List of countries by GDP (PPP)

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Largest economies by PPP GDP in 2018.
According to International Monetary Fund estimates.[1]
Top 10 countries by GDP (PPP) in 2018

This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).[2] Countries are sorted by GDP PPP forecast estimates from financial and statistical institutions in the limited period January–April 2017, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. The data given on this page are based on the international dollar, a standardized unit used by economists. Certain regions that are not widely considered countries such as the European Union and Hong Kong also show up in the list if they are distinct jurisdiction areas or economic entities.

GDP comparisons using PPP are arguably more useful than those using nominal GDP when assessing a nation's domestic market because PPP takes into account the relative cost of local goods, services and inflation rates of the country, rather than using international market exchange rates which may distort the real differences in per capita income.[3] It is however limited when measuring financial flows between countries and when comparing the quality of same goods among countries.[4] PPP is often used to gauge global poverty thresholds and is used by the United Nations in constructing the human development index.[3] These surveys such as the International Comparison Program include both tradable and non-tradable goods in an attempt to estimate a representative basket of all goods.[3]

The first table includes estimates for the year 2017 for all current 191 International Monetary Fund (IMF) members as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan. Data are in millions of international dollars; they were calculated by the IMF. Figures were published in April 2018. The second table includes data, mostly for the year 2015, for 180 of the 193 current United Nations member states as well as Hong Kong and Macau (the two Chinese Special Administrative Regions). Data are in millions of international dollars; they were compiled by the World Bank. The third table is a tabulation of the CIA World Factbook GDP (PPP) data update of 2017. The data for GDP at purchasing power parity has also been rebased using the new International Comparison Program price surveys and extrapolated to 2007.

Lists[edit]

(Click on one of the small triangles in the headings to re-order the list according to that category).

List by the International Monetary Fund (estimates for 2018)[5] List by the World Bank (2017)[6][7][8] List by the CIA World Factbook (1993–2017)[9]
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(billions of Current Int$)
 World 134,981
1  China[n 1] 25,238.56
 European Union[n 2] 21,998.475
2  United States 20,412.87
3  India 10,385.43
4  Japan 5,619.49
5  Germany 4,373.95
6  Russia 4,168.88
7  Indonesia 3,492.21
8  Brazil 3,388.96
9  United Kingdom 3,028.57
10  France 2,960.25
11  Mexico 2,571.68
12  Italy 2,399.83
13  Turkey 2,320.64
14  Korea, South 2,138.24
15  Spain 1,864.11
16  Canada 1,847.08
17  Saudi Arabia 1,844.75
18  Iran 1,749.43
19  Australia 1,312.53
20  Thailand 1,310.57
21  Egypt 1,292.75
 Taiwan 1,234.86
22  Poland 1,193.11
23  Nigeria 1,168.40
24  Pakistan 1,141.21
25  Malaysia 1,002.06
26  Netherlands 966.742
27  Argentina 959.528
28  Philippines 955.219
29  South Africa 794.706
30  Bangladesh 751.949
31  Colombia 750.276
32  United Arab Emirates 716.173
33  Vietnam 705.774
34  Iraq 694.653
35  Algeria 666.96
36  Singapore 554.855
37  Belgium 550.664
38  Sweden 546.53
39   Switzerland 541.346
40  Romania 517.505
41  Kazakhstan 503.893
 Hong Kong 482.101
42  Chile 476.815
43  Austria 461.432
44  Peru 450.148
45  Czech Republic 397.727
46  Norway 396.919
47  Ukraine 389.198
48  Ireland 381.72
49  Myanmar 359.374
50  Qatar 357.338
51  Israel 334.328
52  Venezuela 330.984
53  Portugal 328.252
54  Greece 311.647
55  Morocco 314.742
56  Hungary 306.787
57  Kuwait 301.916
58  Denmark 299.166
59  Sri Lanka 292.311
60  Finland 255.976
61  Uzbekistan 238.997
62  Ethiopia 222.258
63  Ecuador 201.976
64  Angola 198.821
65  New Zealand 198.516
66  Sudan 198.356
67  Oman 194.82
68  Slovak Republic 190.778
69  Belarus 188.328
70  Dominican Republic 186.048
71  Azerbaijan 179.276
72  Tanzania 176.465
73  Kenya 175.978
74  Bulgaria 162.568
75  Guatemala 145.514
76  Ghana 145.387
77  Tunisia 141.816
 Puerto Rico 119.314
78  Turkmenistan 112.393
79  Panama 112.204
80  Serbia 111.622
81  Croatia 106.548
82  Côte d'Ivoire 106.412
83  Lithuania 96.261
84  Uganda 95.434
85  Cameroon 94.54
86  Jordan 93.399
87  Lebanon 91.013
88  Bolivia 88.866
89  Costa Rica 88.844
90    Nepal 84.365
91  Uruguay 82.641
 Macau 78.53
92  Libya 76.684
93  Slovenia 75.604
94  Bahrain 74.215
95  Zambia 73.299
96  Paraguay 72.999
97  Afghanistan 72.911
98  Democratic Republic of the Congo 72.638
99  Cambodia 70.242
100  Luxembourg 66.914
101  El Salvador 59.626
102  Latvia 57.336
103  Laos 53.752
104  Honduras 48.822
105  Senegal 47.336
106  Bosnia and Herzegovina 47.097
107  Estonia 44.177
108  Trinidad and Tobago 44.1
109  Mali 44.028
110  Madagascar 42.705
111  Mongolia 42.646
112  Georgia 42.407
113  Botswana 41.556
114  Yemen 39.267
115  Nicaragua 38.957
116  Burkina Faso 38.794
117  Mozambique 38.679
118  Gabon 38.582
119  Albania 38.154
120  Zimbabwe 35.565
121  Brunei Darussalam 34.637
122  Cyprus 33.46
123  North Macedonia 32.554
124  Papua New Guinea 31.929
125  Chad 30.232
126  Tajikistan 30.188
127  Armenia 29.908
128  Republic of Congo 29.749
129  Mauritius 29.187
130  Guinea 28.637
131  Equatorial Guinea 28.637
132  Benin 27.471
133  Namibia 27.474
134  Jamaica 27.062
135  Rwanda 26.997
136  Kyrgyzstan 24.276
137  Malawi 23.682
138  Niger 23.475
139  Moldova 21.26
 Kosovo 20.876
140  Malta 20.861
141  Haiti 20.794
142  Somalia 19.568
143  Iceland 18.606
144  South Sudan 18.435
145  Mauritania 18.119
146  Togo 13.886
147  Sierra Leone 12.177
148  Bahamas, The 12.156
149  Montenegro 11.646
150  Eswatini 11.496
151  Eritrea 9.997
152  Fiji 9.158
153  Suriname 8.822
154  Burundi 8.184
155  Bhutan 7.701
156  Maldives 7.396
157  Lesotho 7.231
158  Guyana 6.657
159  Timor-Leste 6.47
160  Liberia 6.44
161  Barbados 5.391
162  Cape Verde 3.983
163  Djibouti 3.964
164  Gambia, The 3.884
165  Central African Republic 3.587
166  Guinea-Bissau 3.385
167  Belize 3.343
168  Seychelles 2.873
169  St. Lucia 2.659
170  Antigua and Barbuda 2.533
171  San Marino 2.216
172  Grenada 1.701
173  St. Kitts and Nevis 1.617
174  Solomon Islands 1.395
175  Comoros 1.384
176  St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1.322
177  Samoa 1.188
178  Vanuatu 0.817
179  São Tomé and Príncipe 0.726
180  Dominica 0.672
181  Tonga 0.62
182  Micronesia 0.36
183  Palau 0.3
184  Kiribati 0.237
185  Marshall Islands 0.197
186  Nauru 0.158
187  Tuvalu 0.044
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(millions of Current Int$)
 World 127,723,794
1  China[n 1] 23,300,783
2  United States 19,390,604
3  India 9,448,659
4  Japan 5,487,161
5  Germany 4,187,583
6  Russia 3,817,201
7  Indonesia 3,242,769
8  Brazil 3,240,524
9  United Kingdom 2,896,833
10  France 2,871,264
11  Italy 2,410,985
12  Mexico 2,344,197
13  Turkey 2,254,114
14  Korea, South 1,969,106
15  Spain 1,773,972
16  Saudi Arabia 1,773,549
17  Canada 1,702,435
18  Iran 1,700,356
19  Thailand 1,233,736
20  Australia 1,157,298
21  Egypt 1,129,919
22  Nigeria 1,118,755
