# List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

Countries or territories by GDP (PPP) per capita in 2022.
Source: IMF DataMapper

A country's gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita is the PPP value of all final goods and services produced within an economy in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year. This is similar to nominal GDP per capita, but adjusted for the cost of living in each country.

In 2019, the estimated average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world was Int\$ 18,381.[a] For rankings regarding wealth, see list of countries by wealth per adult.

## Method

The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the IMF and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.

Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made on the basis of nominal GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards between economies because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income.

This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,[3][4] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (See Standard of living and GDP.)

GDP (PPP) and GDP (PPP) per capita are usually measured by international dollar, which is a hypothetical currency that has the same purchasing power in every economy as the U.S. dollar in the United States.

## Table

All figures are in current international dollars, and rounded to the nearest whole number.

The table initially ranks each country or territory with their latest available year's estimates, and can be reranked by either of the sources

* Nearly all country links in the table connect to articles titled "Income in (country or territory)" or to "Economy of (country or territory)".

GDP per capita (current international dollar) by country or  territory or non IMF members
Country/Territory UN Region IMF[5][6] World Bank[7] CIA[8][9][10]
Estimate Year Estimate Year Estimate Year
Luxembourg * Europe 141,587 2022 134,754 2021 110,300 2020
Liechtenstein * Europe 139,100 2009
Singapore * Asia 131,426 2022 116,487 2021 93,400 2020
Ireland * Europe 131,034 2022 106,456 2021 89,700 2020
Monaco * Europe 115,700 2015
Qatar * Asia 113,675 2022 93,521 2021 85,300 2020
Bermuda * Americas 85,192 2021 81,800 2019
Isle of Man * Europe 84,600 2014
Switzerland * Europe 84,469 2022 77,324 2021 68,400 2020
Norway * Europe 78,128 2022 79,201 2021 63,600 2020
United Arab Emirates * Asia 77,272 2022 66,766 2020 67,100 2019
United States * Americas 75,180 2022 69,288 2021 60,200 2020
Brunei * Asia 74,196 2022 66,620 2021 62,200 2020
Cayman Islands * Americas 72,481 2020 73,600 2019
San Marino * Europe 72,070 2022 59,572 2020 60,800 2019
Falkland Islands * Americas 70,800 2015
Hong Kong * Asia 69,987 2022 65,973 2021 56,200 2020
Denmark * Europe 69,845 2022 64,651 2021 55,900 2020
Netherlands * Europe 69,715 2022 63,767 2021 54,200 2020
Taiwan * Asia 69,500 2022 24,502 2018
Austria * Europe 66,680 2022 58,428 2021 51,900 2020
Iceland * Europe 66,467 2022 57,646 2021 52,300 2020
Andorra * Europe 65,372 2022 49,900 2015
Sweden * Europe 63,877 2022 59,324 2021 50,700 2020
Germany * Europe 63,835 2022 57,928 2021 50,900 2020
Australia * Oceania 62,192 2022 55,807 2021 48,700 2020
Belgium * Europe 62,065 2022 58,931 2021 48,200 2020
Gibraltar * Europe 61,700 2014
Finland * Europe 58,659 2022 55,007 2021 47,300 2020
Macau * Asia 57,929 2022 73,802 2021 54,800 2020
Bahrain * Asia 57,921 2022 45,411 2021 40,900 2020
Canada * Americas 57,827 2022 52,085 2021 45,900 2020
Jersey * Europe 56,600 2016
Malta * Europe 56,338 2022 47,715 2021 39,200 2020
France * Europe 56,200 2022 50,729 2021 42,000 2020
United Kingdom * Europe 55,862 2022 49,675 2021 41,600 2020
Saudi Arabia * Asia 55,802 2022 49,551 2021 44,300 2020
European Union *[n 1] Europe 53,960 2022 48,436 2021 44,436 2019
South Korea * Asia 53,574 2022 46,919 2021 42,300 2020
Guernsey * Europe 52,500 2014
Israel * Asia 52,173 2022 43,722 2021 38,300 2020
Kuwait * Asia 51,528 2022 47,303 2020 49,900 2019
Italy * Europe 51,062 2022 45,936 2021 39,000 2020
New Zealand * Oceania 50,851 2022 46,420 2021 42,400 2020
Slovenia * Europe 49,968 2022 43,625 2021 36,500 2020
Cyprus * Europe 49,504 [n 2]2022 42,556 [n 2]2021 37,700 [n 2]2020
Czech Republic * Europe 48,919 2022 44,261 2021 38,300 2020
Japan * Asia 48,813 2022 42,940 2021 41,400 2019
Spain * Europe 46,551 2022 40,775 2021 36,200 2020
Aruba * Americas 46,309 2022 31,183 2020 37,500 2017
Saint Pierre and Miquelon * Americas 46,200 2006
Lithuania * Europe 46,159 2022 42,665 2021 36,700 2020
Estonia * Europe 46,126 2022 42,192 2021 35,600 2020
Puerto Rico * Americas 43,820 2022 34,334 2020 33,400 2020
Guyana * Americas 42,647 2022 24,494 2021 18,700 2020
Poland * Europe 42,466 2022 37,503 2021 32,200 2020
Hungary * Europe 42,132 2022 36,753 2021 31,000 2020
Portugal * Europe 42,067 2022 35,888 2021 32,200 2020
Greenland * Americas 41,800 2015
Oman * Asia 41,150 2022 31,118 2020 27,300 2019
Faroe Islands * Europe 40,000 2014
Bahamas * Americas 39,785 2022 34,108 2021 30,800 2020
Turkey * Asia 38,759 2022 30,472 2021 28,400 2020
Slovakia * Europe 38,620 2022 33,010 2021 30,300 2020
Latvia * Europe 38,124 2022 34,469 2021 29,900 2020
Romania * Europe 38,097 2022 35,414 2021 28,800 2020
Seychelles * Africa 37,661 2022 29,838 2021 24,400 2020
Croatia * Europe 37,550 2022 33,801 2021 26,500 2020
U.S. Virgin Islands * Americas 37,000 2016
Greece * Europe 36,466 2022 31,295 2021 27,300 2020
Panama * Americas 36,370 2022 31,680 2021 25,400 2020
Sint Maarten (Dutch part) * Americas 35,973 2018 35,300 2018
Guam * Oceania 35,600 2016
British Virgin Islands * Americas 34,200 2017
Montserrat * Americas 34,000 2011
Malaysia * Asia 33,113 2022 29,617 2021 26,400 2020
Russia * Europe 31,967 2022 32,803 2021 26,500 2020
New Caledonia * Oceania 31,100 2015
Maldives * Asia 30,888 2022 18,232 2021 13,000 2020
Kazakhstan * Asia 30,827 2022 28,600 2021 25,300 2020
Trinidad and Tobago * Americas 29,797 2022 26,868 2021 23,700 2020
Bulgaria * Europe 29,178 2022 26,705 2021 22,400 2020
Chile * Americas 28,887 2022 29,104 2021 23,300 2020
Saint Kitts and Nevis * Americas 27,782 2022 26,256 2021 23,300 2020
Uruguay * Americas 27,233 2022 24,626 2021 21,600 2020
Argentina * Americas 26,074 2022 23,627 2021 19,700 2020
Montenegro * Europe 26,032 2022 22,795 2021 18,300 2020
Mauritius * Africa 25,372 2022 22,240 2021 19,500 2020
Costa Rica * Americas 24,837 2022 23,387 2021 19,700 2020
Northern Mariana Islands * Oceania 24,500 2016
Dominican Republic * Americas 24,120 2022 20,769 2021 17,000 2020
Serbia * Europe 24,084 2022 21,432 2021 18,200 2020
Turks and Caicos Islands * Americas 23,391 2021 21,100 2020
Mexico * Americas 22,440 2022 20,037 2021 17,900 2020
Antigua and Barbuda * Americas 22,070 2022 19,838 2021 18,000 2020
Belarus * Europe 21,709 2022 21,699 2021 19,100 2020
China * Asia 21,291 [n 3]2022 19,338 [n 4]2021 16,400 [n 3]2020
Thailand * Asia 21,114 2022 19,210 2021 17,300 2020
Curaçao * Americas 20,681 2020 24,500 2019
World 20,181 [i]2022 18,722 2021 17,500 2017
Georgia * Europe 19,789 [n 5]2022 16,997 [n 5]2021 14,100 [n 5]2020
North Macedonia * Europe 19,783 2022 17,918 2021 15,800 2020
Equatorial Guinea * Africa 19,433 2022 18,127 2021 17,000 2020
Saint Martin (French part) * Americas 19,300 2005
Botswana * Africa 19,199 2022 17,604 2021 16,000 2020
Libya * Africa 18,945 2022 23,357 2021 10,300 2020
Turkmenistan * Asia 18,875 2022 16,194 2019 15,500 2019
Colombia * Americas 18,693 2022 16,894 2021 13,400 2020
Iran * Asia 18,663 2022 15,791 2020 12,400 2020
Grenada * Americas 18,436 2022 16,680 2021 15,100 2020
Gabon * Africa 18,088 2022 15,598 2021 14,400 2020
Bosnia and Herzegovina * Europe 17,899 2022 16,847 2021 14,300 2020
Albania * Europe 17,858 2022 15,646 2021 13,300 2020
Brazil * Americas 17,684 2022 16,056 2021 14,100 2020
Azerbaijan * Asia 17,448 2022 15,843 2021 13,700 2020
Suriname * Americas 17,350 2022 16,676 2021 16,100 2020
Barbados * Americas 17,314 2022 14,817 2021 12,900 2020
French Polynesia * Oceania 17,000 2015
Armenia * Asia 16,798 2022 14,630 2021 12,600 2020
Cook Islands * Oceania 16,700 2016
Moldova * Europe 16,483 [n 6]2022 15,637 [n 6]2021 12,300 [n 6]2020
Saint Lucia * Americas 16,417 2022 14,051 2021 12,300 2020
Egypt * Africa 15,959 2022 13,316 2021 12,000 2020
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Americas 15,786 2022 14,021 2021 12,100 2020
South Africa * Africa 15,556 2022 14,420 2021 11,500 2020
Peru * Americas 15,273 2022 13,895 2021 11,300 2020
Indonesia * Asia 14,638 2022 12,904 2021 11,400 2020
Paraguay * Americas 14,528 2022 13,976 2021 12,300 2020
Kosovo * Europe 14,352 2022 12,721 2021 10,800 2020
Ukraine * Europe 14,326 [n 7]2021 14,220 [n 7]2021 12,400 [n 7]2020
Sri Lanka * Asia 14,230 2022 14,127 2021 12,500 2020
Fiji * Oceania 13,944 2022 12,060 2021 11,000 2020
Mongolia * Asia 13,611 2022 12,863 2021 11,500 2020
Algeria * Africa 13,324 2022 12,038 2021 10,700 2020
Palau * Oceania 13,215 2022 16,319 2020 17,600 2019
Bhutan * Asia 13,077 2022 11,129 2020 10,900 2020
Vietnam * Asia 13,075 2022 11,553 2021 8,200 2020
Dominica * Americas 13,030 2022 11,974 2021 9,900 2020
Ecuador * Americas 12,763 2022 11,661 2021 10,300 2020
Tunisia * Africa 12,490 2022 11,595 2021 9,700 2020
Iraq * Asia 12,408 2022 10,409 2021 9,300 2020
Cuba * Americas 12,300 2016
Anguilla * Americas 12,200 2008
Jordan * Asia 11,975 2022 10,952 2021 9,800 2020
Jamaica * Americas 11,962 2022 10,026 2021 8,700 2020
Lebanon * Asia 11,377 2020 10,691 2021 11,600 2020
American Samoa * Oceania 11,200 2016
Eswatini * Africa 11,054 2022 9,816 2021 8,400 2020
Nauru * Oceania 10,834 2022 15,103 2021 13,500 2019
Namibia * Africa 10,791 2022 9,805 2021 8,900 2020
El Salvador * Americas 10,576 2022 9,669 2021 8,100 2020
Philippines * Asia 10,344 2022 9,120 2021 8,000 2020
Bolivia * Americas 9,933 2022 9,030 2021 7,900 2020
Guatemala * Americas 9,931 2022 9,769 2021 8,400 2020
Morocco * Africa 9,808 2022 8,144 2021 6,900 [n 8]2020
Belize * Americas 9,623 2022 6,922 2021 6,100 2020
Uzbekistan * Asia 9,478 2022 8,497 2021 7,000 2020
Laos * Asia 9,166 2022 8,674 2021 7,800 2020
Cape Verde * Africa 8,460 [n 9]2022 7,028 [n 9]2021 6,000 [n 9]2020
India * Asia 8,293 2022 7,334 2021 6,100 2020
Bangladesh * Asia 7,985 2022 6,613 2021 4,800 2020
Saint Helena, Ascension and
Tristan da Cunha
Africa 7,800 2010
Angola * Africa 7,455 2022 6,581 2021 6,200 2020
Nicaragua * Americas 7,154 2022 6,332 2021 5,300 2020
Venezuela * Americas 7,108 2022 17,528 2011 7,704 2018
Mauritania * Africa 6,925 2022 5,592 2021 5,000 2020
Ghana * Africa 6,780 2022 6,178 2021 5,300 2020
Honduras * Americas 6,769 2022 6,253 2021 5,100 2020
Tonga * Oceania 6,663 2022 6,694 2020 6,400 2019
Pakistan * Asia 6,662 2022 5,878 2021 4,600 2020
Djibouti * Africa 6,514 2022 5,926 2021 5,500 2020
Ivory Coast * Africa 6,397 2022 5,940 2021 5,200 2020
Palestine * Asia 6,354 [n 10]2022 6,200 [n 10]2021 5,400
6,220
[n 11]2020
2019
Kenya * Africa 6,122 2022 5,024 2021 4,200 2020
Tokelau * Oceania 6,004 2017
Nigeria * Africa 5,884 2022 5,459 2021 4,900 2020
Samoa * Oceania 5,882 2022 6,420 2021 6,300 2020
Tuvalu * Oceania 5,844 2022 5,082 2021 4,400 2020
Niue * Oceania 5,800 2003
Kyrgyzstan * Asia 5,771 2022 5,288 2021 4,700 2020
Cambodia * Asia 5,583 2022 4,683 2021 4,200 2020
Myanmar * Asia 4,830 2022 4,345 2021 4,500 [n 12]2020
Tajikistan * Asia 4,803 2022 4,288 2021 3,700 2020
São Tomé and Príncipe * Africa 4,710 2022 4,446 2021 4,100 2020
Congo * Africa 4,682 2022 3,617 2021 3,400 2020
Nepal * Asia 4,677 2022 4,261 2021 3,800 2020
Sudan * Africa 4,450 2022 4,217 2021 4,000 2020
Cameroon * Africa 4,419 2022 4,065 2021 3,600 2020
Marshall Islands * Oceania 4,395 2022 4,182 2021 4,000 2019
Papua New Guinea * Oceania 4,271 2022 4,445 2021 4,100 2020
Benin * Africa 4,183 2022 3,789 2021 3,300 2020
Senegal * Africa 4,113 2022 3,769 2021 3,300 2020
East Timor * Asia 3,904 2022 4,418 2021 3,200 2020
Zambia * Africa 3,808 2022 3,624 2021 3,300 2020
Wallis and Futuna * Oceania 3,800 2004
Micronesia * Oceania 3,675 2022 3,544 2021 3,500 2019
Ethiopia * Africa 3,434 2022 2,600 2021 2,300 2020
Tanzania * Africa 3,374 2022 2,933 2021 2,600 2020
Comoros * Africa 3,364 2022 3,284 2021 3,100 2020
Haiti * Americas 3,166 2022 3,127 2021 2,800 2020
Lesotho * Africa 3,028 2022 2,682 2021 2,300 2020
Uganda * Africa 3,018 2022 2,398 2021 2,200 2020
Guinea * Africa 2,993 2022 2,879 2021 2,700 2020
Syria * Asia 6,374 [11]2010 2,900 2015
Vanuatu * Oceania 2,858 2022 3,105 2021 2,800 2020
Guinea-Bissau * Africa 2,851 2022 2,057 2021 1,800 2020
Rwanda * Africa 2,836 2022 2,494 2021 2,100 2020
Burkina Faso * Africa 2,656 2022 2,462 2021 2,200 2020
Gambia Africa 2,640 2022 2,434 2021 2,200 2020
Togo * Africa 2,619 2022 2,380 2021 2,100 2020
Mali * Africa 2,609 2022 2,447 2021 2,200 2020
Zimbabwe * Africa 2,555 2022 2,445 2021 2,700 2020
Afghanistan * Asia 2,456 2020 2,079 2020 2,000 2020
Solomon Islands * Oceania 2,336 2022 2,656 2021 2,500 2020
Kiribati * Oceania 2,165 2022 2,172 2020 2,300 2020
Yemen * Asia 2,136 2022 3,689 2013 2,500 2017
Eritrea * Africa 2,078 2022 1,626 2011 1,600 2017
Sierra Leone * Africa 1,972 2022 1,816 2021 1,600 2020
Madagascar * Africa 1,790 2022 1,635 2021 1,500 2020
Chad * Africa 1,719 2022 1,591 2021 1,500 2020
North Korea * Asia 1,700 2015
Liberia * Africa 1,667 2022 1,553 2021 1,400 2020
Malawi * Africa 1,588 2022 1,658 2021 1,500 2020
Mozambique * Africa 1,457 2022 1,342 2021 1,200 2020
Niger * Africa 1,443 2022 1,310 2021 1,200 2020
DR Congo * Africa 1,328 2022 1,219 2021 1,100 2020
Somalia * Africa 1,322 2022 1,303 2021 800 2020
Central African Republic * Africa 1,088 2022 1,021 2021 900 2020
South Sudan * Africa 934 2022 1,235 2015 1,600 2017
Burundi * Africa 865 2022 793 2021 700 2020

### Footnotes

1. ^ There is no explicit "GDP (PPP) per capita" estimate provided by the IMF. For this figure, the GDP (PPP) world value[6] has been divided by the total population acc to the UN.[12]
1. ^ The EU is included because it is much more than a free-trade association like ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur. -- See: "The World Factbook". CIA. 2014. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 17 November 2022. Although the EU is not a federation in the strict sense, it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur, and it has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, currency (for some members), and law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with external partners. Thus, inclusion of basic intelligence on the EU has been deemed appropriate as a new, separate entity in The World Factbook. -- However, because the EU is an organization and not a sovereign state, it does not receive a ranking in this list.
2. ^ a b c Data is for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
3. ^ a b IMF and CIA figures exclude Taiwan and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
4. ^ World Bank figures exclude the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
5. ^ a b c Excludes data for Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
6. ^ a b c Excludes data for Transnistria.
7. ^ a b c Figures exclude the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol.
8. ^ Includes Western Sahara.
9. ^ a b c Referred to as "Cabo Verde".
10. ^ a b Referred to as "West Bank and Gaza" in the IMF and World Bank reports.
11. ^ CIA registers 2 separate entries for Palestine: "West Bank" and "Gaza Strip". Figures for West Bank include the Gaza Strip -- see "The World Factbook - West Bank". CIA.gov. 15 November 2022.
12. ^ Referred to as "Burma".

## Expanding the coverage of illegal economic activities in euro area national accounts

The share of the shadow economy is significant in many European countries, ranging from less than 10 to over 40 percent of GDP.[13] Since 2014, EU member states have been encouraged by Eurostat, the official statistics body, to include some illegal activities.[14][15][16]

## Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in Oil & Gas reserves tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.[17] It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists).[18] An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global foreign direct investment flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.[19]

A stunning \$12 trillion—almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 percent of the world’s investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.

— "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[19]

In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens.

Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its own economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.

— Brad Setser, Council on Foreign Relations, "Ireland exports its Leprechaun", 25 April 2018[20]

The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.

— Patrick Honohan, ex-Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland, 13 July 2016[21]

A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016 to 2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):

International Monetary Fund (2017) World Bank (2016)[22][23]
Rank Country/Territory Type
1  Qatar Oil & Gas
Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
2  Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3  Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4  Brunei Oil & Gas
5  Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
6  Norway Oil & Gas
7  Kuwait Oil & Gas
8  United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
9  Switzerland Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
Hong Kong Top 10 Tax Haven (Sink OFC)
10  San Marino Tax haven (Sink OFC)
11  United States 59,495
12  Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
13  Netherlands Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
14  Iceland 52,150
15  Bahrain Oil & Gas
Rank Country/Territory Type
1  Qatar Oil & Gas
2  Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3  Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4  Brunei Oil & Gas
5  United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
6  Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
7  Switzerland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
8  Norway Oil & Gas
Hong Kong Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
9  United States 57,467
10  Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
11  Iceland 51,399
12  Netherlands Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
13  Austria 50,078
14  Denmark 49,496
15  Sweden 49,175

## Notes

1. ^ There have been no exclusive estimates for world average by the IMF. For calculating 2019 data, the total GDP estimate by IMF[1] has been divided by the total population estimate by United Nations Population Prospects.[2]

## References

1. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
2. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
3. ^
4. ^
5. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2022". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 11 October 2022. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
6. ^ a b "WEO Database, October 2022. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: World, European Union". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 11 October 2022. Retrieved 17 November 2022.
7. ^ "GDP per capita, PPP (current international \$)". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
8. ^ Real GDP per capita, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 19 October 2022.
9. ^ "The World Factbook - European Union". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
10. ^ "The World Factbook - World". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
11. ^ "WEO Database, October 2022. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: Syria". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 11 October 2022. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
12. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022: Summary of Results" (PDF). UN.org. United Nations. pp. 9(i). Retrieved 16 November 2022. The world’s population is projected to reach 8 billion on 15 November 2022.
13. ^ "Explaining the Shadow Economy in Europe: Size, Causes and Policy Options". International Monetary Fund. November 2019.
14. ^ "Sizing Up Black Markets and Red-Light Districts for G.D.P." The New York Times. 9 July 2014.
15. ^ "GDP to include illegal activity". Financier Worldwide Magazine. August 2014.
16. ^
17. ^ "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018.
18. ^ Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R. Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?" (PDF). Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9–10): 1058–1068. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005. S2CID 16653726. The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries which have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
19. ^ a b "Piercing the Veil, FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT, JUNE 2018, VOL. 55, NO. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
20. ^ "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018.
21. ^ "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016.
22. ^ "PPP (current international \$)". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
23. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.