List of countries by GDP (PPP)

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For countries by countries by nominal GDP, see List of countries by GDP (nominal).
Top five countries by GDP PPP in 2016.
According to the International Monetary Fund.[1]
The top ten largest economies by GDP.

This article includes a list of countries by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.[2] Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. The GDP dollar (INT$) data given on this page are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations.

Comparisons using PPP are arguably more useful than nominal when assessing a nation's domestic market because PPP takes into account the relative cost of local goods, services and inflation rates of the country, rather than using international market exchange rates which may distort the real differences in per capita income.[3] It is however limited when measuring financial flows between countries.[4] PPP is often used to gauge global poverty thresholds and is used by the United Nations in constructing the human development index.[3] These surveys such as the International Comparison Program include both tradable and non-tradable goods in an attempt to estimate a representative basket of all goods.[3]

The first table includes estimates for the year 2016 for all current 187 International Monetary Fund (IMF) members, as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan (the official list uses "Taiwan, Province of China"). Data are in millions of international dollars and were calculated by the IMF. Figures were published in April 2015. The second table includes data mostly for the year 2015 for 180 of the 193 current United Nations member states, as well as the two Chinese Special Administrative Regions (Hong Kong and Macau). Data are in billions of international dollars and were compiled by the World Bank. The third table is a tabulation of the CIA World Factbook Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Purchasing Power Parity) data update of 2015. The data for GDP at purchasing power parity have also been rebased using the new International Comparison Program price surveys and extrapolated to 2007.

Lists[edit]

Click on one of the small triangles in the headings to re-order the list according to that category.

List by the International Monetary Fund (Estimates for 2016)[1] List by the World Bank (2015)[5] List by the CIA World Factbook (1993–2015)[6]
Rank Country GDP
(Millions of Int$)
 World 113,523,500
1  China 20,853,331
 European Union[n 1] 19,205,364
2  United States 18,558,129
3  India 8,642,758
4  Japan 4,901,102
5  Germany 3,934,664
6  Russia 3,684,643
7  Brazil 3,101,247
8  Indonesia 3,010,746
9  United Kingdom 2,756,748
10  France 2,703,378
11  Mexico 2,227,176
12  Italy 2,213,909
13  South Korea 1,848,518
14  Saudi Arabia 1,720,027
15  Turkey 1,665,332
16  Canada 1,631,943
17  Spain 1,615,074
18  Iran 1,439,295
19  Australia 1,138,085
20  Thailand 1,108,111
21  Republic of China (Taiwan) 1,099,030
22  Egypt 1,092,634
23  Nigeria 1,091,700
24  Poland 1,005,449
25  Pakistan 982,380
26  Argentina 971,967
27  Philippines 831,477
28  Netherlands 815,646
29  Malaysia 803,031
30  South Africa 723,518
31  Colombia 667,443
32  United Arab Emirates 647,823
33  Algeria 578,651
34  Bangladesh 576,547
35  Vietnam 552,298
36  Iraq 544,096
37  Venezuela 515,745
38  Belgium 494,121
39   Switzerland 482,347
40  Sweden 473,413
41  Singapore 471,877
42  Kazakhstan 429,120
43  Chile 422,422
 Hong Kong, China 414,566
44  Romania 413,846
45  Austria 404,293
46  Peru 389,149
47  Norway 356,209
48  Ukraine 339,481
49  Czech Republic 332,477
50  Qatar 319,818
51  Portugal 289,791
52  Kuwait 288,382
53  Greece 285,976
54  Myanmar 283,532
55  Morocco 287,533
56  Israel 281,939
57  Denmark 258,702
58  Hungary 258,444
59  Ireland 257,417
60  Finland 224,999
61  Sri Lanka 223,024
62  Uzbekistan 187,947
63  Angola 184,438
64  Ecuador 183,358
65  Oman 171,363
66  Azerbaijan 169,445
67  New Zealand 168,187
68  Belarus 167,692
69  Sudan 166,957
70  Ethiopia 161,634
71  Slovak Republic 160,998
72  Dominican Republic 149,692
73  Kenya 141,861
74  Tanzania 138,461
75  Bulgaria 136,855
76  Tunisia 126,968
77  Guatemala 125,862
78  Syria[n 2] 121,397
79  Ghana 114,701
80  Serbia 97,502
81  Libya 92,608
82  Croatia 91,096
83  Turkmenistan 88,600
84  Panama 87,196
85  Lebanon 83,057
86  Jordan 82,725
87  Lithuania 82,355
88  Uganda 79,884
89  Côte d'Ivoire 78,621
90  Yemen 75,535
91  Costa Rica 74,888
92  Bolivia 74,391
93  Uruguay 73,463
94  Cameroon 72,644
95    Nepal 70,091
96  Bahrain 64,799
97  Slovenia 63,964
98  Democratic Republic of the Congo 62,873
99  Zambia 62,709
100  Afghanistan 62,318
101  Paraguay 60,977
102  Luxembourg 55,730
103  Cambodia 54,205
104  El Salvador 52,947
105  Latvia 49,081
106  Trinidad and Tobago 44,306
107  Honduras 41,057
108  Bosnia and Herzegovina 40,532
109  Estonia 37,549
110  Laos 37,322
111  Senegal 36,687
112  Mongolia 36,068
113  Mali 35,832
114  Georgia 35,604
115  Madagascar 35,437
116  Botswana 34,844
117  Gabon 34,575
118  Brunei Darussalam 33,219
119  Mozambique 33,187
120  Albania 32,650
121  Nicaragua 31,333
122  Burkina Faso 30,878
123  Chad 30,468
124  Republic of Congo 29,362
125  Macedonia 29,037
126  Zimbabwe 28,102
127  Cyprus 28,058
128  Equatorial Guinea 25,386
129  Namibia 25,341
130  Armenia 25,323
131  Jamaica 24,647
132  Mauritius 24,566
133  South Sudan 23,691
134  Tajikistan 23,306
135  Benin 22,948
136  Malawi 20,359
137  Kyrgyz Republic 20,095
138  Niger 19,053
139  Rwanda 18,901
140  Haiti 18,745
141  Papua New Guinea 18,595
142  Moldova 17,793
143  Kosovo 17,391
144  Mauritania 16,289
145  Malta 15,382
146  Iceland 15,154
147  Guinea 14,982
148  Togo 10,849
149  Swaziland 10,845
150  Montenegro 10,035
151  Sierra Leone 9,966
152  Bahamas 9,166
153  Suriname 9,090
154  Eritrea 8,713
155  Fiji 8,048
156  Burundi 7,711
157  Timor-Leste 6,570
158  Bhutan 6,385
159  Lesotho 5,770
160  Guyana 5,759
161  Maldives 5,191
162  Barbados 4,636
163  Liberia 3,749
164  Cabo Verde 3,423
165  The Gambia 3,261
166  Djibouti 3,094
167  Belize 3,049
168  Central African Republic 3,018
169  Guinea-Bissau 2,680
170  Seychelles 2,417
171  Antigua and Barbuda 2,097
172  St. Lucia 2,030
173  San Marino 1,982
174  Grenada 1,401
175  St. Kitts and Nevis 1,379
176  Comoros 1,214
177  St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1,205
178  Solomon Islands 1,146
179  Samoa 1,000
180  Dominica 763
181  Vanuatu 685
182  São Tomé and Príncipe 658
183  Tonga 526
184  Micronesia 306
185  Palau 272
186  Kiribati 203
187  Marshall Islands 175
188  Tuvalu 37
Rank Country GDP
(Millions of Int$)
 World 113,612,522
1  China 19,524,348
 European Union[n 1] 19,137,699
2  United States 17,946,996
3  India 7,982,528
4  Japan 4,738,294
5  Germany 3,848,272
6  Russia 3,579,826
7  Brazil 3,192,398
8  Indonesia 2,842,241
9  United Kingdom 2,691,809
10  France 2,650,823
11  Mexico 2,194,431
12  Italy 2,182,580
13  South Korea 1,748,776
14  Saudi Arabia 1,685,204
15  Spain 1,602,660
16  Canada 1,588,596
17  Turkey 1,543,284
18  Iran 1,357,025
19  Thailand 1,108,108
20  Nigeria 1,091,698
21  Australia 1,082,380
22  Egypt 996,638
23  Poland 993,129
24  Pakistan 952,505
25  Netherlands 820,726
26  Malaysia 815,645
27  Philippines 741,029
28  South Africa 723,516
29  Colombia 665,594
30  United Arab Emirates 643,166
31  Algeria 582,598
32  Venezuela 554,329
33  Vietnam 552,297
34  Iraq 542,520
35  Bangladesh 536,567
36   Switzerland 501,653
37  Belgium 496,477
38  Singapore 471,631
39  Sweden 454,868
40  Kazakhstan 453,981
41  Romania 424,474
 Hong Kong, China 414,376
42  Austria 411,818
43  Chile 400,534
44  Peru 389,147
45  Czech Republic 339,402
46  Ukraine 339,155
47  Qatar 321,418
48  Norway 319,401
49  Portugal 302,329
50  Israel 296,931
51  Greece 288,778
52  Kuwait 277,554
53  Morocco 273,358
54  Denmark 264,702
55  Ireland 253,635
56  Hungary 251,842
57  Sri Lanka 246,117
58  Cuba (2013) 234,624
59  Finland 222,575
60  Uzbekistan 187,668
61  Angola 184,438
62  Ecuador 183,855
63  Oman 171,692
64  Azerbaijan 171,214
65  New Zealand 169,960
66  Belarus 168,009
67  Sudan 167,909
68  Ethiopia 161,571
69  Slovakia 156,632
70  Dominican Republic 149,627
71  Kenya 141,951
72  Tanzania (mainland) 138,461
73  Tunisia 126,598
74  Guatemala 125,950
75  Puerto Rico 125,861
76  Bulgaria 125,699
77  Ghana 115,137
78  Yemen 96,812
79  Serbia 95,698
80  Croatia 92,432
81  Libya 88,867
82  Turkmenistan 88,657
83  Panama 87,196
84  Jordan 82,631
85  Lebanon 81,547
86  Lithuania 80,699
87 Cote d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire 79,361
88  Costa Rica 73,931
89  Bolivia 73,796
90  Cameroon 72,896
91  Uruguay 72,751
92  Uganda 71,246
93    Nepal 70,090
 Macao, China 65,383
94  Bahrain 64,656
95  Slovenia 64,229
96  Afghanistan 62,913
97  Zambia 62,458
98  Paraguay 62,458
99  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 60,482
100  Luxembourg 58,065
101  Cambodia 54,263
102  El Salvador 52,701
103  Latvia 48,049
104  Trinidad and Tobago 44,334
105  Mali 42,737
106  Honduras 41,057
107  Bosnia and Herzegovina 40,046
108  Laos 38,605
109  Estonia 36,860
110  Senegal 36,776
111  Mongolia 36,068
112  Botswana 35,763
113  Georgia 35,610
114  Madagascar 35,366
115  Gabon 34,523
116  Mozambique 33,177
117  Albania 32,663
118  Nicaragua 31,564
119  Chad 30,481
120  Burkina Faso 30,041
121  Brunei Darussalam 29,969
122  Congo, Republic of the 29,423
123  Macedonia 28,907
124  Zimbabwe 27,985
125  Cyprus 25,864
126  Namibia 25,606
127  Equatorial Guinea 25,386
128  Armenia 25,329
129  Jamaica 24,704
130  Mauritius 24,596
131  Tajikistan 23,579
132  Benin 22,955
133  South Sudan 22,829
134  West Bank and Gaza 22,155
135  Papua New Guinea 21,384
136  Rwanda 20,418
137  Kyrgyzstan 20,413
138  Malawi 20,359
139  Niger 18,975
140  Haiti 18,875
141  Moldova 17,908
142  Kosovo 17,454
143  Mauritania 15,425
144  Iceland 15,399
145  Guinea 15,213
146  Malta 12,500
147  Swaziland 10,845
148  Togo 10,663
149  Sierra Leone 10,264
150  Montenegro 9,638
151  Bahamas, The 9,233
152  Suriname 9,214
153  Burundi 8,228
154  Fiji 8,171
155  Bhutan 6,258
156  Guyana 5,758
157  Lesotho 5,585
158  Maldives 5,170
159  Barbados 4,659
160  Liberia 3,766
161  Cape Verde 3,482
162  Bermuda 3,409
163  Gambia 3,155
164  Belize 3,064
165  Central African Republic 2,927
166  Djibouti 2,876
167  Timor-Leste 2,813
168  Guinea-Bissau 2,680
169  Seychelles 2,534
170  Antigua and Barbuda 2,109
171  Saint Lucia 2,033
172  Grenada 1,385
173  Saint Kitts and Nevis 1,354
174  Solomon Islands 1,276
175  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1,207
176  Samoa 1,144
177  Comoros 1,105
178  Dominica 820
179  Vanuatu 787
180  Sao Tome and Principe 594
181  Tonga 552
182  Federated States of Micronesia 348
183  Palau 325
184  Kiribati 209
185  Marshall Islands 202
186  Tuvalu 37
Rank Country GDP
(Billions of Int$)
Year
 World 107,500 2014 est.
1  China 19,510 2015 est.
 European Union[n 1] 19,180 2015 est.
2  United States 17,970 2015 est.
3  India 7,965 2015 est.
4  Japan 4,658 2015 est.
5  Germany 3,842 2015 est.
6  Russia 3,471 2015 est.
7  Brazil 3,166 2015 est.
8  Indonesia 2,839 2015 est.
9  United Kingdom 2,660 2015 est.
10  France 2,647 2015 est.
11  Mexico 2,220 2015 est.
12  Italy 2,174 2015 est.
13  South Korea 1,849 2015 est.
14  Saudi Arabia 1,683 2015 est.
15  Spain 1,636 2015 est.
16  Canada 1,628 2015 est.
17  Turkey 1,589 2015 est.
18  Australia 1,489 2015 est.
19  Iran 1,382 2015 est.
20  Thailand 1,107 2015 est.
21  Nigeria 1,105 2015 est.
22  Republic of China (Taiwan) 1,097 2015 est.
23  Poland 1,003 2015 est.
24  Egypt 1,048 2015 est.
25  Argentina 964.3 2015 est.
26  Pakistan 931.0 2015 est.
27  Netherlands 831.4 2015 est.
28  Malaysia 813.5 2015 est.
29  Philippines 740.8 2015 est.
30  South Africa 724.0 2015 est.
31  Colombia 665.0 2015 est.
32  United Arab Emirates 641.9 2015 est.
33  Bangladesh 577.0 2015 est.
34  Algeria 570.6 2015 est.
35  Vietnam 551.3 2015 est.
36  Iraq 531.4 2015 est.
37  Belgium 494.6 2015 est.
38  Venezuela 491.6 2015 est.
39   Switzerland 482.7 2015 est.
40  Singapore 468.9 2015 est.
41  Sweden 467.4 2015 est.
42  Kazakhstan 430.5 2015 est.
43  Chile 424.3 2015 est.
 Hong Kong, China 414.5 2015 est.
44  Romania 411.1 2015 est.
45  Austria 403.8 2015 est.
46  Peru 385.4 2015 est.
47  Norway 352.8 2015 est.
48  Ukraine 334.2 2015 est.
49  Czech Republic 331.4 2015 est.
50  Qatar 324.2 2015 est.
51  Kuwait 288.8 2015 est.
52  Portugal 288.6 2015 est.
53  Israel 281.8 2015 est.
54  Greece 281.6 2015 est.
55  Morocco 274.5 2015 est.
56  Myanmar 267.7 2015 est.
57  Denmark 257.1 2015 est.
58  Hungary 257.0 2015 est.
59  Ireland 250.3 2015 est.
60  Sri Lanka 232.5 2015 est.
61  Finland 224.7 2015 est.
62  Uzbekistan 185.8 2015 est.
63  Angola 185.2 2015 est.
64  Ecuador 181.8 2015 est.
65  Azerbaijan 174.3 2015 est.
66  Oman 171.7 2015 est.
67  Belarus 168.2 2015 est.
68  Sudan 167.4 2015 est.
69  New Zealand 166.0 2015 est.
70  Slovakia 159.6 2015 est.
71  Ethiopia 159.2 2015 est.
72  Dominican Republic 147.6 2015 est.
73  Kenya 143.1 2015 est.
74  Tanzania 138.3 2015 est.
75  Bulgaria 132.6 2015 est.
76  Cuba 128.5 2014 est.
77  Tunisia 127.2 2015 est.
78  Guatemala 125.6 2015 est.
79  Ghana 113.3 2015 est.
80  Serbia 97.27 2015 est.
81  Libya 92.87 2015 est.
82  Croatia 90.33 2015 est.
83  Turkmenistan 90.29 2015 est.
84  Lebanon 83.86 2015 est.
85  Jordan 82.99 2015 est.
86  Panama 82.18 2015 est.
87  Lithuania 82.14 2015 est.
88  Uganda 79.75 2015 est.
89  Cote d'Ivoire 78.33 2015 est.
90  Yemen 75.52 2015 est.
91  Costa Rica 74.09 2015 est.
92  Bolivia 73.88 2015 est.
93  Uruguay 72.36 2015 est.
94  Cameroon 72.11 2015 est.
95    Nepal 70.08 2015 est.
96  Bahrain 64.9 2015 est.
97  Zambia 64.65 2015 est.
98  Slovenia 63.60 2015 est.
99  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 63.27 2015 est.
100  Afghanistan 62.79 2015 est.
101  Puerto Rico 61.46 2013 est.
102  Paraguay 60.15 2015 est.
103  Luxembourg 56.58 2015 est.
104  Syria 55.80 2011 est.
105  Cambodia 54.17 2015 est.
106  El Salvador 52.88 2015 est.
107  Macao, China 51.68 2013 est.
108  Latvia 49.89 2015 est.
109  Trinidad and Tobago 44.32 2015 est.
110  Honduras 41.00 2015 est.
111  North Korea 40.00 2013 est.
112  Bosnia and Herzegovina 39.46 2015 est.
113  Estonia 37.88 2015 est.
114  Laos 37.50 2015 est.
115  Botswana 37.16 2015 est.
116  Mongolia 36.43 2015 est.
117  Senegal 36.3 2015 est.
118  Madagascar 35.56 2015 est.
119  Georgia 35.37 2015 est.
120  Gabon 34.41 2015 est.
121  Mozambique 33.73 2015 est.
122  Brunei 32.90 2015 est.
123  Albania 32.44 2015 est.
124  Chad 32.00 2015 est.
125  Nicaragua 31.18 2015 est.
126  Burkina Faso 31.18 2015 est.
127  Mali 29.15 2015 est.
128  Congo, Republic of the 28.92 2015 est.
129  Macedonia 28.89 2015 est.
130  Zimbabwe 27.92 2015 est.
131  Cyprus 27.91 2015 est.
132  Equatorial Guinea 25.94 2015 est.
133  Armenia 25.22 2015 est.
134  Namibia 24.84 2015 est.
135  Jamaica 24.60 2015 est.
136  Mauritius 24.51 2015 est.
137  Tajikistan 23.30 2015 est.
138  South Sudan 22.46 2015 est.
139  West Bank 21.17 2014 est.
140  Benin 21.16 2015 est.
141  Malawi 20.56 2015 est.
142  Rwanda 20.32 2015 est.
143  Kyrgyzstan 19.81 2015 est.
144  Papua New Guinea 19.22 2015 est.
145  Haiti 19.02 2015 est.
146  Niger 18.96 2015 est.
147  Moldova 17.76 2015 est.
148  Kosovo 17.63 2015 est.
149  Mauritania 16.43 2015 est.
150  Guinea 15.28 2015 est.
151  Iceland 15.01 2015 est.
152  Malta 14.75 2015 est.
153  New Caledonia 11.10 2014 est.
154  Swaziland 10.87 2015 est.
155  Togo 10.82 2015 est.
156  Sierra Leone 9.833 2015 est.
157  Montenegro 9.829 2015 est.
158  Bahamas, The 9.231 2015 est.
159  Suriname 9.211 2015 est.
160  Eritrea 7.938 2015 est.
161  Burundi 7.883 2015 est.
162  Fiji 7.798 2015 est.
163  French Polynesia 7.150 2012 est.
164  Timor-Leste 7.101 2015 est.
165  Monaco 6.790 2013 est.
166  Bhutan 6.383 2015 est.
167  Isle of Man 6.298 2012 est.
168  Lesotho 5.777 2015 est.
169  Jersey 5.771 2012 est.
170  Guyana 5.770 2015 est.
171  Bermuda 5.198 2013 est.
172  Guam 4.882 2013 est.
173  Maldives 4.732 2015 est.
174  Barbados 4.658 2015 est.
175  Somalia 4.431 2010 est.
176  U.S. Virgin Islands 3.792 2013 est.
177  Liberia 3.780 2015 est.
178  Cape Verde 3.479 2015 est.
179  Guernsey 3.451 2013 est.
180  Gambia, The 3.269 2015 est.
181  Liechtenstein 3.200 2009 est.
182  Andorra 3.163 2012 est.
183  Curaçao 3.128 2012 est.
184  Djibouti 3.093 2015 est.
185  Belize 3.071 2015 est.
186  Central African Republic 3.052 2015 est.
187  Guinea-Bissau 2.677 2015 est.
188  Seychelles 2.533 2015 est.
189  Aruba 2.516 2009 est.
190  Cayman Islands 2.507 2014 est.
191  Greenland 2.173 2011 est.
192  Antigua and Barbuda 2.096 2015 est.
193  Saint Lucia 2.032 2015 est.
194  San Marino 1.952 2015 est.
195  Gibraltar 1.850 2013 est.
196  Faroe Islands 1.471 2010 est.
197  Grenada 1.385 2015 est.
198  Saint Kitts and Nevis 1.358 2015 est.
199  Comoros 1.214 2015 est.
200  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1.211 2015 est.
201  Solomon Islands 1.141 2015 est.
202  Samoa 1.033 2015 est.
203  Western Sahara 0.9065 2007 est.
204  Dominica 0.8201 2015 est.
205  American Samoa 0.7110 2013 est.
206  Northern Mariana Islands 0.682 2013 est.
207  Vanuatu 0.6758 2015 est.
208  Sao Tome and Principe 0.6637 2015 est.
209  Turks and Caicos Islands 0.6320 2007 est.
210  Saint Martin 0.5615 2005 est.
211  Tonga 0.5230 2014 est.
212  British Virgin Islands 0.5000 2010 est.
213  Sint Maarten 0.3658 2014 est.
214  Micronesia, Federated States of 0.3103 2015 est.
215  Palau 0.2626 2015 est.
216  Cook Islands 0.2441
217  Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0.2153 2006 est.
218  Marshall Islands 0.1869 2015 est.
219  Anguilla 0.1754 2009 est.
220  Kiribati 0.1698 2015 est.
221  Falkland Islands 0.1645 2007 est.
222  Nauru 0.1508 2015 est.
223  Wallis and Futuna 0.0600 2004 est.
224  Montserrat 0.0438 2006 est.
225  Tuvalu 0.0366 2015 est.
226  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 0.0311 2009 est.
227  Niue 0.0101 2003 est.
228  Tokelau 0.0015 1993 est.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU is included because it has many attributes of independent nations, being much more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur.[7] As the EU is not a country, the U.S. is the second ranked country on these lists.
  2. ^ Data for Syria's 2014 GDP is from the September 2011 WEO Database, the latest available from the IMF.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 13 June 2016. 
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c "Part 4. Applications and Limitations of ICP Data" (PDF). Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  4. ^ PPP Versus the Market: Which Weight Matters?, imf.org, March 2007, Volume 44, Number 1
  5. ^ Data (22 July 2016). ""Gross domestic product 2015, PPP", World Bank, accessed on 26 July 2016" (PDF). Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 26 July 2016. ; European Union calculated by sum of individual countries.
  6. ^ Field listing - GDP (PPP exchange rate), CIA World Factbook
  7. ^ CIA (2014). "The World Factbook". Retrieved 15 March 2015. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook.