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List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

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Countries or territories by GDP (PPP) per capita in 2021.
  >$60,000
  $50,000 – $60,000
  $40,000 – $50,000
  $30,000 – $40,000
  $20,000 – $30,000
  $10,000 – $20,000
  $5,000 – $10,000
  $2,500 – $5,000
  $1,000 – $2,500
  <$1,000
  No data

This article is a list of the countries of the world by gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.

As of 2019, the estimated average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world is Int$18,381.[n 1] For rankings regarding wealth, see list of countries by wealth per adult.

Method

The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the IMF and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.

Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made on the basis of nominal GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards between nations because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income.

This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,[3][4] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (See Standard of living and GDP.)

All figures are in current international dollars, and rounded up or down to the nearest whole number.

Table

The table is initially ranked by the average of the available estimates for each country or territory, and can be reranked by either of the sources.

* indicates "Income in COUNTRY or TERRITORY" or "Economy of COUNTRY or TERRITORY" links.

GDP per capita (US$ PPP) by country or  dependent territory 
Country/Territory Subregion Region IMF[5] World Bank[6] CIA[7]
Estimate Year Estimate Year Estimate Year
 Liechtenstein * Western Europe Europe N/A N/A 139,100 2009
 Luxembourg * Western Europe Europe 122,740 2021 118,360 2020 114,482 2019
 Monaco * Western Europe Europe N/A N/A 115,700 2015
 Singapore * South-eastern Asia Asia 102,742 2021 98,526 2020 97,341 2019
 Ireland * Northern Europe Europe 99,239 2021 93,612 2020 86,781 2019
 Qatar * Western Asia Asia 97,262 2021 89,949 2020 90,044 2019
 Macau * Eastern Asia Asia 90,606 2021 57,807 2020 123,965 2019
 Isle of Man * Northern Europe Europe N/A N/A 84,600 2014
 Bermuda * Northern America Americas N/A 85,264 2019 81,798 2019
 Cayman Islands * Caribbean Americas N/A 76,748 2019 71,549 2018
 Switzerland * Western Europe Europe 75,880 2021 71,352 2020 68,628 2019
 Falkland Islands * South America Americas N/A N/A 70,800 2015
 Norway * Northern Europe Europe 69,171 2021 63,198 2020 63,633 2019
 United Arab Emirates * Western Asia Asia 59,844 2021 69,958 2019 67,119 2019
 United States * Northern America Americas 68,309 2021 63,544 2020 62,530 2019
 Brunei * South-eastern Asia Asia 64,405 2021 65,662 2020 62,100 2019
 Gibraltar * Southern Europe Europe N/A N/A 61,700 2014
 San Marino * Southern Europe Europe 61,508 2021 63,420 2019 59,439 2018
 Hong Kong * Eastern Asia Asia 62,839 2021 59,238 2020 59,848 2019
 Denmark * Northern Europe Europe 61,478 2021 60,399 2020 57,804 2019
 Netherlands * Western Europe Europe 60,461 2021 59,229 2020 56,935 2019
 Jersey * Northern Europe Europe N/A N/A 56,600 2016
 Iceland * Northern Europe Europe 58,151 2021 55,216 2020 55,874 2019
 Austria * Western Europe Europe 57,891 2021 55,098 2020 56,188 2019
 Taiwan * Eastern Asia Asia 59,398 2021 55,078 2020 50,500 2017
 Germany * Western Europe Europe 56,956 2021 53,694 2020 53,919 2019
 Sweden * Northern Europe Europe 55,566 2021 54,563 2020 53,240 2019
 Belgium * Western Europe Europe 53,973 2021 51,968 2020 51,934 2019
 Australia * Australia, New Zealand Oceania 54,891 2021 52,518 2020 49,854 2019
 Guernsey * Northern Europe Europe N/A N/A 52,500 2014
 Finland * Northern Europe Europe 51,867 2021 51,090 2020 48,668 2019
 Canada * Northern America Americas 51,713 2021 48,073 2020 49,031 2019
 Andorra * Southern Europe Europe N/A N/A 49,900 2015
 Kuwait * Western Asia Asia 41,507 2021 51,962 2019 49,854 2019
 France * Western Europe Europe 49,492 2021 46,227 2020 46,184 2019
 Saudi Arabia * Western Asia Asia 48,099 2021 46,763 2020 46,962 2019
 United Kingdom * Northern Europe Europe 47,089 2021 44,916 2020 46,659 2019
 Bahrain * Western Asia Asia 50,284 2021 43,181 2020 45,011 2019
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon * Northern America Americas N/A N/A 46,200 2006
 EU * Europe 46,888 2021 44,491 2020 44,436 2019
 South Korea * Eastern Asia Asia 47,027 2021 43,124 2020 42,765 2019
 Malta * Southern Europe Europe 45,042 2021 42,640 2020 44,032 2019
 New Zealand * Australia, New Zealand Oceania 44,226 2021 44,252 2020 42,888 2019
 Japan * Eastern Asia Asia 44,585 2021 42,197 2019 41,429 2019
 Italy * Southern Europe Europe 43,376 2021 41,840 2020 42,492 2019
 Czech Republic * Eastern Europe Europe 42,956 2021 41,737 2020 40,862 2019
 Israel * Western Asia Asia 42,570 2021 41,855 2020 40,145 2019
 Greenland * Northern America Americas N/A N/A 41,800 2015
 Spain * Southern Europe Europe 41,546 2021 38,335 2020 40,903 2019
 Cyprus * Western Asia Asia 41,595 2021 38,458 2020 39,545 2019
 Slovenia * Southern Europe Europe 40,820 2021 39,593 2020 39,088 2019
 Faroe Islands * Northern Europe Europe N/A N/A 40,000 2014
 Lithuania * Northern Europe Europe 40,784 2021 38,735 2020 37,231 2019
 Estonia * Northern Europe Europe 39,729 2021 38,395 2020 36,927 2019
 U.S. Virgin Islands * Caribbean Americas N/A N/A 37,000 2016
 Aruba * Caribbean Americas 30,972 2021 38,897 2017 37,500 2017
 Sint Maarten * Caribbean Americas N/A 36,191 2018 35,342 2018
 Puerto Rico * Caribbean Americas 35,943 2021 35,279 2020 34,518 2019
 Portugal * Southern Europe Europe 36,079 2021 34,496 2020 34,894 2019
 Guam * Micronesia Oceania N/A N/A 35,600 2016
 Bahamas * Caribbean Americas 34,046 2021 32,454 2020 37,101 2019
 Poland * Eastern Europe Europe 35,957 2021 34,265 2020 33,221 2019
 British Virgin Islands * Caribbean Americas N/A N/A 34,200 2017
 Hungary * Eastern Europe Europe 35,088 2021 33,084 2020 32,945 2019
 Slovakia * Eastern Europe Europe 34,815 2021 31,832 2020 32,730 2019
 Latvia * Northern Europe Europe 33,394 2021 32,019 2020 30,898 2019
 Romania * Eastern Europe Europe 32,950 2021 31,946 2020 29,941 2019
 New Caledonia * Melanesia Oceania N/A N/A 31,100 2015
 Turkey * Western Asia Asia 32,278 2021 28,120 2020 28,424 2019
 Greece * Southern Europe Europe 30,495 2021 28,464 2020 29,799 2019
 Panama * Central America Americas 30,388 2021 26,776 2020 31,459 2019
 Croatia * Southern Europe Europe 29,777 2021 28,504 2020 28,602 2019
 Oman * Western Asia Asia 30,404 2021 28,449 2019 27,299 2019
 Malaysia * South-eastern Asia Asia 29,340 2021 27,887 2020 28,364 2019
 Russia * Eastern Europe Europe 29,485 2021 28,213 2020 27,044 2019
 Seychelles * Eastern Africa Africa 26,119 2021 25,700 2020 29,223 2019
 Kazakhstan * Central Asia Asia 27,560 2021 26,729 2020 26,351 2019
 Turks and Caicos Islands Caribbean Americas N/A 22,282 2020 29,253 2019
 Trinidad and Tobago * Caribbean Americas 25,883 2021 25,031 2020 26,176 2019
 Curaçao * Caribbean Americas N/A 25,530 2019 24,479 2019
 Chile * South America Americas 24,928 2021 25,068 2020 24,226 2019
 Bulgaria * Eastern Europe Europe 25,471 2021 24,367 2020 23,174 2019
 Northern Mariana Islands * Micronesia Oceania N/A N/A 24,500 2016
 Saint Kitts and Nevis * Caribbean Americas 20,730 2021 24,537 2020 26,438 2019
 Uruguay * South America Americas 23,474 2021 22,795 2020 21,561 2019
 Mauritius * Eastern Africa Africa 22,030 2021 20,539 2020 22,870 2019
 Argentina * South America Americas 22,141 2021 20,768 2020 22,064 2019
 Montenegro * Southern Europe Europe 21,355 2021 20,567 2020 21,470 2019
 Costa Rica * Central America Americas 20,667 2021 21,032 2020 19,642 2019
 Belarus * Eastern Europe Europe 20,578 2021 20,200 2020 19,150 2019
 Antigua and Barbuda * Caribbean Americas 18,125 2021 18,942 2020 21,910 2019
 Mexico * Central America Americas 20,266 2021 18,833 2020 19,796 2019
 Serbia * Southern Europe Europe 20,545 2021 19,231 2020 18,233 2019
 Saint Martin * Caribbean Americas N/A N/A 19,300 2005
 Maldives * Southern Asia Asia 23,343 2021 13,766 2020 19,531 2019
 Dominican Republic * Caribbean Americas 19,799 2021 17,937 2020 18,413 2019
 Guyana * South America Americas 23,258 2021 19,706 2020 13,082 2019
 Thailand * South-eastern Asia Asia 19,004 2021 18,236 2020 18,460 2019
 Equatorial Guinea * Middle Africa Africa 18,236 2021 17,942 2020 18,558 2019
 Botswana * Southern Africa Africa 18,113 2021 16,921 2020 17,767 2019
 China * Eastern Asia Asia 18,931 2021 17,312 2020 16,117 2019
 World N/A 17,110 2020 17,500 2017
 North Macedonia * Southern Europe Europe 17,663 2021 16,927 2020 16,479 2019
 French Polynesia * Polynesia Oceania N/A N/A 17,000 2015
 Cook Islands * Polynesia Oceania N/A N/A 16,700 2016
 Palau * Micronesia Oceania 12,862 2021 18,316 2019 17,579 2019
 Turkmenistan * Central Asia Asia 17,415 2021 16,196 2019 14,845 2018
 Grenada * Caribbean Americas 15,385 2021 15,893 2020 17,039 2019
 Suriname * South America Americas 14,703 2021 17,016 2020 16,525 2019
 Bosnia and Herzegovina * Southern Europe Europe 15,935 2021 15,612 2020 14,912 2019
 Gabon * Middle Africa Africa 16,244 2021 15,191 2020 14,950 2019
 Georgia * Western Asia Asia 15,709 2021 14,863 2020 14,992 2019
 Brazil * South America Americas 15,643 2021 14,836 2020 14,652 2019
 Colombia * South America Americas 15,184 2021 14,565 2020 14,722 2019
 Azerbaijan * Western Asia Asia 14,856 2021 14,452 2020 14,404 2019
 Barbados * Caribbean Americas 14,329 2021 13,577 2020 15,639 2019
 Albania * Southern Europe Europe 15,225 2021 13,818 2020 13,965 2019
 Saint Lucia * Caribbean Americas 13,942 2021 12,944 2020 15,449 2019
 Armenia * Western Asia Asia 13,638 2021 13,284 2020 13,654 2019
 Sri Lanka * Southern Asia Asia 13,909 2021 13,225 2020 13,078 2019
 Moldova * Eastern Europe Europe 13,879 2021 13,002 2020 13,050 2019
 Ukraine * Eastern Europe Europe 13,943 2021 13,057 2020 12,810 2019
 Libya * Northern Africa Africa 13,723 2021 10,847 2020 15,174 2019
 Paraguay * South America Americas 13,454 2021 13,013 2020 12,685 2019
 Iran * Western Asia Asia 13,513 2021 13,116 2020 12,389 2019
 Lebanon * Western Asia Asia 11,564 2021 12,289 2020 14,552 2019
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Caribbean Americas 12,811 2021 12,770 2020 12,485 2019
 Peru * South America Americas 12,985 2021 11,879 2020 12,848 2019
 Fiji * Melanesia Oceania 12,298 2021 11,601 2020 13,684 2019
 Egypt * Northern Africa Africa 13,083 2021 12,608 2020 11,763 2019
 South Africa * Southern Africa Africa 12,442 2021 12,096 2020 12,482 2019
 Cuba * Caribbean Americas N/A N/A 12,300 2016
 Mongolia * Eastern Asia Asia 12,431 2021 12,101 2020 12,317 2019
 Indonesia * South-eastern Asia Asia 12,882 2021 12,074 2020 11,812 2019
 Anguilla * Caribbean Americas N/A N/A 12,200 2008
 Nauru * Micronesia Oceania 9,995 2021 14,100 2019 11,583 2019
 Bhutan * Southern Asia Asia 11,928 2021 11,508 2020 11,832 2019
 Kosovo * Southern Europe Europe 11,949 2021 11,368 2020 11,368 2019
 Algeria * Northern Africa Africa 11,433 2021 11,268 2020 11,511 2019
 Ecuador * South America Americas 11,331 2021 10,896 2020 11,375 2019
 American Samoa * Polynesia Oceania N/A N/A 11,200 2016
 Dominica * Caribbean Americas 11,231 2021 10,435 2020 11,917 2019
 Tunisia * Northern Africa Africa 10,594 2021 10,262 2020 10,756 2019
 Jordan * Western Asia Asia 10,590 2021 10,356 2020 10,071 2019
 Iraq * Western Asia Asia 10,038 2021 9,764 2020 10,881 2019
 Jamaica * Caribbean Americas 10,294 2021 9,222 2020 9,762 2019
 Namibia * Southern Africa Africa 9,542 2021 9,382 2020 9,637 2019
 Vietnam * South-eastern Asia Asia 11,677 2021 8,651 2020 8,041 2019
 Eswatini * Southern Africa Africa 9,152 2021 8,854 2020 8,622 2019
 Philippines * South-eastern Asia Asia 9,061 2021 8,390 2020 8,908 2019
 El Salvador * Central America Americas 8,891 2021 8,499 2020 8,776 2019
 Guatemala * Central America Americas 8,648 2021 8,854 2020 8,637 2019
 Bolivia * South America Americas 8,832 2021 8,367 2020 8,724 2019
 Laos * South-eastern Asia Asia 8,519 2021 8,235 2020 7,826 2019
 Morocco * Northern Africa Africa 8,027 2021 7,296 2020 7,515 2019
 Uzbekistan * Central Asia Asia 7,830 2021 7,378 2020 6,999 2019
 India * Southern Asia Asia 7,333 2021 6,454 2020 6,700 2019
 Cape Verde * Western Africa Africa 6,837 2021 6,377 2020 7,172 2019
 Angola * Middle Africa Africa 6,878 2021 6,539 2020 6,670 2019
 Belize * Central America Americas 6,133 2021 6,456 2020 7,005 2019
 Venezuela * South America Americas 5,178 2021 17,528 2011 7,704 2018
 Tonga * Polynesia Oceania 6,156 2021 6,648 2019 6,383 2019
 Samoa * Polynesia Oceania 5,260 2021 6,778 2019 6,521 2019
 Tokelau * Polynesia Oceania N/A N/A 6,004 2017
 Niue * Polynesia Oceania N/A N/A 5,800 2003
 Palestine * Western Asia Asia 5,664 2021 5,690 2020 6,220 2019
 Ghana * Western Africa Africa 5,968 2021 5,596 2020 5,413 2019
 Honduras * Central America Americas 5,698 2021 5,421 2020 5,728 2019
 Nicaragua * Central America Americas 5,648 2021 5,570 2020 5,407 2019
 Djibouti * Eastern Africa Africa 5,300 2021 5,782 2020 5,535 2019
 Mauritania * Western Africa Africa 5,993 2021 5,257 2020 5,197 2019
 Ivory Coast * Western Africa Africa 5,642 2021 5,458 2020 5,213 2019
 Bangladesh * Southern Asia Asia 5,812 2021 5,083 2020 4,754 2019
 Nigeria * Western Africa Africa 5,280 2021 5,187 2020 5,136 2019
 Kyrgyzstan * Central Asia Asia 5,323 2021 4,965 2020 5,253 2019
 Pakistan * Southern Asia Asia 5,224 2021 4,877 2020 4,690 2019
 Myanmar * South-eastern Asia Asia 4,831 2021 4,794 2020 5,142 2019
 Kenya * Eastern Africa Africa 5,274 2021 4,452 2020 4,330 2019
 Syria * Western Asia Asia 6,373 2021 N/A 2,900 2015
 Cambodia * South-eastern Asia Asia 4,930 2021 4,422 2020 4,389 2019
 Tuvalu * Polynesia Oceania 4,674 2021 4,653 2020 4,281 2019
 Papua New Guinea * Melanesia Oceania 3,956 2021 4,326 2020 4,355 2019
 Sudan * Northern Africa Africa 4,082 2021 4,244 2020 3,958 2019
 São Tomé and Príncipe * Middle Africa Africa 3,926 2021 4,274 2020 3,970 2019
 Marshall Islands * Micronesia Oceania 3,767 2021 4,200 2019 3,889 2018
 Nepal * Southern Asia Asia 4,199 2021 4,009 2020 3,417 2019
 Congo * Middle Africa Africa 4,169 2021 3,639 2020 3,673 2019
 Wallis and Futuna * Polynesia Oceania N/A N/A 3,800 2004
 Cameroon * Middle Africa Africa 3,745 2021 3,773 2020 3,642 2019
 Tajikistan * Central Asia Asia 3,856 2021 3,858 2020 3,380 2019
 Senegal * Western Africa Africa 3,625 2021 3,481 2020 3,395 2019
 Micronesia * Micronesia Oceania 3,372 2021 3,613 2019 3,464 2018
 Benin * Western Africa Africa 3,573 2021 3,506 2020 3,287 2019
 Zambia * Eastern Africa Africa 3,322 2021 3,450 2020 3,470 2019
 East Timor * South-eastern Asia Asia 3,119 2021 3,356 2020 3,553 2019
 Comoros * Eastern Africa Africa 3,022 2021 3,313 2020 3,060 2019
 Haiti * Caribbean Americas 2,962 2021 2,925 2020 2,905 2019
 Vanuatu * Melanesia Oceania 2,646 2021 2,915 2020 3,153 2019
 Zimbabwe * Eastern Africa Africa 2,698 2021 2,895 2020 2,836 2019
 Tanzania * Eastern Africa Africa 2,863 2021 2,780 2020 2,660 2019
 Guinea * Western Africa Africa 2,731 2021 2,818 2020 2,562 2019
 Lesotho * Southern Africa Africa 2,829 2021 2,405 2020 2,704 2019
 Ethiopia * Eastern Africa Africa 2,973 2021 2,423 2020 2,221 2019
 Solomon Islands * Melanesia Oceania 2,483 2021 2,619 2020 2,663 2019
 Uganda * Eastern Africa Africa 2,706 2021 2,297 2020 2,187 2019
 Mali * Western Africa Africa 2,469 2021 2,339 2020 2,322 2019
 Kiribati * Micronesia Oceania 2,242 2021 2,418 2020 2,272 2019
 Rwanda * Eastern Africa Africa 2,458 2021 2,214 2020 2,227 2019
 Gambia * Western Africa Africa 2,384 2021 2,278 2020 2,223 2019
 Burkina Faso * Western Africa Africa 2,334 2021 2,279 2020 2,178 2019
 Yemen * Western Asia Asia 1,924 2021 3,689 2013 2,500 2017
 Afghanistan * Southern Asia Asia 2,474 2021 2,088 2020 2,065 2019
 Guinea-Bissau * Western Africa Africa 2,409 2021 1,949 2020 1,989 2019
 Togo * Western Africa Africa 2,261 2021 2,224 2020 1,597 2019
 Sierra Leone * Western Africa Africa 1,771 2021 1,739 2020 1,718 2019
 North Korea * Eastern Asia Asia N/A N/A 1,700 2015
 Eritrea * Eastern Africa Africa 1,862 2021 1,626 2011 1,600 2019
 Madagascar * Eastern Africa Africa 1,639 2021 1,593 2020 1,647 2019
 Chad * Middle Africa Africa 1,621 2021 1,603 2020 1,580 2019
 Liberia * Western Africa Africa 1,602 2021 1,428 2020 1,428 2019
 Mozambique * Eastern Africa Africa 1,293 2021 1,297 2020 1,281 2019
 Niger * Western Africa Africa 1,320 2021 1,263 2020 1,225 2019
 South Sudan * Eastern Africa Africa 825 2021 1,235 2015 1,600 2017
 Malawi * Eastern Africa Africa 1,005 2021 1,568 2020 1,060 2019
 DR Congo * Middle Africa Africa 1,132 2021 1,131 2020 1,098 2019
 Central African Republic * Middle Africa Africa 1,013 2021 979.6 2020 945 2019
 Somalia * Eastern Africa Africa 941 2021 875.2 2020 N/A
 Burundi * Eastern Africa Africa 772 2021 771.2 2020 752 2019

Expanding the coverage of illegal economic activities in euro area national accounts

The share of the shadow economy is significant in many European countries, ranging from less than 10 to over 40 percent of GDP.[8] Since 2014, EU member states have been encouraged by Eurostat, the official statistics body, to include some illegal activities.[9][10][11]

Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in Oil & Gas reserves tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.[12] It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists).[13] An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global FDI flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.[14]

A stunning $12 trillion—almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 percent of the world’s investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.

— "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[14]

In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens.

Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its own economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.

— Brad Setser, Council on Foreign Relations, "Ireland exports its Leprechaun", 25 April 2018[15]

The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.

— Patrick Honohan, ex-Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland, 13 July 2016[16]

A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016 to 2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):

International Monetary Fund (2017) World Bank (2016)[17][18]
Rank Country/Territory Type
1  Qatar Oil & Gas
 Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
2  Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3  Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4  Brunei Oil & Gas
5  Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
6  Norway Oil & Gas
7  Kuwait Oil & Gas
8  United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
9   Switzerland Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
 Hong Kong Top 10 Tax Haven (Sink OFC)
10  San Marino Tax haven (Sink OFC)
11  United States 59,495
12  Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
13  Netherlands Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
14  Iceland 52,150
15  Bahrain Oil & Gas
Rank Country/Territory Type
1  Qatar Oil & Gas
2  Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
 Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3  Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4  Brunei Oil & Gas
5  United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
6  Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
7   Switzerland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
8  Norway Oil & Gas
 Hong Kong Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
9  United States 57,467
10  Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
11  Iceland 51,399
12  Netherlands Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
13  Austria 50,078
14  Denmark 49,496
15  Sweden 49,175

See also

Notes

  1. ^ There have been no exclusive estimate for world average by IMF. For calculating 2019 data, total GDP estimate by IMF[1] have been divided by total population estimates by United Nations Population Prospects.[2]

References

  1. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  2. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  3. ^ "Sarkozy attacks focus on economic growth (French president urges more emphasis on quality of life)", The Guardian, 14-09-2009.
  4. ^ "Alternative progress indicators to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a means towards sustainable development"[dead link]
  5. ^ "World Economic Outlook - GDP per capita". International Monetary Fund. April 2021. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  6. ^ "GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  7. ^ Real GDP per capita, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 12 May 2021.
  8. ^ "Explaining the Shadow Economy in Europe: Size, Causes and Policy Options". International Monetary Fund. November 2019.
  9. ^ "Sizing Up Black Markets and Red-Light Districts for G.D.P." The New York Times. 9 July 2014.
  10. ^ "GDP to include illegal activity". Financier Worldwide Magazine. August 2014.
  11. ^ "Handbook on the compilation of statistics on illegal economic activities in national accounts and balance of payments". Eurostat. 6 March 2018.
  12. ^ "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018.
  13. ^ Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R., Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?" (PDF). Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9–10): 1058–1068. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005. S2CID 16653726. The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries which have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
  14. ^ a b "Piercing the Veil, FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT, JUNE 2018, VOL. 55, NO. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
  15. ^ "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018.
  16. ^ "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016.
  17. ^ "PPP (current international $)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  18. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.