List of countries by GDP (PPP)

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Largest economies by PPP GDP in 2018.
According to International Monetary Fund estimates.[1]
Top 10 countries by GDP (PPP) in 2018

This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).[2] Countries are sorted by GDP PPP forecast estimates from financial and statistical institutions in the limited period January–April 2017, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. The data given on this page are based on the international dollar, a standardized unit used by economists. Certain regions that are not widely considered countries such as the European Union and Hong Kong also show up in the list if they are distinct jurisdiction areas or economic entities.

GDP comparisons using PPP are arguably more useful than those using nominal GDP when assessing a nation's domestic market because PPP takes into account the relative cost of local goods, services and inflation rates of the country, rather than using international market exchange rates which may distort the real differences in per capita income.[3] It is however limited when measuring financial flows between countries and when comparing quality of same goods among countries.[4] PPP is often used to gauge global poverty thresholds and is used by the United Nations in constructing the human development index.[3] These surveys such as the International Comparison Program include both tradable and non-tradable goods in an attempt to estimate a representative basket of all goods.[3]

The first table includes estimates for the year 2017 for all current 191 International Monetary Fund (IMF) members as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan. Data are in millions of international dollars; they were calculated by the IMF. Figures were published in April 2018. The second table includes data, mostly for the year 2015, for 180 of the 193 current United Nations member states as well as Hong Kong and Macau (the two Chinese Special Administrative Regions). Data are in millions of international dollars; they were compiled by the World Bank. The third table is a tabulation of the CIA World Factbook GDP (PPP) data update of 2017. The data for GDP at purchasing power parity have also been rebased using the new International Comparison Program price surveys and extrapolated to 2007.

Lists[edit]

Click on one of the small triangles in the headings to re-order the list according to that category.

List by the International Monetary Fund (estimates for 2018)[5] List by the World Bank (2017)[6][7][8] List by the CIA World Factbook (1993–2017)[9]
Rank Country GDP
(billions of Current Int$)
 World 134,981
1  China[n 1] 25,238.56
2  United States 20,412.87
3  India 10,385.43
4  Japan 5,619.49
5  Germany 4,373.95
6  Russia 4,168.88
7  Indonesia 3,492.21
8  Brazil 3,388.96
9  United Kingdom 3,028.57
10  France 2,960.25
11  Mexico 2,571.68
12  Italy 2,399.83
13  Turkey 2,320.64
14  South Korea 2,138.24
15  Spain 1,864.11
16  Canada 1,847.08
17  Saudi Arabia 1,844.75
18  Iran 1,749.43
19  Australia 1,312.53
20  Thailand 1,310.57
21  Egypt 1,292.75
22  Taiwan 1,234.86
23  Poland 1,193.11
24  Nigeria 1,168.40
25  Pakistan 1,141.21
26  Malaysia 1,002.06
27  Netherlands 966.742
28  Argentina 959.528
29  Philippines 955.219
30  South Africa 794.706
31  Bangladesh 751.949
32  Colombia 750.276
33  United Arab Emirates 716.173
34  Vietnam 705.774
35  Iraq 694.653
36  Algeria 666.96
37  Singapore 554.855
38  Belgium 550.664
39  Sweden 546.53
40   Switzerland 541.346
41  Romania 517.505
42  Kazakhstan 503.893
43  Hong Kong 482.101
44  Chile 476.815
45  Austria 461.432
46  Peru 450.148
47  Czech Republic 397.727
48  Norway 396.919
49  Ukraine 389.198
50  Ireland 381.72
51  Myanmar 359.374
52  Qatar 357.338
53  Israel 334.328
54  Venezuela 330.984
55  Portugal 328.252
56  Greece 311.647
57  Morocco 314.742
58  Hungary 306.787
59  Kuwait 301.916
60  Denmark 299.166
61  Sri Lanka 292.311
62  Finland 255.976
63  Uzbekistan 238.997
64  Ethiopia 222.258
65  Ecuador 201.976
66  Angola 198.821
67  New Zealand 198.516
68  Sudan 198.356
69  Oman 194.82
70  Slovak Republic 190.778
71  Belarus 188.328
72  Dominican Republic 186.048
73  Azerbaijan 179.276
74  Tanzania 176.465
75  Kenya 175.978
76  Bulgaria 162.568
77  Guatemala 145.514
78  Ghana 145.387
79  Tunisia 141.816
80  Puerto Rico 119.314
81  Turkmenistan 112.393
82  Panama 112.204
83  Serbia 111.622
84  Croatia 106.548
85  Côte d'Ivoire 106.412
86  Lithuania 96.261
87  Uganda 95.434
88  Cameroon 94.54
89  Jordan 93.399
90  Lebanon 91.013
91  Bolivia 88.866
92  Costa Rica 88.844
93    Nepal 84.365
94  Uruguay 82.641
95  Macau 78.53
96  Libya 76.684
97  Slovenia 75.604
98  Bahrain 74.215
99  Zambia 73.299
100  Paraguay 72.999
101  Afghanistan 72.911
102  Democratic Republic of the Congo 72.638
103  Cambodia 70.242
104  Luxembourg 66.914
105  El Salvador 59.626
106  Latvia 57.336
107  Laos 53.752
108  Honduras 48.822
109  Senegal 47.336
110  Bosnia and Herzegovina 47.097
111  Estonia 44.177
112  Trinidad and Tobago 44.1
113  Mali 44.028
114  Madagascar 42.705
115  Mongolia 42.646
116  Georgia 42.407
117  Botswana 41.556
118  Yemen 39.267
119  Nicaragua 38.957
120  Burkina Faso 38.794
121  Mozambique 38.679
122  Gabon 38.582
123  Albania 38.154
124  Zimbabwe 35.565
125  Brunei Darussalam 34.637
126  Cyprus 33.46
127  North Macedonia 32.554
128  Papua New Guinea 31.929
129  Chad 30.232
130  Tajikistan 30.188
131  Armenia 29.908
132  Republic of Congo 29.749
133  Mauritius 29.187
134  Guinea 28.637
135  Equatorial Guinea 28.637
136  Benin 27.471
137  Namibia 27.474
138  Jamaica 27.062
139  Rwanda 26.997
140  Kyrgyz Republic 24.276
141  Malawi 23.682
142  Niger 23.475
143  Moldova 21.26
144  Kosovo 20.876
145  Malta 20.861
146  Haiti 20.794
147  Somalia 19.568
148  Iceland 18.606
149  South Sudan 18.435
150  Mauritania 18.119
151  Togo 13.886
152  Sierra Leone 12.177
153  The Bahamas 12.156
154  Montenegro 11.646
155  Eswatini 11.496
156  Eritrea 9.997
157  Fiji 9.158
158  Suriname 8.822
159  Burundi 8.184
160  Bhutan 7.701
161  Maldives 7.396
162  Lesotho 7.231
163  Guyana 6.657
164  Timor-Leste 6.47
165  Liberia 6.44
166  Barbados 5.391
167  Cape Verde 3.983
168  Djibouti 3.964
169  The Gambia 3.884
170  Central African Republic 3.587
171  Guinea-Bissau 3.385
172  Belize 3.343
173  Seychelles 2.873
174  St. Lucia 2.659
175  Antigua and Barbuda 2.533
176  San Marino 2.216
177  Grenada 1.701
178  St. Kitts and Nevis 1.617
179  Solomon Islands 1.395
180  Comoros 1.384
181  St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1.322
182  Samoa 1.188
183  Vanuatu 0.817
184  São Tomé and Príncipe 0.726
185  Dominica 0.672
186  Tonga 0.62
187  Micronesia 0.36
188  Palau 0.3
189  Kiribati 0.237
190  Marshall Islands 0.197
191  Nauru 0.158
192  Tuvalu 0.044
Rank Country GDP
(millions of Current Int$)
 World 127,723,794
1  China[n 1] 23,300,783
2  United States 19,390,604
3  India 9,448,659
4  Japan 5,487,161
5  Germany 4,187,583
6  Russia 3,817,201
7  Indonesia 3,242,769
8  Brazil 3,240,524
9  United Kingdom 2,896,833
10  France 2,871,264
11  Italy 2,410,985
12  Mexico 2,344,197
13  Turkey 2,254,114
14  South Korea 1,969,106
15  Spain 1,773,972
16  Saudi Arabia 1,773,549
17  Canada 1,702,435
18  Iran 1,700,356
19  Thailand 1,233,736
20  Australia 1,157,298
21  Egypt 1,129,919
22  Nigeria 1,118,755
23  Poland 1,112,364
24  Pakistan 1,088,982
25  Malaysia 930,749
26  Argentina 920,248
27  Netherlands 907,032
28  Philippines 875,311
29  South Africa 765,567
30  Colombia 714,003
31  United Arab Emirates 694,468
32  Iraq 658,200
33  Vietnam 647,368
34  Bangladesh 637,078
35  Algeria 631,150
36   Switzerland 550,346
37  Belgium 540,867
38  Singapore 527,021
39  Romania 506,132
40  Sweden 504,088
41  Kazakhstan 476,366
42  Austria 462,990
 Hong Kong 454,886
43  Chile 434,848
44  Peru 432,115
45  Venezuela 409,389
46  Czech Republic 390,989
47  Ukraine 368,217
48  Ireland 367,301
49  Qatar 338,817
50  Israel 334,667
51  Portugal 331,445
52  Myanmar 327,629
53  Norway 322,101
54  Greece 299,241
55  Morocco 298,230
56  Kuwait 297,594
57  Denmark 291,600
58  Hungary 277,543
59  Sri Lanka 274,718
60  Finland 249,065
61  Uzbekistan 222,338
62  Ethiopia 199,336
63  Sudan 198,758
64  New Zealand 196,152
65  Oman 193,218
66  Ecuador 193,138
67  Angola 190,290
68  Belarus 179,203
69  Slovakia 174,678
70  Dominican Republic 172,591
71  Azerbaijan 171,588
72  Tanzania (mainland) 163,886
73  Kenya 163,309
74  Bulgaria 143,850
75  Guatemala 137,849
76  Tunisia 137,358
77  Ghana 133,826
78  Libya 125,142
79  Serbia 105,966
80  Croatia 104,233
81  Turkmenistan 103,604
82  Panama 100,194
83  Côte d'Ivoire 96,046
84  Lithuania 90,749
85  Lebanon 89,263
86  Cameroon 88,859
87  Jordan 88,809
88  Costa Rica 83,615
89  Bolivia 83,546
90  Uganda 79,889
91    Nepal 78,591
92  Uruguay 77,992
93  Yemen 75,346
94  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 72,165
95  Slovenia 71,926
 Macau 71,672
96  Bahrain 70,937
97  Afghanistan 70,368
98  Zambia 69,235
99  Paraguay 66,007
100  Cambodia 64,050
101  Luxembourg 62,139
102  Latvia 53,561
103  El Salvador 51,061
104  Laos 48,167
105  Honduras 46,198
106  Bosnia and Herzegovina 45,156
107  Trinidad and Tobago 43,234
108  Senegal 42,992
109  Estonia 41,619
110  Mali 41,004
111  Mongolia 39,982
112  Botswana 39,770
113  Georgia 39,768
114  Madagascar 39,764
115  Mozambique 37,005
116  Gabon 36,823
117  Nicaragua 36,324
118  Burkina Faso 35,887
119  Papua New Guinea 34,633
120  Albania 34,541
121  Zimbabwe 34,476
122  Brunei Darussalam 33,797
123  North Macedonia 31,729
124  Equatorial Guinea 31,460
125  Cyprus 29,606
126  Guinea 29,056
127  Chad 28,924
128  Tajikistan 28,373
129  Armenia 28,271
130  Congo, Republic of the 28,193
131  Mauritius 28,174
132  Namibia 26,542
133  Jamaica 25,999
134  Benin 25,327
135  Rwanda 24,852
136  Kyrgyzstan 23,104
137  West Bank and Gaza 22,886
138  Malawi 22,387
139  Niger 21,834
140  Moldova 20,226
141  Haiti 19,930
142  Kosovo 19,688
143  Malta 18,395
144  Iceland 18,265
145  Mauritania 17,458
146  Togo 12,240
147  Bahamas, The 12,031
148  Montenegro 11,681
149  Eswatini 11,617
150  Sierra Leone 10,264
151  Timor-Leste 9,350
152  Fiji 8,652
153  Suriname 8,515
154  Burundi 8,376
155  Bhutan 7,721
156  Maldives 7,273
157  Lesotho 6,991
158  Guyana 6,349
159  Barbados 5,326
160  Liberia 3,911
161  Cape Verde 3,733
162  Djibouti 3,716
163  Gambia 3,602
164  Central African Republic 3,382
165  Belize 3,219
166  Guinea-Bissau 3,165
167  Seychelles 2,776
168  Saint Lucia 2,543
169  Antigua and Barbuda 2,407
170  San Marino 2,085
171  Grenada 1,609
172  Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,498
173  Solomon Islands 1,480
174  Samoa 1,299
175  St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1,296
176  Comoros 1,263
177  Vanuatu 886
178  Dominica 785
179  Sao Tome and Principe 685
180  Tonga 643
181  Federated States of Micronesia 382
182  Palau 316
183  Kiribati 253
184  Marshall Islands 223
185  Nauru 193
186  Tuvalu 44
Rank Country GDP
(billions of Current Int$)
Year
 World 127,000 2017 est.
1  China[n 1] 23,120 2017 est.
 European Union[n 2] 20,850 2017 est.
2  United States 19,360 2017 est.
3  India 9,447 2017 est.
4  Japan 5,405 2017 est.
5  Germany 4,150 2017 est.
6  Russia 4,000 2017 est.
7  Indonesia 3,243 2017 est.
8  Brazil 3,219 2017 est.
9  United Kingdom 2,880 2017 est.
10  France 2,826 2017 est.
11  Mexico 2,406 2017 est.
12  Italy 2,307 2017 est.
13  Turkey 2,133 2017 est.
14  South Korea 2,027 2017 est.
15  Saudi Arabia 1,789 2017 est.
16  Spain 1,769 2017 est.
17  Canada 1,764 2017 est.
18  Iran 1,631 2017 est.
19  Australia 1,235 2017 est.
20  Thailand 1,229 2017 est.
21  Egypt 1,199 2017 est.
22  Taiwan 1,175 2017 est.
23  Nigeria 1,118 2017 est.
24  Poland 1,111 2017 est.
25  Pakistan 1,056 2017 est.
26  Malaysia 926.1 2017 est.
27  Netherlands 915.2 2017 est.
28  Argentina 911.5 2017 est.
29  Philippines 874.5 2017 est.
30  South Africa 757.3 2017 est.
31  Colombia 712.5 2017 est.
32  United Arab Emirates 691.9 2017 est.
33  Bangladesh 686.5 2017 est.
34  Iraq 660.7 2017 est.
35  Vietnam 643.9 2017 est.
36  Algeria 629.3 2017 est.
37  Belgium 526.4 2017 est.
38  Sweden 521.7 2017 est.
39   Switzerland 516.7 2017 est.
40  Singapore 513.7 2017 est.
41  Kazakhstan 474.3 2017 est.
42  Romania 474.0 2017 est.
 Hong Kong 453.0 2017 est.
43  Chile 452.1 2017 est.
44  Austria 434.1 2017 est.
45  Peru 424.6 2017 est.
46  Venezuela 389.4 2017 est.
47  Norway 375.9 2017 est.
48  Czech Republic 372.6 2017 est.
49  Ukraine 366.4 2017 est.
50  Ireland 344.8 2017 est.
51  Qatar 341.7 2017 est.
52  Myanmar 330.9 2017 est.
53  Israel 315.6 2017 est.
54  Portugal 311.3 2017 est.
55  Kuwait 302.5 2017 est.
56  Morocco 300.1 2017 est.
57  Greece 299.5 2017 est.
58  Denmark 285.5 2017 est.
59  Hungary 283.6 2017 est.
60  Sri Lanka 278.2 2017 est.
61  Finland 242.4 2017 est.
62  Uzbekistan 221.7 2017 est.
63  Ethiopia 195.8 2017 est.
64  Angola 192.0 2017 est.
65  Ecuador 188.5 2017 est.
67  Oman 187.9 2017 est.
67  Sudan 186.8 2017 est.
68  New Zealand 185.7 2017 est.
69  Slovakia 178.7 2017 est.
70  Belarus 175.9 2017 est.
71  Dominican Republic 172.6 2017 est.
72  Azerbaijan 166.8 2017 est.
73  Kenya 163.4 2017 est.
74  Tanzania 162.8 2017 est.
75  Bulgaria 152.4 2017 est.
76  Guatemala 138.3 2017 est.
77  Tunisia 135.9 2017 est.
78  Cuba 132.9 2016 est.
79  Ghana 130.2 2017 est.
 Puerto Rico 127.3 2017 est.
80  Serbia 106.6 2017 est.
81  Turkmenistan 103.5 2017 est.
82  Croatia 100.2 2017 est.
83  Panama 99.43 2017 est.
84  Cote d'Ivoire 96.27 2017 est.
85  Lithuania 90.63 2017 est.
86  Jordan 89.05 2017 est.
87  Uganda 88.61 2017 est.
88  Lebanon 87.89 2017 est.
89  Costa Rica 85.20 2017 est.
90  Bolivia 83.50 2017 est.
91  Cameroon 81.55 2017 est.
92    Nepal 78.55 2017 est.
93  Uruguay 78.41 2017 est.
 Macau 73.58 2017 est.
94  Slovenia 70.36 2017 est.
95  Bahrain 69.77 2017 est.
96  Afghanistan 69.51 2017 est.
97  Yemen 68.95 2017 est.
98  Zambia 68.90 2017 est.
99  Paraguay 68.05 2017 est.
100  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 67.99 2017 est.
101  Luxembourg 64.39 2017 est.
102  Cambodia 64.21 2017 est.
103  Libya 63.14 2017 est.
104  El Salvador 56.90 2017 est.
105  Latvia 53.47 2017 est.
106  Syria 50.28 2015 est.
107  Laos 49.21 2017 est.
108  Honduras 45.68 2017 est.
109  Bosnia and Herzegovina 43.85 2017 est.
110  Senegal 43.07 2017 est.
111  Trinidad and Tobago 42.78 2017 est.
112  Estonia 41.20 2017 est.
113  Mali 40.98 2017 est.
114  North Korea 40.00 2015 est.
115  Madagascar 39.81 2017 est.
116  Botswana 39.55 2017 est.
117  Georgia 39.32 2017 est.
118  Mongolia 38.40 2017 est.
119  Mozambique 37.39 2017 est.
120  Gabon 36.75 2017 est.
121  Nicaragua 36.22 2017 est.
122  Albania 35.87 2017 est.
123  Burkina Faso 35.68 2017 est.
124  Zimbabwe 33.87 2017 est.
125  Brunei 32.91 2017 est.
126  North Macedonia 31.55 2017 est.
127  Cyprus 31.19 2017 est.
128  Papua New Guinea 30.84 2017 est.
129  Chad 29.64 2017 est.
130  Equatorial Guinea 29.38 2017 est.
131  Congo, Republic of the 29.16 2017 est.
132  Tajikistan 27.67 2017 est.
133  Mauritius 27.44 2017 est.
134  Armenia 27.21 2017 est.
135  Namibia 27.02 2017 est.
136  Guinea 26.45 2017 est.
137  Jamaica 26.20 2017 est.
138  Benin 25.29 2017 est.
139  Rwanda 24.61 2017 est.
140  Kyrgyzstan 22.64 2017 est.
141  Malawi 22.47 2017 est.
142  Niger 21.62 2017 est.
 West Bank 21.22 2014 est.
143  Moldova 20.07 2017 est.
144  Haiti 19.88 2017 est.
145  South Sudan 19.75 2017 est.
 Kosovo 19.38 2017 est.
146  Malta 18.53 2017 est.
147  Iceland 17.73 2017 est.
148  Somalia 17.47 2017 est.
149  Mauritania 17.37 2017 est.
150  Togo 12.43 2017 est.
151  Sierra Leone 11.75 2017 est.
152  Eswatini 11.34 2017 est.
153  Montenegro 10.86 2017 est.
 New Caledonia 10.77 2015 est.
154  Eritrea 9.631 2017 est.
155  Bahamas, The 9.339 2017 est.
156  Fiji 8.647 2017 est.
157  Burundi 7.985 2017 est.
158  Suriname 7.928 2017 est.
159  Monaco 7.672 2015 est.
160  Lesotho 7.448 2017 est.
 Isle of Man 7.428 2014 est.
161  Bhutan 7.011 2017 est.
162  Maldives 6.896 2017 est.
163  Guyana 6.367 2017 est.
164  Timor-Leste 6.211 2017 est.
 French Polynesia 5.490 2015 est.
 Bermuda 5.198 2013 est.
 Jersey 5.080 2015 est.
165  Liechtenstein 4.978 2014 est.
166  Barbados 4.919 2017 est.
 Guam 4.882 2013 est.
167  Liberia 3.906 2017 est.
 U.S. Virgin Islands 3.792 2013 est.
168  Cape Verde 3.734 2017 est.
169  Djibouti 3.640 2017 est.
170  Gambia, The 3.582 2017 est.
 Guernsey 3.465 2015 est.
171  Central African Republic 3.395 2017 est.
172  Andorra 3.327 2015 est.
173  Belize 3.230 2017 est.
 Curaçao 3.128 2012 est.
174  Guinea-Bissau 3.071 2017 est.
175  Seychelles 2.712 2017 est.
 Aruba 2.516 2009 est.
 Cayman Islands 2.507 2014 est.
176  Antigua and Barbuda 2.390 2017 est.
177  Saint Lucia 2.384 2017 est.
 Greenland 2.173 2015 est.
178  San Marino 2.083 2017 est.
 Gibraltar 2.044 2014 est.
 Faroe Islands 2.001 2014 est.
179  Grenada 1.590 2017 est.
180  Saint Kitts and Nevis 1.528 2017 est.
181  Comoros 1.323 2017 est.
182  Solomon Islands 1.317 2017 est.
183  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1.281 2017 est.
184  Samoa 1.130 2017 est.
 Western Sahara 0.9065 2007 est.
185  Dominica 0.8510 2017 est.
186  Vanuatu 0.7870 2017 est.
 American Samoa 0.7110 2013 est.
 Northern Mariana Islands 0.6820 2013 est.
187  Sao Tome and Principe 0.6820 2017 est.
 Turks and Caicos Islands 0.6320 2007 est.
188  Tonga 0.5870 2017 est.
Flag of Saint Martin.png Saint Martin 0.5615 2005 est.
 British Virgin Islands 0.5000 2010 est.
 Sint Maarten 0.3658 2014 est.
189  Micronesia, Federated States of 0.3470 2017 est.
190  Palau 0.3010 2017 est.
 Falkland Islands 0.2818 2012 est.
 Cook Islands 0.2441 2010 est.
191  Kiribati 0.2240 2017 est.
Flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.svg Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0.2153 2006 est.
192  Marshall Islands 0.1890 2017 est.
 Anguilla 0.1754 2009 est.
193  Nauru 0.1590 2017 est.
 Wallis and Futuna 0.0600 2004 est.
 Montserrat 0.0438 2006 est.
194  Tuvalu 0.0420 2017 est.
Flag of Saint Helena.svg Saint Helena 0.0311 2009 est.
 Niue 0.0101 2003 est.
 Tokelau 0.0015 1993 est.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Figure for Mainland China; excludes the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau.
  2. ^ The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU is included as a separate entity in The World Factbook of CIA because it has many attributes of independent nations, being much more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur.[10] As the EU is not a country, the U.S. is the second ranked country on these lists.
  • ^2 IMF estimate.
  • ^3 Data excludes French Polynesia.
  • ^a China's PPP is based on prices for 11 administrative regions, extrapolated to the full country, and an urban/rural breakdown. China's entry does not include the two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kong and Macau. These are listed separately.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  3. ^ a b c "Part 4. Applications and Limitations of ICP Data" (PDF). Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  4. ^ PPP Versus the Market: Which Weight Matters?, imf.org, March 2007, Volume 44, Number 1
  5. ^ "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 6 Feb 2019.
  6. ^ Data (1 July 2017). ""Gross domestic product 2016, PPP", World Bank, accessed on 18 July 2017" (PDF). Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 18 July 2017.; European Union calculated by sum of individual countries.
  7. ^ "World Bank GDP PPP PDF 2016" (PDF). Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  8. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  9. ^ Field listing - GDP (PPP exchange rate), CIA World Factbook
  10. ^ CIA (2014). "The World Factbook". Retrieved 15 March 2015. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook.