase 0.1 Positive decrease 2.1 Positive decrease 4.3 Positive decrease 5.2
107  Dominican Republic 64.7 Negative increase 0.3 Positive decrease 1.5 Positive decrease 4.5 Positive decrease 4.3
108  North Macedonia 64.5 Negative increase 2.4 Positive decrease 0.1 Positive decrease 0.3 Positive decrease 1.6
109  Namibia 64.3 Positive decrease 0.8 Positive decrease 2.1 Positive decrease 4.5 Positive decrease 6.1
110  Samoa 64.2 Negative increase 0.9 Steady Positive decrease 1.3 Positive decrease 2.9
 Cape Verde 64.2 Positive decrease 0.6 Positive decrease 2.4 Positive decrease 3.8 Positive decrease 5.9
 Belize 64.2 Negative increase 3.4 Negative increase 1.7 Negative increase 0.5 Positive decrease 1.3
113  Ghana 63.9 Positive decrease 0.3 Positive decrease 2.0 Positive decrease 4.2 Positive decrease 5.8
114  Vietnam 63.3 Positive decrease 0.6 Positive decrease 2.8 Positive decrease 5.1 Positive decrease 6.9
115  Suriname 61.5 Negative increase 1.4 Positive decrease 0.4 Positive decrease 2.5 Positive decrease 4.4
116  Kazakhstan 61.2 Negative increase 1.4 Positive decrease 0.4 Positive decrease 2.2 Positive decrease 4.7
 Jamaica 61.2 Negative increase 1.2 Steady Positive decrease 1.9 Positive decrease 4.0
118  Cuba 59.5 Negative increase 0.3 Positive decrease 1.3 Positive decrease 3.4 Positive decrease 5.1
119  Albania 59.0 Negative increase 0.2 Negative increase 0.1 Positive decrease 1.1 Positive decrease 1.5
120  Montenegro 58.5 Negative increase 3.0 Negative increase 3.2 Negative increase 3.2 Negative increase 2.8
121  Cyprus 57.4 Negative increase 1.3 Positive decrease 0.4 Positive decrease 2.9 Positive decrease 5.2
122  Botswana 57.0 Positive decrease 0.1 Positive decrease 2.5 Positive decrease 5.0 Positive decrease 6.8
123  Malaysia 56.9 Positive decrease 0.7 Positive decrease 3.6 Positive decrease 6.7 Positive decrease 8.5
124  Seychelles 56.3 Negative increase 1.6 Negative increase 1.1 Positive decrease 0.5 Positive decrease 3.1
 Brunei 56.3 Positive decrease 0.3 Positive decrease 1.2 Positive decrease 3.5 Positive decrease 5.3
126  Grenada 56.1 Negative increase 0.9 Positive decrease 1.5 Positive decrease 3.8 Positive decrease 5.4
127  Antigua and Barbuda 54.9 Negative increase 2.8 Negative increase 0.5 Positive decrease 0.7 Negative increase 0.1
128  Greece 54.5 Negative increase 2.4 Negative increase 0.6 Positive decrease 0.8 Positive decrease 3.0
129  Kuwait 52.9 Negative increase 2.0 Positive decrease 0.3 Positive decrease 3.0 Positive decrease 5.6
 Trinidad and Tobago 52.9 Negative increase 1.0 Positive decrease 0.1 Positive decrease 1.7 Positive decrease 3.8
131  Bahamas 52.4 Negative increase 2.5 Negative increase 3.6 Negative increase 2.4 Steady
132  Mongolia 52.3 Negative increase 0.4 Positive decrease 1.8 Positive decrease 2.6 Positive decrease 4.4
133  Bulgaria 51.6 Negative increase 2.4 Negative increase 1.0 Positive decrease 0.1 Positive decrease 2.1
134  Hungary 51.1 Negative increase 3.5 Negative increase 1.5 Negative increase 0.9 Positive decrease 0.9
135  Romania 51.0 Negative increase 4.3 Negative increase 3.2 Negative increase 1.6 Negative increase 0.1
136  Oman 50.4 Negative increase 2.4 Negative increase 0.4 Positive decrease 2.2 Positive decrease 2.1
137  Argentina 50.1 Negative increase 4.0 Negative increase 4.1 Negative increase 4.0 Negative increase 1.9
138  Croatia 49.8 Negative increase 3.7 Negative increase 2.3 Negative increase 1.1 Positive decrease 0.8
139  Panama 48.7 Negative increase 2.7 Negative increase 1.7 Positive decrease 0.8 Positive decrease 2.0
140  Barbados 47.0 Negative increase 0.6 Positive decrease 1.0 Positive decrease 1.2 Positive decrease 2.6
141  Italy 45.2 Negative increase 2.8 Negative increase 1.4 Negative increase 1.4 Steady
142  Spain 44.8 Negative increase 4.4 Negative increase 4.1 Negative increase 3.4 Negative increase 6.9
143  United States 44.6 Negative increase 6.3 Negative increase 6.6 Negative increase 6.9 Negative increase 9.0
144  Qatar 44.1 Negative increase 0.4 Positive decrease 1.3 Positive decrease 4.0 Negative increase 0.1
 Chile 44.1 Negative increase 1.6 Negative increase 5.2 Negative increase 3.4 Negative increase 3.0
146  Latvia 44.0 Negative increase 1.7 Negative increase 0.1 Positive decrease 0.9 Positive decrease 2.4
147  Poland 43.1 Negative increase 2.1 Negative increase 0.3 Negative increase 1.6 Negative increase 2.3
148  Israel[a] 43.0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
149  Costa Rica 42.5 Negative increase 2.3 Negative increase 0.5 Positive decrease 0.7 Positive decrease 1.6
150  United Kingdom 41.5 Negative increase 3.2 Negative increase 4.8 Negative increase 7.2 Negative increase 8.3
151  United Arab Emirates 40.3 Negative increase 2.2 Negative increase 0.2 Positive decrease 2.5 Positive decrease 3.4
152  Estonia 39.5 Negative increase 1.0 Positive decrease 1.3 Positive decrease 3.5 Positive decrease 5.2
153  Czechia 39.3 Negative increase 3.6 Negative increase 1.7 Negative increase 0.3 Positive decrease 0.8
154  Slovakia 39.0 Negative increase 0.8 Positive decrease 1.5 Positive decrease 3.5 Positive decrease 5.3
155  Lithuania 38.7 Negative increase 2.2 Negative increase 0.6 Positive decrease 0.7 Positive decrease 3.0
156  Mauritius 38.1 Negative increase 0.9 Positive decrease 0.8 Positive decrease 2.4 Positive decrease 3.6
157  Malta 36.2 Negative increase 2.6 Negative increase 1.7 Steady Positive decrease 2.4
158  Uruguay 35.9 Negative increase 2.5 Negative increase 1.9 Negative increase 0.5 Positive decrease 0.9
159  South Korea 32.5 Negative increase 0.5 Positive decrease 1.2 Positive decrease 3.2 Positive decrease 5.6
 France 32.5 Negative increase 2.0 Negative increase 0.5 Negative increase 0.3 Positive decrease 1.0
161  Japan 32.2 Positive decrease 0.1 Positive decrease 2.1 Positive decrease 2.3 Positive decrease 5.2
162  Belgium 31.0 Negative increase 3.9 Negative increase 2.4 Negative increase 1.3 Negative increase 0.2
163  Slovenia 28.2 Negative increase 2.4 Negative increase 0.2 Positive decrease 2.1 Positive decrease 4.2
164  Portugal 26.8 Negative increase 3.3 Negative increase 1.5 Positive decrease 0.5 Positive decrease 2.2
165  Singapore 26.6 Negative increase 0.3 Positive decrease 1.5 Positive decrease 3.8 Positive decrease 5.9
166  Austria 26.1 Negative increase 2.0 Negative increase 1.1 Positive decrease 0.1 Positive decrease 1.6
167  Germany 24.8 Negative increase 1.6 Negative increase 0.1 Positive decrease 1.0 Positive decrease 3.3
168  Netherlands 24.1 Negative increase 1.2 Positive decrease 0.7 Positive decrease 2.1 Positive decrease 3.3
169  Ireland 22.2 Negative increase 2.3 Negative increase 1.6 Negative increase 1.5 Positive decrease 0.1
170  Australia 21.8 Negative increase 2.1 Negative increase 2.1 Negative increase 1.0 Positive decrease 0.5
171  Canada 21.7 Negative increase 3.0 Negative increase 1.7 Negative increase 0.2 Positive decrease 0.9
172  Sweden 21.4 Negative increase 3.2 Negative increase 1.1 Negative increase 0.6 Positive decrease 0.7
173  Luxembourg 21.1 Negative increase 2.3 Negative increase 0.7 Negative increase 0.3 Positive decrease 2.3
174   Switzerland 19.9 Negative increase 2.8 Negative increase 1.2 Negative increase 0.7 Positive decrease 1.2
175  Denmark 18.8 Negative increase 1.6 Positive decrease 0.7 Positive decrease 1.0 Positive decrease 2.7
176  New Zealand 18.4 Negative increase 0.5 Positive decrease 1.7 Positive decrease 2.5 Positive decrease 4.2
177  Iceland 18.0 Negative increase 0.2 Positive decrease 1.8 Positive decrease 2.3 Positive decrease 4.5
178  Norway 16.6 Negative increase 0.4 Positive decrease 1.4 Positive decrease 1.7 Positive decrease 3.9
179  Finland 16.2 Negative increase 1.6 Positive decrease 0.7 Positive decrease 1.7 Positive decrease 2.5
  1. ^ a b Prior to the 2021 index, Israel and Palestine (West Bank) were scored as a single state.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "What Does State Fragility Mean?". Fund for Peace.
  2. ^ "Failing States: SOS". The Economist. June 19, 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
  3. ^ Bloom, David E. (May 5, 2011). "Africa's Daunting Challenges". New York Times. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
  4. ^ "Fragile States Index and CAST Framework Methodology". Fund for Peace.
  5. ^ "Fragile States Index 2021". Fund for Peace. 20 May 2021.
  6. ^ "Country Dashboard". Fund for Peace.

External links[edit]