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# List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

A country's gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita is the PPP value of all final goods and services produced within an economy in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year. This is similar to nominal GDP per capita but adjusted for the cost of living in each country.

In 2019, the estimated average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world was Int\$ 18,381.[a] For rankings regarding wealth, see list of countries by wealth per adult.

## Method

The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the IMF and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.

Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made based on nominal GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards between economies because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income.

This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,[3][4] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (See Standard of living and GDP.)

GDP (PPP) and GDP (PPP) per capita are usually measured by international dollar, which is a hypothetical currency that has the same purchasing power in every economy as the U.S. dollar in the United States.

## Table

All figures are in current international dollars, and rounded to the nearest whole number.

The table initially ranks each country or territory with their latest available year's estimates, and can be re-ranked by any of the sources.

* Nearly all country links in the table connect to articles titled "Income in (country or territory)" or to "Economy of (country or territory)".

GDP per capita (current international dollar) by country or  territory, non-sovereign state or non-IMF member
Country/Territory IMF[5][6] World Bank[7] CIA[8][9][10]
Projection Year Estimate Year Estimate Year
Luxembourg * 143,743 2024 143,342 2023 115,700 2021
Liechtenstein * 139,100 2009
Ireland * 133,822 2024 127,623 2023 102,500 2021
Singapore * 133,737 2024 141,500 2023 106,000 2021
Macau * 125,510 2024 113,183 2023 64,800 2021
Monaco * 115,700 2015
Qatar * 112,283 2024 121,125 2022 92,200 2021
United Arab Emirates * 96,846 2024 83,903 2023 69,700 2021
Bermuda * 106,866 2022 80,300 2021
Switzerland * 91,932 2024 92,980 2023 71,000 2021
San Marino * 86,989 2024 65,718 2021 56,400 2020
United States * 85,373 2024 81,695 2023 63,700 2021
Isle of Man * 84,600 2014
Cayman Islands * 85,168 2022 67,500 2021
Norway * 82,832 2024 104,460 2023 65,700 2021
Guyana * 80,137 2024 55,263 2023 21,900 2021
Denmark * 77,641 2024 76,688 2023 58,000 2021
Brunei * 77,534 2024 86,446 2023 60,100 2021
Taiwan * 76,858 2024 47,800 2019
Hong Kong * 75,128 2024 71,482 2023 60,000 2021
Netherlands * 74,158 2024 78,215 2023 56,600 2021
Iceland * 73,784 2024 77,567 2023 53,600 2020
Falkland Islands * 70,800 2015
Saudi Arabia * 70,333 2024 54,992 2023 44,300 2021
Austria * 69,460 2024 73,751 2023 54,100 2021
Sweden * 69,177 2024 70,207 2023 53,600 2021
Andorra * 69,146 2024 71,588 2023 49,900 2015
Belgium * 68,079 2024 70,456 2023 51,700 2021
Malta * 67,682 2024 62,446 2023 44,700 2021
Germany * 67,245 2024 69,338 2023 53,100 2021
Australia * 66,627 2024 69,115 2023 49,800 2021
Bahrain * 62,671 2024 63,848 2023 49,400 2021
Gibraltar * 61,700 2014
Finland * 60,851 2024 65,061 2023 48,800 2021
Canada * 60,495 2024 61,582 2023 47,900 2021
France * 60,339 2024 61,157 2023 45,000 2021
South Korea * 59,330 2024 54,033 2023 44,200 2021
United Kingdom * 58,880 2024 58,906 2023 45,000 2021
European Union *[n 1] 58,838 2024 60,349 2023 44,100 2021
Cyprus * 58,733 [n 2]2024 57,101 [n 2]2023 41,700 [n 2]2021
Italy * 56,905 2024 58,755 2023 41,900 2021
Jersey * 56,600 2016
Israel * 55,533 2024 53,434 2023 42,100 2021
Aruba * 54,716 2024 45,236 2022 38,900 2021
Japan * 54,184 2024 50,207 2023 40,800 2021
New Zealand * 53,797 2024 54,110 2023 42,900 2021
Slovenia * 53,287 2024 54,948 2023 40,000 2021
Guernsey * 52,500 2014
Kuwait * 52,274 2024 56,386 2023 43,900 2020
Spain * 52,012 2024 52,779 2023 37,900 2021
Lithuania * 50,600 2024 51,877 2023 39,300 2021
Czech Republic * 50,475 2024 53,817 2023 40,700 2020
Sint Maarten (Dutch part) * 51,527 2023 35,300 2018
Poland * 49,060 2024 49,464 2023 34,900 2021
Portugal * 47,070 2024 48,759 2023 33,700 2021
Bahamas * 46,524 2024 35,555 2023 30,200 2021
Saint Pierre and Miquelon * 46,200 2006
Croatia * 45,702 2024 45,910 2023 31,600 2021
Hungary * 45,692 2024 45,942 2023 33,600 2021
Estonia * 45,122 2024 48,992 2023 38,700 2021
Panama * 44,797 2024 39,695 2023 29,000 2021
Slovakia * 44,081 2024 44,650 2023 31,900 2021
Turkey * 43,921 2024 44,151 2023 31,500 2021
Puerto Rico * 43,219 2024 47,700 2023 32,600 2021
Romania * 43,179 2024 47,903 2023 30,800 2021
Seychelles * 43,151 2024 32,694 2023 28,800 2021
Greenland * 41,800 2015
Latvia * 41,730 2024 42,501 2023 32,100 2021
Greece * 41,188 2024 41,187 2023 29,500 2021
Faroe Islands * 76,566 2022 40,000 2014
Oman * 39,859 2024 44,421 2023 34,300 2021
Malaysia * 39,030 2024 37,248 2023 26,300 2021
Saint Kitts and Nevis * 38,870 2024 33,403 2023 26,500 2021
Russia * 38,292 2024 44,104 2023 27,500 2022
Maldives * 37,433 2024 24,809 2023 18,800 2021
U.S. Virgin Islands * 46,238 2021 37,000 2016
Bulgaria * 35,963 2024 38,690 2023 24,400 2020
New Caledonia * 35,700 2021
Guam * 35,600 2016
Kazakhstan * 34,534 2024 39,333 2023 26,100 2021
British Virgin Islands * 34,200 2017
Montserrat * 34,000 2011
Trinidad and Tobago * 32,685 2024 31,572 2023 23,000 2021
Mauritius * 32,094 2024 29,499 2023 21,000 2021
Chile * 31,005 2024 33,285 2023 25,400 2021
Uruguay * 30,170 2024 34,062 2023 22,800 2021
Montenegro * 29,696 2024 31,216 2023 20,600 2021
Costa Rica * 28,558 2024 27,953 2023 21,200 2021
Serbia * 27,985 2024 27,402 2023 19,800 2021
Antigua and Barbuda * 27,309 2024 31,802 2023 19,100 2021
Curaçao * 29,524 2023 20,800 2021
Dominican Republic * 27,120 2024 25,611 2023 18,600 2021
Libya * 26,456 2024 19,641 2023 22,000 2021
Argentina * 26,390 2024 29,363 2023 21,500 2021
Mexico * 25,963 2024 25,602 2023 19,100 2021
Belarus * 25,685 2024 30,752 2023 19,800 2021
Georgia * 25,248 [n 3]2024 24,681 [n 3]2023 15,500 [n 3]2021
China * 25,015 [n 4]2024 24,558 [n 5]2023 17,600 [n 4]2021
Northern Mariana Islands * 24,500 2016
Turks and Caicos Islands * 24,820 2023 18,500 2021
World 23,444 [i]2024 20,946 2022 17,000 2021
Thailand * 23,401 2024 23,423 2023 17,100 2021
North Macedonia * 22,249 2024 24,873 2023 16,500 2021
Grenada * 21,799 2024 17,654 2023 13,700 2021
Armenia * 21,746 2024 23,055 2023 14,200 2021
Iran * 21,219 2024 17,922 2023 12,400 2020
Brazil * 20,809 2024 20,584 2023 14,100 2020
Albania * 20,632 2024 21,395 2023 14,500 2021
Bosnia and Herzegovina * 20,623 2024 22,846 2023 15,700 2021
Barbados * 20,592 2024 19,357 2023 13,800 2021
Botswana * 20,097 2024 19,383 2023 14,800 2021
Colombia * 19,770 2024 21,548 2023 14,600 2021
Turkmenistan * 19,729 2024 17,100 2019 15,000 2019
Saint Lucia * 19,718 2024 25,129 2023 13,000 2021
Gabon * 19,452 2024 21,947 2023 13,800 2021
Azerbaijan * 19,328 2024 23,686 2023 14,400 2021
Saint Martin (French part) * 19,300 2005
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * 19,196 2024 19,876 2023 13,700 2021
Suriname * 18,928 2024 21,047 2023 14,800 2021
French Polynesia * 18,600 2021
Equatorial Guinea * 18,378 2024 18,724 2023 14,600 2021
Moldova * 17,902 [n 6]2024 17,384 [n 6]2023 14,000 [n 6]2021
Egypt * 17,614 2024 18,817 2023 11,600 2021
Fiji * 17,403 2024 15,047 2023 10,400 2021
Palau * 17,381 2024 17,491 2023 13,800 2021
Indonesia * 16,861 2024 15,613 2023 11,900 2021
Kosovo * 16,775 2024 15,029 2023 11,900 2021
Peru * 16,631 2024 16,717 2023 12,500 2021
Mongolia * 16,504 2024 18,108 2023 11,700 2021
Algeria * 16,483 2024 17,027 2023 11,000 2021
South Africa * 16,424 2024 15,847 2023 13,300 2021
Paraguay * 16,291 2024 17,466 2023 13,700 2021
Bhutan * 15,978 2024 15,022 2022 10,900 2021
Cook Islands * 15,600 2022
Vietnam * 15,470 2024 15,194 2023 10,600 2021
Ukraine * 15,464 [n 7]2024 18,008 [n 7]2023 12,900 [n 7]2021
Dominica * 15,280 2024 17,599 2023 10,900 2021
Ecuador * 14,485 2024 15,870 2023 10,700 2021
Sri Lanka * 14,255 2022 14,455 2023 13,400 2021
Tunisia * 13,645 2024 13,682 2023 10,400 2021
Jamaica * 13,543 2024 11,475 2023 9,600 2021
Eswatini * 12,637 2024 11,741 2023 8,900 2021
El Salvador * 12,561 2024 12,542 2023 9,100 2021
Jordan * 12,402 2024 10,452 2023 9,200 2021
Cuba * 12,300 2016
Anguilla * 12,200 2008
Philippines * 12,192 2024 10,756 2023 8,100 2021
Namibia * 12,008 2024 12,757 2023 9,100 2021
Iraq * 11,937 2024 13,969 2023 9,000 2021
Lebanon * 11,784 2022 12,853 2022 13,000 2021
Belize * 11,320 2024 14,195 2023 8,800 2021
American Samoa * 11,200 2016
Niue * 11,100 2021
Guatemala * 11,006 2024 14,067 2023 8,900 2021
Morocco * 10,947 2024 9,743 2023 8,100 [n 8]2021
Uzbekistan * 10,936 2024 9,725 2023 7,700 2021
Nauru * 10,823 2024 12,671 2023 11,900 2021
Bolivia * 10,693 2024 10,727 2023 8,100 2021
Cape Verde * 10,304 [n 9]2024 9,086 [n 9]2023 6,100 [n 9]2021
Laos * 10,242 2024 9,326 2023 7,800 2021
India * 10,123 2024 10,176 2023 6,600 2021
Bangladesh * 9,416 2024 9,066 2023 5,900 2021
Venezuela * 8,486 2024 17,402 2011 7,704 2018
Cambodia * 8,287 2024 5,624 2023 4,400 2021
Nicaragua * 8,137 2024 8,044 2023 5,600 2021
Saint Helena, Ascension and
Tristan da Cunha
7,800 2010
Djibouti * 7,707 2024 7,204 2023 4,900 2021
Mauritania * 7,680 2024 6,934 2023 5,300 2021
Honduras * 7,503 2024 7,211 2023 5,600 2021
Tonga * 7,462 2024 7,016 2022 6,100 2021
Ghana * 7,156 2024 7,466 2023 5,400 2021
Angola * 7,153 2024 8,041 2023 5,900 2021
Kenya * 6,976 2024 6,324 2023 4,700 2021
Pakistan * 6,955 2024 6,212 2023 5,200 2021
Ivory Coast * 6,860 2024 7,791 2023 5,300 2021
Kyrgyzstan * 6,790 2024 7,103 2023 4,800 2021
Samoa * 6,721 2024 6,681 2023 5,500 2021
Syria * 6,375 2010 2,914 2021 2,900 2015
Nigeria * 6,340 2024 6,318 2023 4,900 2021
Marshall Islands * 6,313 2024 7,491 2023 6,000 2021
Palestine * 6,057 [n 10]2023 5,888 [n 10]2023 5,600 [n 11]2021
Tuvalu * 6,056 2024 5,763 2023 4,900 2021
Tokelau * 6,004 2017
Tajikistan * 5,832 2024 5,082 2023 3,900 2021
Myanmar * 5,203 2024 5,905 2023 4,400 [n 12]2021
Nepal * 5,032 2024 5,182 2023 3,800 2021
Cameroon * 4,842 2024 5,380 2023 3,700 2021
Congo * 4,740 2024 6,933 2023 3,200 2021
Micronesia * 4,690 2024 4,217 2023 3,300 2021
Senegal * 4,661 2024 4,833 2023 3,500 2021
Benin * 4,558 2024 4,248 2023 3,300 2021
Zambia * 4,361 2024 4,126 2023 3,200 2021
São Tomé and Príncipe * 4,238 2024 6,064 2023 4,100 2020
Ethiopia * 4,019 2024 3,109 2023 2,300 2021
Wallis and Futuna * 3,800 2004
East Timor * 3,767 2024 5,109 2023 5,000 2021
Tanzania * 3,746 2024 3,972 2023 2,600 2021
Kiribati * 3,614 2024 3,522 2023 1,900 2021
Papua New Guinea * 3,534 2024 4,607 2023 3,700 2022
Comoros * 3,532 2024 3,855 2023 3,200 2021
Sudan * 3,443 2024 3,137 2023 3,700 2021
Rwanda * 3,367 2024 3,361 2023 2,200 2021
Guinea * 3,366 2024 4,429 2023 2,600 2021
Uganda * 3,345 2024 3,098 2023 2,200 2021
Guinea-Bissau * 3,239 2024 2,630 2023 1,800 2021
Lesotho * 3,227 2024 2,794 2023 2,300 2021
Haiti * 3,108 2024 3,256 2023 2,900 2021
Gambia 2,993 2024 3,163 2023 2,100 2021
Zimbabwe * 2,975 2024 3,900 2023 2,100 2021
Vanuatu * 2,939 2024 3,315 2023 2,800 2021
Togo * 2,911 2024 3,155 2023 2,100 2021
Burkina Faso * 2,781 2024 2,727 2023 2,200 2021
Mali * 2,714 2024 2,726 2023 2,100 2021
Solomon Islands * 2,713 2024 3,035 2023 2,400 2021
Chad * 2,620 2024 1,969 2023 1,400 2021
Sierra Leone * 2,189 2024 1,847 2023 1,600 2021
Afghanistan * 2,116 2022 2,093 2022 1,500 2021
Somalia * 2,062 2024 1,611 2023 1,100 2021
Yemen * 1,996 2024 3,437 2013 2,500 2017
Madagascar * 1,979 2024 1,875 2023 1,500 2021
Liberia * 1,882 2024 1,819 2023 1,400 2021
Eritrea * 1,832 2019 1,629 2011 1,600 2017
Malawi * 1,712 2024 1,868 2023 1,500 2021
North Korea * 1,700 2015
Niger * 1,675 2024 1,817 2023 1,200 2021
Mozambique * 1,649 2024 1,657 2023 1,200 2021
DR Congo * 1,552 2024 1,671 2023 1,100 2021
Central African Republic * 1,123 2024 1,130 2023 800 2021
Burundi * 916 2024 951 2023 700 2021
South Sudan * 455 2024 1,146 2015 1,600 2017

### Footnotes

1. ^ There is no explicit "GDP (PPP) per capita" World estimate provided by the IMF. For this figure, the GDP (PPP) world value[6] has been divided by the global population according to the IMF.[11]
1. ^ The EU is included because it is much more than a free-trade association like ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur. -- See: "The World Factbook". CIA. 2014. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 17 November 2022. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, the inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook. -- However, because the EU is an organization and not a sovereign state, it does not receive a ranking in this list.
2. ^ a b c Data is for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
3. ^ a b c Excludes data for Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
4. ^ a b IMF and CIA figures exclude Taiwan and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
5. ^ World Bank figures exclude the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
6. ^ a b c Excludes data for Transnistria.
7. ^ a b c Figures exclude the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol.
8. ^ Includes Western Sahara.
9. ^ a b c Referred to as "Cabo Verde".
10. ^ a b Referred to as "West Bank and Gaza" in the IMF and World Bank reports.
11. ^ CIA registers 2 separate entries for Palestine: "West Bank" and "Gaza Strip". Figures for West Bank include the Gaza Strip -- see "The World Factbook - West Bank". CIA.gov. 15 November 2022.
12. ^ Referred to as "Burma".

## Expanding the coverage of illegal economic activities in Euro area national accounts

The share of the shadow economy is significant in many European countries, ranging from less than 10 to over 40 per cent of GDP.[12] Since 2014, EU member states have been encouraged by Eurostat, the official statistics body, to include some illegal activities.[13][14][15]

## Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in oil and gas tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.[16] It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists).[17] An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global foreign direct investment flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.[18]

A stunning \$12 trillion—almost 40 per cent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 per cent of the world's investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.

— "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[18]

In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens.

Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.

— Brad Setser, Council on Foreign Relations, "Ireland exports its Leprechaun", 25 April 2018[19]

The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.

— Patrick Honohan, ex-Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland, 13 July 2016[20]

A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016 to 2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):

International Monetary Fund (2017) World Bank (2016)[21][22]
Rank Country/Territory Type
1  Qatar Oil & Gas
Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
2  Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3  Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4  Brunei Oil & Gas
5  Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
6  Norway Oil & Gas
7  Kuwait Oil & Gas
8  United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
9   Switzerland Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
Hong Kong Top 10 Tax Haven (Sink OFC)
10  San Marino Tax haven (Sink OFC)
11  United States 59,495
12  Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
13  Netherlands Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
14  Iceland 52,150
15  Bahrain Oil & Gas
Rank Country/Territory Type
1  Qatar Oil & Gas
2  Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3  Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4  Brunei Oil & Gas
5  United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
6  Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
7   Switzerland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
8  Norway Oil & Gas
Hong Kong Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
9  United States 57,467
10  Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
11  Iceland 51,399
12  Netherlands Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
13  Austria 50,078
14  Denmark 49,496
15  Sweden 49,175

## Notes

1. ^ There have been no exclusive estimates for the world average by the IMF. For calculating 2019 data, the total GDP estimate by IMF[1] has been divided by the total population estimate by United Nations Population Prospects.[2]

## References

1. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, 2019". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
2. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
3. ^
4. ^
5. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2024". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 16 April 2024. Retrieved 18 April 2024.
6. ^ a b "WEO Database, April 2024. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: World, E.U." IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 16 April 2024. Retrieved 18 April 2024.
7. ^ "GDP per capita, PPP (current international \$)". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 3 July 2024.
8. ^ "Country Comparisons - Real GDP per capita". CIA.gov. The World Factbook. Retrieved 1 April 2024.
9. ^ "The World Factbook - European Union". CIA.gov. Retrieved 1 April 2024.
10. ^ "The World Factbook - World". CIA.gov. Retrieved 1 April 2024.
11. ^ "IMF DataMapper / Datasets / World Economic Outlook (April 2024) / Population". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 16 April 2024. Retrieved 18 April 2024.
12. ^ "Explaining the Shadow Economy in Europe: Size, Causes and Policy Options". International Monetary Fund. November 2019.
13. ^ "Sizing Up Black Markets and Red-Light Districts for G.D.P." The New York Times. 9 July 2014.
14. ^ "GDP to include illegal activity". Financier Worldwide Magazine. August 2014.
15. ^
16. ^ "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018.
17. ^ Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R. Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?" (PDF). Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9–10): 1058–1068. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005. S2CID 16653726. The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries that have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
18. ^ a b "Piercing the Veil, Finance & Development, June 2018, Vol. 55, No. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
19. ^ "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018.
20. ^ "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016.
21. ^ "PPP (current international \$)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
22. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.