23  Poland 1,112,364
24  Pakistan 1,088,982
25  Malaysia 930,749
26  Argentina 920,248
27  Netherlands 907,032
28  Philippines 875,311
29  South Africa 765,567
30  Colombia 714,003
31  United Arab Emirates 694,468
32  Iraq 658,200
33  Vietnam 647,368
34  Bangladesh 637,078
35  Algeria 631,150
36   Switzerland 550,346
37  Belgium 540,867
38  Singapore 527,021
39  Romania 506,132
40  Sweden 504,088
41  Kazakhstan 476,366
42  Austria 462,990
 Hong Kong 454,886
43  Chile 434,848
44  Peru 432,115
45  Venezuela 409,389
46  Czech Republic 390,989
47  Ukraine 368,217
48  Ireland 367,301
49  Qatar 338,817
50  Israel 334,667
51  Portugal 331,445
52  Myanmar 327,629
53  Norway 322,101
54  Greece 299,241
55  Morocco 298,230
56  Kuwait 297,594
57  Denmark 291,600
58  Hungary 277,543
59  Sri Lanka 274,718
60  Finland 249,065
61  Uzbekistan 222,338
62  Ethiopia 199,336
63  Sudan 198,758
64  New Zealand 196,152
65  Oman 193,218
66  Ecuador 193,138
67  Angola 190,290
68  Belarus 179,203
69  Slovakia 174,678
70  Dominican Republic 172,591
71  Azerbaijan 171,588
72  Tanzania (mainland) 163,886
73  Kenya 163,309
74  Bulgaria 143,850
75  Guatemala 137,849
76  Tunisia 137,358
77  Ghana 133,826
78  Libya 125,142
79  Serbia 105,966
80  Croatia 104,233
81  Turkmenistan 103,604
82  Panama 100,194
83  Côte d'Ivoire 96,046
84  Lithuania 90,749
85  Lebanon 89,263
86  Cameroon 88,859
87  Jordan 88,809
88  Costa Rica 83,615
89  Bolivia 83,546
90  Uganda 79,889
91    Nepal 78,591
92  Uruguay 77,992
93  Yemen 75,346
94  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 72,165
95  Slovenia 71,926
 Macau 71,672
96  Bahrain 70,937
97  Afghanistan 70,368
98  Zambia 69,235
99  Paraguay 66,007
100  Cambodia 64,050
101  Luxembourg 62,139
102  Latvia 53,561
103  El Salvador 51,061
104  Laos 48,167
105  Honduras 46,198
106  Bosnia and Herzegovina 45,156
107  Trinidad and Tobago 43,234
108  Senegal 42,992
109  Estonia 41,619
110  Mali 41,004
111  Mongolia 39,982
112  Botswana 39,770
113  Georgia 39,768
114  Madagascar 39,764
115  Mozambique 37,005
116  Gabon 36,823
117  Nicaragua 36,324
118  Burkina Faso 35,887
119  Papua New Guinea 34,633
120  Albania 34,541
121  Zimbabwe 34,476
122  Brunei Darussalam 33,797
123  North Macedonia 31,729
124  Equatorial Guinea 31,460
125  Cyprus 29,606
126  Guinea 29,056
127  Chad 28,924
128  Tajikistan 28,373
129  Armenia 28,271
130  Congo, Republic of the 28,193
131  Mauritius 28,174
132  Namibia 26,542
133  Jamaica 25,999
134  Benin 25,327
135  Rwanda 24,852
136  Kyrgyzstan 23,104
 West Bank and Gaza 22,886
137  Malawi 22,387
138  Niger 21,834
139  Moldova 20,226
140  Haiti 19,930
 Kosovo 19,688
141  Malta 18,395
142  Iceland 18,265
143  Mauritania 17,458
144  Togo 12,240
145  Bahamas, The 12,031
146  Montenegro 11,681
147  Eswatini 11,617
148  Sierra Leone 10,264
149  Timor-Leste 9,350
150  Fiji 8,652
151  Suriname 8,515
152  Burundi 8,376
153  Bhutan 7,721
154  Maldives 7,273
155  Lesotho 6,991
156  Guyana 6,349
157  Barbados 5,326
158  Liberia 3,911
159  Cape Verde 3,733
160  Djibouti 3,716
161  Gambia, The 3,602
162  Central African Republic 3,382
163  Belize 3,219
164  Guinea-Bissau 3,165
165  Seychelles 2,776
166  Saint Lucia 2,543
167  Antigua and Barbuda 2,407
168  San Marino 2,085
169  Grenada 1,609
170  Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,498
171  Solomon Islands 1,480
172  Samoa 1,299
173  St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1,296
174  Comoros 1,263
175  Vanuatu 886
176  Dominica 785
177  Sao Tome and Principe 685
178  Tonga 643
179  Federated States of Micronesia 382
180  Palau 316
181  Kiribati 253
182  Marshall Islands 223
183  Nauru 193
184  Tuvalu 44
Rank Country/Territory GDP
(billions of Current Int$)
Year
 World 127,000 2017 est.
1  China[n 1] 23,120 2017 est.
 European Union[n 2] 20,850 2017 est.
2  United States 19,360 2017 est.
3  India 9,447 2017 est.
4  Japan 5,405 2017 est.
5  Germany 4,150 2017 est.
6  Russia 4,000 2017 est.
7  Indonesia 3,243 2017 est.
8  Brazil 3,219 2017 est.
9  United Kingdom 2,880 2017 est.
10  France 2,826 2017 est.
11  Mexico 2,406 2017 est.
12  Italy 2,307 2017 est.
13  Turkey 2,133 2017 est.
14  Korea, South 2,027 2017 est.
15  Saudi Arabia 1,789 2017 est.
16  Spain 1,769 2017 est.
17  Canada 1,764 2017 est.
18  Iran 1,631 2017 est.
19  Australia 1,235 2017 est.
20  Thailand 1,229 2017 est.
21  Egypt 1,199 2017 est.
 Taiwan 1,175 2017 est.
22  Nigeria 1,118 2017 est.
23  Poland 1,111 2017 est.
24  Pakistan 1,056 2017 est.
25  Malaysia 926.1 2017 est.
26  Netherlands 915.2 2017 est.
27  Argentina 911.5 2017 est.
28  Philippines 874.5 2017 est.
29  South Africa 757.3 2017 est.
30  Colombia 712.5 2017 est.
31  United Arab Emirates 691.9 2017 est.
32  Bangladesh 686.5 2017 est.
33  Iraq 660.7 2017 est.
34  Vietnam 643.9 2017 est.
35  Algeria 629.3 2017 est.
36  Belgium 526.4 2017 est.
37  Sweden 521.7 2017 est.
38   Switzerland 516.7 2017 est.
39  Singapore 513.7 2017 est.
40  Kazakhstan 474.3 2017 est.
41  Romania 474.0 2017 est.
 Hong Kong 453.0 2017 est.
42  Chile 452.1 2017 est.
43  Austria 434.1 2017 est.
44  Peru 424.6 2017 est.
45  Venezuela 389.4 2017 est.
46  Norway 375.9 2017 est.
47  Czech Republic 372.6 2017 est.
48  Ukraine 366.4 2017 est.
49  Ireland 344.8 2017 est.
50  Qatar 341.7 2017 est.
51  Myanmar 330.9 2017 est.
52  Israel 315.6 2017 est.
53  Portugal 311.3 2017 est.
54  Kuwait 302.5 2017 est.
55  Morocco 300.1 2017 est.
56  Greece 299.5 2017 est.
57  Denmark 285.5 2017 est.
58  Hungary 283.6 2017 est.
59  Sri Lanka 278.2 2017 est.
60  Finland 242.4 2017 est.
61  Uzbekistan 221.7 2017 est.
62  Ethiopia 195.8 2017 est.
63  Angola 192.0 2017 est.
64  Ecuador 188.5 2017 est.
65  Oman 187.9 2017 est.
66  Sudan 186.8 2017 est.
67  New Zealand 185.7 2017 est.
68  Slovakia 178.7 2017 est.
69  Belarus 175.9 2017 est.
70  Dominican Republic 172.6 2017 est.
71  Azerbaijan 166.8 2017 est.
72  Kenya 163.4 2017 est.
73  Tanzania 162.8 2017 est.
74  Bulgaria 152.4 2017 est.
75  Guatemala 138.3 2017 est.
76  Tunisia 135.9 2017 est.
77  Cuba 132.9 2016 est.
78  Ghana 130.2 2017 est.
 Puerto Rico 127.3 2017 est.
79  Serbia 106.6 2017 est.
80  Turkmenistan 103.5 2017 est.
81  Croatia 100.2 2017 est.
82  Panama 99.43 2017 est.
83  Cote d'Ivoire 96.27 2017 est.
84  Lithuania 90.63 2017 est.
85  Jordan 89.05 2017 est.
86  Uganda 88.61 2017 est.
87  Lebanon 87.89 2017 est.
88  Costa Rica 85.20 2017 est.
89  Bolivia 83.50 2017 est.
91  Cameroon 81.55 2017 est.
91    Nepal 78.55 2017 est.
92  Uruguay 78.41 2017 est.
 Macau 73.58 2017 est.
93  Slovenia 70.36 2017 est.
94  Bahrain 69.77 2017 est.
95  Afghanistan 69.51 2017 est.
96  Yemen 68.95 2017 est.
97  Zambia 68.90 2017 est.
98  Paraguay 68.05 2017 est.
99  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 67.99 2017 est.
100  Luxembourg 64.39 2017 est.
101  Cambodia 64.21 2017 est.
102  Libya 63.14 2017 est.
103  El Salvador 56.90 2017 est.
104  Latvia 53.47 2017 est.
105  Syria 50.28 2015 est.
106  Laos 49.21 2017 est.
107  Honduras 45.68 2017 est.
108  Bosnia and Herzegovina 43.85 2017 est.
109  Senegal 43.07 2017 est.
110  Trinidad and Tobago 42.78 2017 est.
111  Estonia 41.20 2017 est.
112  Mali 40.98 2017 est.
113  Korea, North 40.00 2015 est.
114  Madagascar 39.81 2017 est.
115  Botswana 39.55 2017 est.
116  Georgia 39.32 2017 est.
117  Mongolia 38.40 2017 est.
118  Mozambique 37.39 2017 est.
119  Gabon 36.75 2017 est.
120  Nicaragua 36.22 2017 est.
121  Albania 35.87 2017 est.
122  Burkina Faso 35.68 2017 est.
123  Zimbabwe 33.87 2017 est.
124  Brunei 32.91 2017 est.
125  North Macedonia 31.55 2017 est.
126  Cyprus 31.19 2017 est.
127  Papua New Guinea 30.84 2017 est.
128  Chad 29.64 2017 est.
129  Equatorial Guinea 29.38 2017 est.
130  Congo, Republic of the 29.16 2017 est.
131  Tajikistan 27.67 2017 est.
132  Mauritius 27.44 2017 est.
133  Armenia 27.21 2017 est.
134  Namibia 27.02 2017 est.
135  Guinea 26.45 2017 est.
136  Jamaica 26.20 2017 est.
137  Benin 25.29 2017 est.
138  Rwanda 24.61 2017 est.
139  Kyrgyzstan 22.64 2017 est.
140  Malawi 22.47 2017 est.
141  Niger 21.62 2017 est.
 West Bank 21.22 2014 est.
142  Moldova 20.07 2017 est.
143  Haiti 19.88 2017 est.
144  South Sudan 19.75 2017 est.
 Kosovo 19.38 2017 est.
145  Malta 18.53 2017 est.
146  Iceland 17.73 2017 est.
147  Somalia 17.47 2017 est.
148  Mauritania 17.37 2017 est.
149  Togo 12.43 2017 est.
150  Sierra Leone 11.75 2017 est.
151  Eswatini 11.34 2017 est.
152  Montenegro 10.86 2017 est.
 New Caledonia 10.77 2015 est.
153  Eritrea 9.631 2017 est.
154  Bahamas, The 9.339 2017 est.
155  Fiji 8.647 2017 est.
156  Burundi 7.985 2017 est.
157  Suriname 7.928 2017 est.
158  Monaco 7.672 2015 est.
159  Lesotho 7.448 2017 est.
 Isle of Man 7.428 2014 est.
160  Bhutan 7.011 2017 est.
161  Maldives 6.896 2017 est.
162  Guyana 6.367 2017 est.
163  Timor-Leste 6.211 2017 est.
 French Polynesia 5.490 2015 est.
 Bermuda 5.198 2013 est.
 Jersey 5.080 2015 est.
164  Liechtenstein 4.978 2014 est.
165  Barbados 4.919 2017 est.
 Guam 4.882 2013 est.
166  Liberia 3.906 2017 est.
 U.S. Virgin Islands 3.792 2013 est.
167  Cape Verde 3.734 2017 est.
168  Djibouti 3.640 2017 est.
169  Gambia, The 3.582 2017 est.
 Guernsey 3.465 2015 est.
170  Central African Republic 3.395 2017 est.
171  Andorra 3.327 2015 est.
172  Belize 3.230 2017 est.
 Curaçao 3.128 2012 est.
173  Guinea-Bissau 3.071 2017 est.
174  Seychelles 2.712 2017 est.
 Aruba 2.516 2009 est.
 Cayman Islands 2.507 2014 est.
175  Antigua and Barbuda 2.390 2017 est.
176  Saint Lucia 2.384 2017 est.
 Greenland 2.173 2015 est.
177  San Marino 2.083 2017 est.
 Gibraltar 2.044 2014 est.
 Faroe Islands 2.001 2014 est.
178  Grenada 1.590 2017 est.
179  Saint Kitts and Nevis 1.528 2017 est.
180  Comoros 1.323 2017 est.
181  Solomon Islands 1.317 2017 est.
182  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1.281 2017 est.
183  Samoa 1.130 2017 est.
 Western Sahara 0.9065 2007 est.
184  Dominica 0.8510 2017 est.
185  Vanuatu 0.7870 2017 est.
 American Samoa 0.7110 2013 est.
 Northern Mariana Islands 0.6820 2013 est.
186  Sao Tome and Principe 0.6820 2017 est.
 Turks and Caicos Islands 0.6320 2007 est.
187  Tonga 0.5870 2017 est.
Flag of Saint Martin.png Saint Martin 0.5615 2005 est.
 British Virgin Islands 0.5000 2010 est.
 Sint Maarten 0.3658 2014 est.
188  Micronesia, Federated States of 0.3470 2017 est.
189  Palau 0.3010 2017 est.
 Falkland Islands 0.2818 2012 est.
 Cook Islands 0.2441 2010 est.
190  Kiribati 0.2240 2017 est.
Flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.svg Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0.2153 2006 est.
191  Marshall Islands 0.1890 2017 est.
 Anguilla 0.1754 2009 est.
192  Nauru 0.1590 2017 est.
 Wallis and Futuna 0.0600 2004 est.
 Montserrat 0.0438 2006 est.
193  Tuvalu 0.0420 2017 est.
Flag of Saint Helena.svg Saint Helena 0.0311 2009 est.
 Niue 0.0101 2003 est.
 Tokelau 0.0015 1993 est.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Figure for Mainland China; excludes the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau.
  2. ^ a b The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU is included as a separate entity in The World Factbook of CIA because it has many attributes of independent nations, being much more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur.[10] As the EU is not a country, the U.S is the second ranked country on these lists.
  • ^2 IMF estimate.
  • ^3 Data excludes French Polynesia.
  • ^a China's PPP is based on prices for 11 administrative regions, extrapolated to the full country, and an urban/rural breakdown. China's entry does not include the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau. These are listed separately.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  3. ^ a b c "Part 4. Applications and Limitations of ICP Data" (PDF). Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  4. ^ PPP Versus the Market: Which Weight Matters?, imf.org, March 2007, Volume 44, Number 1
  5. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 6 Feb 2019.
  6. ^ Data (1 July 2017). ""Gross domestic product 2016, PPP", World Bank, accessed on 18 July 2017" (PDF). Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 18 July 2017.; European Union calculated by sum of individual countries.
  7. ^ "World Bank GDP PPP PDF 2016" (PDF). Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  8. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  9. ^ Field listing - GDP (PPP exchange rate), CIA World Factbook
  10. ^ CIA (2014). "The World Factbook". Retrieved 15 March 2015. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook.