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List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

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Countries by GDP (PPP) per capita (Int$) in 2019 according to the IMF
  >50,000
  35,000–50,000
  20,000–35,000
  10,000–20,000
  5,000–10,000
  2,000–5,000
  <2,000
  Data unavailable

This page is a list of the countries of the world by gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.

As of 2019, the estimated average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world is Int$18,381.[n 1] For rankings regarding wealth, see list of countries by wealth per adult.

Method

The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the IMF and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.

Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made on the basis of nominal GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards between nations because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income. This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,[3][4] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (See Standard of living and GDP.)

Lists of countries and dependencies

All figures are in current international dollars, and rounded up or down to the nearest whole number.

Several economies that are not considered to be sovereign states (such as various dependent territories) are included because they appear in the sources. These non-sovereign entities, former countries and other special groupings are in italics. They are listed in dollar order, but are not given a numerical rank.

International Monetary Fund (2020 estimates)[5] World Bank (2018)[6][7] Central Intelligence Agency (1993–2017)[8]
Rank Country/Territory Int$
1  Qatar 138,910
 Macau 113,352
2  Luxembourg 112,045
3  Singapore 105,689
4  Ireland 86,988
5  Brunei 85,011
6  Norway 79,638
7  United Arab Emirates 70,441
8  Kuwait 67,891
9   Switzerland 67,558
10  United States 67,426
 Hong Kong 66,527
11  San Marino 62,913
12  Netherlands 60,299
 Taiwan 57,214
13  Iceland 56,974
14  Saudi Arabia 56,912
15  Sweden 55,989
16  Denmark 55,675
17  Germany 55,306
18  Austria 55,171
19  Australia 54,799
20  Canada 52,144
21  Bahrain 51,991
22  Belgium 50,904
23  Malta 49,589
24  Finland 49,548
25  France 48,640
26  Oman 48,593
27  United Kingdom 48,169
28  Japan 46,827
29  Korea, South 46,452
30  Spain 43,007
31  Cyprus 42,956
32  New Zealand 42,045
33  Italy 41,582
 Puerto Rico 41,198
34  Czech Republic 40,585
35  Slovenia 40,344
36  Israel 40,337
37  Lithuania 38,751
38  Slovakia 38,321
39  Estonia 37,606
40  Hungary 35,941
41  Poland 35,651
42  Portugal 34,936
43  Malaysia 34,567
44  Trinidad and Tobago 33,713
45  Bahamas, The 33,432
46  Seychelles 33,118
47  Latvia 32,987
48  Saint Kitts and Nevis 31,950
49  Greece 31,616
50  Russia 30,820
51  Antigua and Barbuda 30,593
52  Kazakhstan 30,178
53  Romania 29,555
54  Turkey 29,327
55  Croatia 29,207
56  Panama 28,456
57  Chile 27,150
58  Mauritius 26,461
59  Bulgaria 26,034
60  Maldives 24,796
61  Uruguay 24,516
62  Montenegro 21,977
63  Turkmenistan 21,855
64  Mexico 21,363
65  Thailand 21,361
66  Belarus 21,224
67  People's Republic of China 20,984
68  Dominican Republic 20,625
69  Argentina 19,971
70  Equatorial Guinea 19,961
71  Gabon 19,839
72  Serbia 19,767
73  Botswana 19,388
74  Barbados 19,364
75  Azerbaijan 19,156
76  Iraq 18,755
77  Costa Rica 18,651
World[n 2] 18,391
78  Iran 17,832
79  Grenada 17,434
80  North Macedonia 17,378
81  Guyana 17,163
82  Brazil 17,106
83  Palau 16,855
84  Colombia 16,265
85  Algeria 16,091
86  Suriname 16,044
87  Lebanon 15,599
88  Peru 15,399
89  Saint Lucia 15,159
90  Mongolia 15,089
91  Bosnia and Herzegovina 14,894
92  Albania 14,866
93  Indonesia 14,841
94  Egypt 14,800
95  Sri Lanka 14,509
96  South Africa 13,965
97  Paraguay 13,213
98  Georgia 13,200
99  Tunisia 13,093
 Kosovo 13,017
100  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 12,983
101  Dominica 12,851
102  Fiji 12,689
103  Ecuador 11,866
104  Armenia 11,845
105  Namibia 11,451
106  Eswatini 11,139
107  Bhutan 10,627
108  Ukraine 10,130
109  Philippines 10,094
110  Jordan 9,939
111  Jamaica 9,932
112  Morocco 9,667
113  Uzbekistan 9,595
114  Libya 9,446
115  Nauru 9,073
116  India 9,027
117  Guatemala 9,009
118  Belize 8,791
119  Cape Verde 8,716
120  Laos 8,684
121  Vietnam 8,677
122  El Salvador 8,593
123  Bolivia 8,525
124  Moldova 8,161
125  Congo, Republic of the 7,336
126  Ghana 7,343
127  Myanmar 7,220
128  Tonga 6,867
129  Angola 6,763
130  Samoa 6,493
131  Nigeria 6,172
132  Pakistan 6,016
133  Djibouti 5,855
134  Honduras 5,600
135  Bangladesh 5,453
136  Timor-Leste 5,321
137  Nicaragua 5,297
138  Mauritania 5,158
139  Cambodia 5,004
140  Côte d'Ivoire 4,754
141  Tuvalu 4,535
142  Kyrgyzstan 4,193
143  Zambia 4,174
144  Cameroon 4,099
145  Papua New Guinea 4,081
146  Senegal 4,079
147  Kenya 4,078
148  Sudan 3,986
149  Marshall Islands 3,972
150  Tajikistan 3,751
151  Micronesia, Federated States of 3,657
152  Lesotho 3,655
153  Tanzania 3,652
154  Benin 3,648
155    Nepal 3,550
156  São Tomé and Príncipe 3,499
157  Vanuatu 3,039
158  Comoros 2,898
159  Gambia, The 2,892
160  Zimbabwe 2,778
161  Uganda 2,753
162  Ethiopia 2,702
163  Rwanda 2,642
164  Chad 2,603
165  Guinea 2,574
166  Mali 2,569
167  Solomon Islands 2,363
168  Yemen 2,312
169  Kiribati 2,193
170  Afghanistan 2,182
171  Burkina Faso 2,181
172  Guinea-Bissau 2,113
173  Haiti 1,916
174  Togo 1,913
175  Madagascar 1,776
176  Sierra Leone 1,765
177  South Sudan 1,715
178  Liberia 1,428
179  Mozambique 1,372
180  Malawi 1,292
181  Niger 1,152
182  Eritrea 1,103
183  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 873
184  Central African Republic 864
185  Burundi 724
 Syria n/a
 Venezuela n/a
Rank Country/Territory Int$
 Macau 135,121
1  Luxembourg 116,786
2  Singapore 98,827
3  Qatar 96,804
4  Ireland 84,459
 Cayman Islands (2017) 69,420
5   Switzerland 69,366
6  Norway 67,640
7  United Arab Emirates 67,549
8  San Marino (2017) 63,037
9  United States 62,886
 Hong Kong 62,726
10  Brunei 61,859
 Bermuda (2013) 59,483
11  Iceland 58,058
12  Netherlands 57,565
13  Denmark 57,218
14  Austria 56,871
15  Germany 54,456
16  Sweden 53,807
17  Belgium 52,254
18  Kuwait 51,708
19  Australia 51,036
20  Canada 49,994
21  Finland 49,549
22  Saudi Arabia 48,756
23  Bahrain 47,297
24  United Kingdom 46,867
25  France 46,447
26  Malta 43,538
 European Union 43,399
27  Italy 42,798
28  New Zealand 42,193
29  Japan 41,473
30  Spain 40,483
31  Czech Republic 40,428
32  Israel 40,261
33  Korea, South 39,660
34  Slovenia 38,749
35  Cyprus 38,513
36  Bahamas, The 36,365
37  Estonia 36,358
38  Lithuania 35,831
 Puerto Rico 35,108
39  Portugal 34,272
 Aruba (2017) 33,966
40  Slovakia 32,616
 Sint Maarten (2017) 32,256
41  Panama 31,834
42  Poland 31,755
43  Hungary 31,578
44  Latvia 30,744
45  Greece 30,357
46  Oman 29,289
47  Romania 29,061
48  Russia 28,556
49  Seychelles 28,243
50  Malaysia 28,207
51  Turkey 28,139
52  Croatia 28,115
 Turks and Caicos Islands 27,075
53  Trinidad and Tobago 26,912
54  Saint Kitts and Nevis 26,530
55  Kazakhstan 26,172
 Curaçao 25,590
56  Chile 24,763
57  Argentina 23,300
58  Mauritius 22,752
59  Bulgaria 22,304
60  Uruguay 22,116
61  Antigua and Barbuda 21,630
62  Montenegro 21,301
63  Equatorial Guinea 20,855
64  Mexico 20,396
65  Costa Rica 19,762
66  Belarus 19,345
67  Maldives 18,959
68  Palau 18,510
69  Thailand 18,481
70  Dominican Republic 18,143
71  Botswana 18,059
72  Serbia 17,617
73  Venezuela (2011) 17,527
74  Grenada 17,234
World 16,944
75  North Macedonia 16,624
76  Nauru 16,504
77  Lebanon 16,416
78  Suriname 16,151
79  Barbados 16,107
80  China 15,376
81  Turkmenistan 15,207
82  Gabon 15,102
83  Bosnia and Herzegovina 14,962
84  Brazil 14,951
85  Colombia 14,834
86  Georgia 14,594
87  Azerbaijan 14,543
88  Iran (2017) 14,535
89  Libya 14,423
90  Fiji 14,144
91  Saint Lucia 13,960
92  Albania 13,835
93  Sri Lanka 13,254
94  Paraguay 13,204
95  Peru 13,093
96  Armenia 13,024
97  South Africa 12,938
98  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 12,770
99  Moldova 12,564
100  Mongolia 12,203
101  Ecuador 11,853
102  Dominica 11,814
103  Algeria 11,759
104  Indonesia 11,646
105  Egypt 11,643
106  Bhutan 11,621
107  Tunisia 11,009
108  Iraq 10,919
 Kosovo 10,868
109  Namibia 10,704
110  Jordan 10,094
111  Jamaica 9,975
112  Guyana 9,539
113  Ukraine 9,249
114  Bolivia 8,866
115  El Salvador 8,816
116  Eswatini 8,815
117  Guatemala 8,655
118  Morocco 8,611
119  Philippines 8,321
120  Laos 7,777
121  Vietnam 7,771
122  Belize 7,360
123  Angola 7,093
124  Cape Verde 7,068
125  Uzbekistan 6,898
126  India 6,697
127  Samoa 6,677
128  Tonga 6,419
129  Nicaragua 5,833
130  Honduras 5,810
131  Ghana 5,321
132  Nigeria 5,281
133  Kyrgyzstan 5,245
134  Djibouti 5,225
135  Myanmar 4,996
136  Pakistan 4,854
137  Sudan 4,767
138  Bangladesh 4,549
139  Papua New Guinea 4,336
140  Kenya 4,294
141  Cambodia 4,261
142  Tuvalu 4,049
143  São Tomé and Príncipe 4,040
144  Marshall Islands 3,989
142  Côte d'Ivoire 3,832
143  Mauritania 3,802
144  Cameroon 3,691
145  Yemen _2013) 3,657
146  Zambia 3,599
147  Micronesia, Federated States of 3,553
148  Senegal 3,430
149  Zimbabwe 3,360
150  Congo, Republic of the 3,357
151    Nepal 3,330
152  Tajikistan 3,313
153  Tanzania 3,240
154  Benin 3,237
154  Vanuatu 3,221
155  Timor-Leste 3,154
156  Comoros 3,141
157  Lesotho 3,068
158  Guinea 2,555
159  Solomon Islands 2,422
163  Mali 2,344
164  Kiribati 2,293
165  Afghanistan 2,225
166  Gambia, The 2,196
167  Ethiopia 2,154
168  Rwanda 2,114
169  Eritrea (2011) 2,052
170  Guinea-Bissau 1,996
171  Burkina Faso 1,904
172  Uganda 1,837
173  Haiti 1,810
174  Sierra Leone 1,703
175  Madagascar 1,652
176  Chad 1,618
 West Bank and Gaza (2017) 1,598
177  Togo 1,590
178  Liberia 1,533
179  South Sudan (2014) 1,495
180  Mozambique 1,321
181  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 1,111
182  Malawi 1,071
183  Central African Republic 955
184  Niger 888
185  Burundi 780
Rank Country/Territory Int$ Year
1  Liechtenstein 139,100 2009 est.
2  Qatar 124,900 2017 est.
3  Monaco 115,700 2015 est.
 Macau 114,400 2017 est.
4  Luxembourg 109,100 2017 est.
 Falkland Islands 96,200 2012 est.
5  Singapore 90,500 2017 est.
 Bermuda 85,700 2013 est.
 Isle of Man 84,600 2014 est.
6  Brunei 76,700 2017 est.
7  Ireland 72,600 2017 est.
8  Norway 70,600 2017 est.
9  Kuwait 69,700 2017 est.
10  United Arab Emirates 68,200 2017 est.
 Sint Maarten 66,800 2014 est.
 Gibraltar 61,700 2014 est.
11   Switzerland 61,400 2017 est.
 Hong Kong 61,000 2017 est.
12  San Marino 59,500 2017 est.
13  United States 59,500 2017 est.
14  Saudi Arabia 55,300 2017 est.
15  Netherlands 53,600 2017 est.
 Guernsey 52,500 2014 est.
16  Iceland 52,100 2017 est.
17  Bahrain 51,800 2017 est.
18  Sweden 51,300 2017 est.
19  Germany 50,200 2017 est.
20  Australia 49,900 2017 est.
21  Andorra 49,900 2015 est.
 Taiwan 49,800 2017 est.
22  Denmark 49,600 2017 est.
 Jersey 49,500 2015 est.
23  Austria 49,200 2017 est.
24  Canada 48,100 2017 est.
25  Belgium 46,300 2017 est.
26  Oman 45,500 2017 est.
27  Finland 44,000 2017 est.
 Cayman Islands 43,800 2004 est.
28  France 43,600 2017 est.
29  United Kingdom 43,600 2017 est.
30  Japan 42,700 2017 est.
31  Malta 42,500 2017 est.
 British Virgin Islands 42,300 2010 est.
 European Union 40,900 2017 est.
 Faroe Islands 40,000 2014 est.
32  Korea, South 39,400 2017 est.
33  New Zealand 38,900 2017 est.
34  Spain 38,300 2017 est.
35  Italy 38,100 2017 est.
 Greenland 37,600 2015 est.
 Puerto Rico 37,300 2017 est.
36  Cyprus 36,600 2017 est.
37  Israel 36,200 2017 est.
 U.S. Virgin Islands 36,100 2013 est.
38  Czech Republic 35,200 2017 est.
39  Equatorial Guinea 34,900 2017 est.
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 34,900 2006 est.
40  Slovenia 34,100 2017 est.
41  Slovakia 32,900 2017 est.
42  Lithuania 31,900 2017 est.
43  Estonia 31,500 2017 est.
44  Trinidad and Tobago 31,200 2017 est.
 New Caledonia 31,100 2015 est.
 Guam 30,500 2013 est.
45  Portugal 30,300 2017 est.
46  Poland 29,300 2017 est.
 Turks and Caicos Islands 29,100 2007 est.
47  Seychelles 28,900 2017 est.
48  Hungary 28,900 2017 est.
49  Malaysia 28,900 2017 est.
50  Russia 27,900 2017 est.
51  Greece 27,800 2017 est.
52  Latvia 27,300 2017 est.
53  Saint Kitts and Nevis 26,800 2017 est.
54  Turkey 26,500 2017 est.
55  Antigua and Barbuda 26,300 2017 est.
56  Kazakhstan 26,100 2017 est.
 Aruba 25,300 2011 est.
57  Bahamas, The 25,100 2017 est.
58  Chile 24,600 2017 est.
59  Panama 24,300 2017 est.
60  Croatia 24,100 2017 est.
61  Romania 24,000 2017 est.
62  Uruguay 22,400 2017 est.
63  Bulgaria 21,600 2017 est.
64  Mauritius 21,600 2017 est.
65  Argentina 20,700 2017 est.
66  Iran 20,000 2017 est.
67  Mexico 19,500 2017 est.
68  Lebanon 19,500 2017 est.
69  Gabon 19,300 2017 est.
 Saint Martin 19,300 2005 est.
70  Maldives 19,200 2017 est.
71  Turkmenistan 18,700 2017 est.
72  Belarus 18,600 2017 est.
73  Botswana 18,100 2017 est.
74  Thailand 17,800 2017 est.
75  Barbados 17,500 2017 est.
76  Azerbaijan 17,400 2017 est.
77  Montenegro 17,400 2017 est.
78  Costa Rica 17,200 2017 est.
79  Iraq 17,000 2017 est.
 French Polynesia 17,000 2015 est.
80  Dominican Republic 17,000 2017 est.
81  Palau 16,700 2017 est.
82  People's Republic of China 16,600 2017 est.
83  Brazil 15,500 2017 est.
84  Serbia 15,200 2017 est.
85  North Macedonia 15,200 2017 est.
86  Algeria 15,100 2017 est.
 Curaçao 15,000 2004 est.
87  Grenada 14,700 2017 est.
88  Colombia 14,500 2017 est.
89  Suriname 13,900 2017 est.
90  Saint Lucia 13,500 2017 est.
91  South Africa 13,400 2017 est.
 Northern Mariana Islands 13,300 2013 est.
92  Peru 13,300 2017 est.
93  Egypt 13,000 2017 est.
 American Samoa 13,000 2013 est.
94  Sri Lanka 13,000 2017 est.
95  Mongolia 12,600 2017 est.
96  Jordan 12,500 2017 est.
97  Albania 12,500 2017 est.
98  Indonesia 12,400 2017 est.
99  Venezuela 12,400 2017 est.
 Cook Islands 12,300 2010 est.
100  Nauru 12,200 2017 est.
 Anguilla 12,200 2008 est.
101  Dominica 12,000 2017 est.
102  Tunisia 12,000 2017 est.
103  Cuba 11,900 2016 est.
104  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11,600 2017 est.
105  Namibia 11,500 2017 est.
106  Bosnia and Herzegovina 11,400 2017 est.
107  Ecuador 11,200 2017 est.
108  Georgia 10,600 2017 est.
 Kosovo 10,400 2017 est.
109  Fiji 9,900 2017 est.
110  Eswatini 9,900 2017 est.
111  Paraguay 9,800 2017 est.
112  Libya 9,800 2017 est.
113  Jamaica 9,200 2017 est.
114  Armenia 9,100 2017 est.
115  El Salvador 8,900 2017 est.
116  Ukraine 8,700 2017 est.
117  Bhutan 8,700 2017 est.
118  Morocco 8,600 2017 est.
 Montserrat 8,500 2006 est.
119  Guyana 8,300 2017 est.
120  Belize 8,300 2017 est.
121  Guatemala 8,200 2017 est.
122  Philippines 8,200 2017 est.
 Saint Helena, Ascension
and Tristan da Cunha
7,800 2010 est.
123  Bolivia 7,500 2017 est.
124  Laos 7,400 2017 est.
125  India 7,200 2017 est.
126  Uzbekistan 7,000 2017 est.
127  Vietnam 6,900 2017 est.
128  Cape Verde 6,900 2017 est.
129  Angola 6,800 2017 est.
130  Congo, Republic of the 6,700 2017 est.
131  Myanmar 6,300 2017 est.
132  Nigeria 5,900 2017 est.
133  Nicaragua 5,800 2015 est.
 Niue 5,800 2003 est.
134  Moldova 5,700 2017 est.
135  Samoa 5,700 2017 est.
136  Tonga 5,600 2017 est.
137  Honduras 5,500 2017 est.
138  Pakistan 5,400 2017 est.
139  Timor-Leste 5,000 2017 est.
140  Ghana 4,600 2017 est.
141  Sudan 4,600 2017 est.
142  Mauritania 4,500 2017 est.
 Palestine, State of 4,300 2014 est.
143  Bangladesh 4,200 2017 est.
144  Cambodia 4,000 2017 est.
145  Zambia 4,000 2017 est.
146  Lesotho 3,900 2017 est.
147  Côte d'Ivoire 3,900 2017 est.
148  Tuvalu 3,800 2017 est.
149  Papua New Guinea 3,800 2017 est.
 Wallis and Futuna 3,800 2004 est.
150  Kyrgyzstan 3,700 2017 est.
151  Djibouti 3,600 2017 est.
152  Kenya 3,500 2017 est.
153  Cameroon 3,400 2017 est.
154  Marshall Islands 3,400 2017 est.
155  Micronesia, Federated States of 3,400 2017 est.
156  Tanzania 3,300 2017 est.
157  São Tomé and Príncipe 3,200 2017 est.
158  Tajikistan 3,100 2017 est.
159  Syria 2,900 2015 est.
160  Vanuatu 2,800 2017 est.
161    Nepal 2,700 2017 est.
162  Senegal 2,700 2017 est.
 Western Sahara 2,500 2007 est.
163  Chad 2,400 2017 est.
164  Uganda 2,400 2017 est.
165  Zimbabwe 2,300 2017 est.
166  Yemen 2,300 2017 est.
167  Mali 2,200 2017 est.
168  Benin 2,200 2017 est.
169  Rwanda 2,100 2017 est.
170  Ethiopia 2,100 2017 est.
171  Solomon Islands 2,100 2017 est.
172  Guinea 2,000 2017 est.
173  Burkina Faso 1,900 2017 est.
174  Kiribati 1,900 2017 est.
175  Afghanistan 1,900 2017 est.
176  Sierra Leone 1,800 2017 est.
177  Guinea-Bissau 1,800 2017 est.
178  Haiti 1,800 2017 est.
179  Korea, North 1,700 2015 est.
180  Gambia, The 1,700 2017 est.
181  Togo 1,600 2017 est.
182  Madagascar 1,600 2017 est.
183  Comoros 1,600 2017 est.
184  South Sudan 1,500 2017 est.
185  Eritrea 1,400 2017 est.
186  Mozambique 1,300 2017 est.
187  Niger 1,200 2017 est.
188  Malawi 1,200 2017 est.
 Tokelau 1,000 1993 est.
189  Liberia 900 2017 est.
190  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 800 2017 est.
191  Burundi 800 2017 est.
192  Central African Republic 700 2017 est.
193  Somalia N/A 2017 est.

Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in Oil & Gas reserves tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.[9] It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists).[10] An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global FDI flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.[11]

A stunning $12 trillion—almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 percent of the world’s investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.

— "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[11]

In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens.

Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its own economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.

— Brad Setser, Council on Foreign Relations, "Ireland exports its Leprechaun", 25 April 2018[12]

The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.

— Patrick Honohan, ex-Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland, 13 July 2016[13]

A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016–2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):

International Monetary Fund (2017) World Bank (2016)[6][7]
Rank Country/Territory Type
1  Qatar Oil & Gas
 Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
2  Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3  Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4  Brunei Oil & Gas
5  Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
6  Norway Oil & Gas
7  Kuwait Oil & Gas
8  United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
9   Switzerland Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
 Hong Kong Top 10 Tax Haven (Sink OFC)
10  San Marino Tax haven (Sink OFC)
11  United States 59,495
12  Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
13  Netherlands Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
14  Iceland 52,150
15  Bahrain Oil & Gas
Rank Country/Territory Type
1  Qatar Oil & Gas
2  Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
 Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3  Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4  Brunei Oil & Gas
5  United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
6  Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
7   Switzerland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
8  Norway Oil & Gas
 Hong Kong Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
9  United States 57,467
10  Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
11  Iceland 51,399
12  Netherlands Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
13  Austria 50,078
14  Denmark 49,496
15  Sweden 49,175

See also

Notes

  1. ^ There have been no exclusive estimate for world average by IMF. For calculating 2019 data, total GDP estimate by IMF[1] have been divided by total population estimates by United Nations Population Prospects.[2]
  2. ^ There have been no exclusive estimate for world average by IMF. For calculating 2019 data, total GDP estimate by IMF[1] have been divided by total population estimates by United Nations Population Prospects.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database, 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  2. ^ a b ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  3. ^ "Sarkozy attacks focus on economic growth (French president urges more emphasis on quality of life)", The Guardian, 14-09-2009.
  4. ^ "Alternative progress indicators to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a means towards sustainable development"
  5. ^ "World Economic Outlook - GDP per capita". International Monetary Fund. October 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  6. ^ a b "PPP (current international $)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  7. ^ a b "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  8. ^ GDP – per capita (PPP), The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 7 March 2014.
  9. ^ "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018.
  10. ^ Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R., Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?" (PDF). Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9–10): 1058–1068. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005. The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries which have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
  11. ^ a b "Piercing the Veil, FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT, JUNE 2018, VOL. 55, NO. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
  12. ^ "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018.
  13. ^ "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016.