Page semi-protected

List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Countries or territories by GDP (nominal) per capita in 2022.
  >$60,000
  $50,000 - $60,000
  $40,000 - $50,000
  $30,000 - $40,000
  $20,000 - $30,000
  $10,000 - $20,000
  $5,000 - $10,000
  $2,500 - $5,000
  $1,000 - $2,500
  $500 - $1,000
  <$500
  No data

The figures presented here do not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency. Such fluctuations change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference to the standard of living of its population.

Therefore, these figures should be used with caution. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living;[1][2] however, this is inaccurate because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income.

Comparisons of national income are also frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. (See List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita.) PPP largely removes the exchange rate problem but not others; it does not reflect the value of economic output in international trade, and it also requires more estimation than GDP per capita. On the whole, PPP per capita figures are more narrowly spread than nominal GDP per capita figures.

Non-sovereign entities (the world, continents, and some dependent territories) and states with limited international recognition (such as Kosovo, Palestine, and Taiwan) are included in the list in cases in which they appear in the sources. These economies are not ranked in the charts here, but are listed in sequence by GDP for comparison. In addition, non-sovereign entities are marked in italics.

Note that several leading GDP-per-capita (nominal) jurisdictions may be considered tax havens, and their GDP data subject to material distortion by tax planning activities. Examples include Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, and Luxembourg.[3]

All data are in current United States dollars. Historical data can be found here.

Table

The table initially ranks each country or territory with their latest available estimates, and can be reranked by either of the sources

* Nearly all country links in the table (Except that of Zanzibar) take to articles titled "Income in country or territory" or to "Economy of country or territory".

GDP (in US$) per capita by country or  territory or non IMF members 
Country/Territory UN Region IMF[4][5] World Bank[6] United Nations[7]
Estimate Year Estimate Year Estimate Year








 Liechtenstein * Europe 169,049 2019 180,227 2020
 Monaco * Europe 173,688 2020 173,696 2020
 Luxembourg * Europe 127,673 2022 135,683 2021 117,182 2020
 Bermuda * Americas 110,870 2021 123,945 2020
 Ireland * Europe 102,217 2022 99,152 2021 86,251 2020
 Norway * Europe 92,646 2022 89,203 2021 66,871 2020
 Switzerland * Europe 92,434 2022 93,457 2021 86,919 2020
 Isle of Man * Europe 86,482 2019
 Cayman Islands * Americas 85,347 2021 95,191 2020
 Qatar * Asia 82,887 2022 61,276 2021 50,815 2020
 Singapore * Asia 79,426 2022 72,794 2021 58,114 2020
 United States * Americas 75,180 2022 69,288 2021 63,123 2020
 Channel Islands * Europe 74,463 2007
 Iceland * Europe 73,981 2022 68,384 2021 63,644 2020
 Australia * Oceania 66,408 2022 59,934 2021 55,823 2020
 Faroe Islands * Europe 66,321 2020
 Denmark * Europe 65,713 2022 67,803 2021 61,477 2020
 Canada * Americas 56,794 2022 52,051 2021 43,560 2020
 Sweden * Europe 56,361 2022 60,239 2021 53,575 2020
 Netherlands * Europe 56,298 2022 58,061 2021 53,334 2020
 Israel * Asia 55,359 2022 51,430 2021 47,034 2020
 Greenland * Americas 54,570 2020 55,139 2020
 Austria * Europe 52,062 2022 53,268 2021 48,106 2020
 Finland * Europe 50,818 2022 53,983 2021 48,685 2020
 Belgium * Europe 50,598 2022 51,768 2021 45,028 2020
 Hong Kong * Asia 49,700 2022 49,661 2021 46,611 2020
 British Virgin Islands * Americas 49,357 2020
 Germany * Europe 48,398 2022 50,802 2021 45,909 2020
 United Arab Emirates * Asia 47,793 2022 36,285 2020 36,285 2020
 San Marino * Europe 47,700 2022 45,516 2020 45,832 2020
 United Kingdom * Europe 47,318 2022 47,334 2021 40,718 2020
 New Zealand * Oceania 47,278 2022 48,802 2021 43,972 2020
 Brunei * Asia 42,939 2022 31,723 2021 27,437 2020
 France * Europe 42,330 2022 43,519 2021 38,959 2020
 Andorra * Europe 40,723 2022 43,048 2021 37,072 2020
 U.S. Virgin Islands * Americas 39,552 2020
 Puerto Rico * Americas 38,443 2022 31,430 2020 36,052 2020
 Kuwait * Asia 38,123 2022 24,812 2020 24,809 2020
 European Union *[n 1] Europe 37,280 2022 38,234 2021 35,485 [8]2020
 Taiwan * Asia 35,513 2022 28,383 [9][10]2020
 New Caledonia * Oceania 34,695 2020 34,006 2020
 Guam * Oceania 34,624 2020
 Japan * Asia 34,358 2022 39,285 2021 39,990 2020
 Italy * Europe 33,740 2022 35,551 2021 31,238 2020
 Macau * Asia 33,608 2022 45,422 2021 37,474 2020
 South Korea * Asia 33,592 2022 34,758 2021 31,947 2020
 Malta * Europe 32,912 2022 33,257 2021 33,771 2020
 Bahamas * Americas 32,246 2022 28,239 2021 25,194 2020
 Aruba * Americas 31,990 2022 23,384 2020 23,386 2020
 Cyprus * Asia 29,535 [n 2]2022 30,799 [n 2]2021 28,133 [n 2]2020
 Slovenia * Europe 29,469 2022 29,201 2021 25,777 2020
 Estonia * Europe 29,344 2022 27,281 2021 23,106 2020
 Spain * Europe 29,198 2022 30,116 2021 27,409 2020
 Bahrain * Asia 28,692 2022 22,232 2021 19,925 2020
 Czech Republic * Europe 28,095 2022 26,379 2021 22,911 2020
 Saudi Arabia * Asia 27,941 2022 23,586 2021 20,110 2020
 Portugal * Europe 24,910 2022 24,262 2021 22,413 2020
 Turks and Caicos Islands * Americas 24,047 2021 23,881 2020
 Lithuania * Europe 24,032 2022 23,433 2021 20,772 2020
 Oman * Asia 23,542 2022 16,439 2021 12,409 2020
 Iran * Asia 23,034 [n 3]2022 2,757 2020 11,183 2020
 Latvia * Europe 21,482 2022 20,642 2021 17,871 2020
 Saint Martin (French part) * Americas 21,459 2014
 Greece * Europe 20,876 2022 20,277 2021 18,117 2020
 Trinidad and Tobago * Americas 20,746 2022 15,243 2021 15,286 2020
 Northern Mariana Islands * Oceania 20,660 2019
 Slovakia * Europe 20,565 2022 21,088 2021 19,264 2020
 Seychelles * Africa 20,266 2022 13,307 2021 10,767 2020
 French Polynesia * Oceania 20,183 2020 20,707 2020
 Uruguay * Americas 20,018 2022 17,021 2021 15,438 2020
 Barbados * Americas 20,004 2022 17,034 2021 15,449 2020
 Sint Maarten (Dutch part) * Americas 28,988 2018 20,000 2020
 Saint Kitts and Nevis * Americas 19,129 2022 18,230 2021 17,434 2020
 Poland * Europe 19,023 2022 17,841 2021 15,764 2020
 Hungary * Europe 18,983 2022 18,773 2021 16,129 2020
 Guyana * Americas 18,745 2022 9,375 2021 6,956 2020
 Croatia * Europe 17,318 2022 17,399 2021 13,934 2020
 Anguilla * Americas 17,226 2020
 Antigua and Barbuda * Americas 16,787 2022 14,901 2021 13,993 2020
 Panama * Americas 16,173 2022 14,517 2021 12,269 2020
 Cook Islands * Oceania 16,135 2020
 Curaçao * Americas 16,110 2021 15,819 2020
 Romania * Europe 15,619 2022 14,862 2021 12,929 2020
 Chile * Americas 15,604 2022 16,503 2021 13,232 2020
 Maldives * Asia 15,097 2022 8,995 2021 6,924 2020
 Russia * Europe 14,665 2022 12,173 2021 10,166 2020
 Argentina * Americas 13,622 2022 10,729 2021 8,476 2020
 Montserrat * Americas 13,523 2020
 World 13,400 2022 12,263 2021 10,949 2020
 Malaysia * Asia 13,108 2022 11,371 2021 10,402 2020
 Costa Rica * Americas 13,090 2022 12,509 2021 12,077 2020
 China * Asia 12,970 [n 4]2022 12,556 [n 5]2021 10,229 [n 4]2020
 American Samoa * Oceania 12,845 2020
 Palau * Oceania 12,663 2022 14,244 2021 14,567 2020
 Bulgaria * Europe 12,505 2022 11,635 2021 10,058 2020
 Turkmenistan * Asia 11,929 2022 7,612 2019 7,104 2020
 Kazakhstan * Asia 11,591 2022 10,042 2021 9,111 2020
 Equatorial Guinea * Africa 11,264 2022 8,462 2021 7,143 2020
 Mexico * Americas 10,948 2022 9,926 2021 8,326 2020
 Saint Lucia * Americas 10,763 2022 9,571 2021 8,805 2020
 Dominican Republic * Americas 10,573 2022 8,604 2021 7,268 2020
 Grenada * Americas 10,477 2022 9,929 2021 9,273 2020
 Gabon * Africa 10,282 2022 8,017 2021 6,789 2020
 Nauru * Oceania 10,005 2022 12,252 2021 12,510 2020
 Turkey * Asia 9,961 2022 9,587 2021 8,538 2020
 Montenegro * Europe 9,850 2022 9,367 2021 7,626 2020
 Cuba * Americas 9,478 2020 9,478 2020
 Serbia * Europe 9,164 2022 9,215 2021 7,656 2020
 Mauritius * Africa 9,112 2022 8,812 2021 8,587 2020
 Brazil * Americas 8,857 2022 7,519 2021 6,797 2020
 Belarus * Europe 8,567 2022 7,304 2021 6,377 2020
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Americas 8,546 2022 7,997 2021 7,298 2020
 Dominica * Americas 8,086 2022 7,560 2021 7,038 2020
 Thailand * Asia 7,631 2022 7,233 2021 7,189 2020
 Botswana * Africa 7,348 2022 7,348 2021 6,711 2020
 Peru * Americas 7,005 2022 6,692 2021 6,163 2020
 Azerbaijan * Europe 6,842 2022 5,384 2021 4,202 2020
 Bosnia and Herzegovina * Europe 6,818 2022 6,916 2021 6,035 2020
 North Macedonia * Europe 6,816 2022 6,721 2021 5,886 2020
 Georgia * Europe 6,770 [n 6]2022 5,042 [n 6]2021 3,984 [n 6]2020
 South Africa * Africa 6,739 2022 6,994 2021 5,094 2020
 Iraq * Asia 6,696 2022 5,048 2021 4,146 2020
 Colombia * Americas 6,644 2022 6,131 2021 5,333 2020
 Ecuador * Americas 6,413 2022 5,935 2021 5,600 2020
 Albania * Europe 6,369 2022 6,494 2021 5,181 2020
 Belize * Americas 6,096 2022 4,421 2021 3,988 2020
 Libya * Africa 6,026 2022 6,018 2021 4,243 2020
 Armenia * Europe 5,972 2022 4,670 2021 4,266 2020
 Tuvalu * Oceania 5,900 2022 5,292 2021 4,648 2020
 Jamaica * Americas 5,870 2022 4,587 2021 4,665 2020
 Paraguay * Americas 5,615 2022 5,400 2021 4,950 2020
 Moldova * Europe 5,529 [n 7]2022 5,315 [n 7]2021 2,954 [n 7]2020
 Fiji * Oceania 5,341 2022 5,086 2021 5,013 2020
 Kosovo * Europe 5,230 2022 4,987 2021 4,368 2020
 Tonga * Oceania 5,008 2022 4,625 2020 4,646 2020
 El Salvador * Americas 4,883 2022 4,409 2021 3,799 2020
 Guatemala * Americas 4,880 2022 5,026 2021 4,332 2020
 Suriname * Americas 4,880 2022 4,836 2021 7,023 2020
 Ukraine * Europe 4,862 [n 8]2021 4,836 [n 8]2021 3,557 [n 8]2020
 Marshall Islands * Oceania 4,859 2022 4,171 2021 4,130 2020
 Namibia * Africa 4,809 2022 4,729 2021 4,215 2020
 Indonesia * Asia 4,691 2022 4,292 2021 3,870 2020
 Jordan * Asia 4,666 2022 4,406 2021 4,283 2020
 Mongolia * Asia 4,542 2022 4,535 2021 4,007 2020
 Egypt * Africa 4,504 2022 3,876 2021 3,609 2020
 Vietnam * Asia 4,163 2022 3,694 2021 2,786 2020
 Algeria * Africa 4,151 2022 3,765 2021 3,368 2020
 Samoa * Oceania 4,128 2022 3,939 2021 3,890 2020
 Micronesia * Oceania 4,072 2022 3,477 2021 3,500 2020
 Eswatini * Africa 4,056 2022 4,215 2021 3,306 2020
 Morocco * Africa 3,896 2022 3,497 2021 3,108 2020
 Tunisia * Africa 3,816 2022 3,924 2021 3,318 2020
 Angola * Africa 3,791 2022 2,138 2021 1,896 2020
 Djibouti * Africa 3,666 2022 3,364 2021 3,465 2020
 Bolivia * Americas 3,631 2022 3,415 2021 3,133 2020
 Cape Verde * Africa 3,600 2022 3,446 2021 3,064 2020
 Philippines * Asia 3,597 2022 3,549 2021 3,299 2020
 Bhutan * Asia 3,562 2022 3,001 2020 3,218 2020
 Palestine * Asia 3,517 [n 9]2022 3,664 [n 9]2021 3,050 [n 10]2020
 Papua New Guinea * Oceania 3,427 2022 2,916 2021 2,640 2020
 Sri Lanka * Asia 3,293 2022 3,815 2021 3,768 2020
 Venezuela * Americas 3,052 2022 16,056 2014 3,740 2020
 Vanuatu * Oceania 3,050 2022 3,127 2021 2,783 2020
 Honduras * Americas 2,969 2022 2,831 2021 2,406 2020
 Congo * Africa 2,945 2022 2,214 2021 1,830 2020
 Bangladesh * Asia 2,734 2022 2,503 2021 2,001 2020
 Lebanon * Asia 3,589 2020 2,670 2021 9,310 2020
 India * Asia 2,466 2022 2,277 2021 1,931 2020
 Zimbabwe * Africa 2,420 2022 1,737 2021 1,466 2020
 Ivory Coast * Africa 2,418 2022 2,579 2021 2,318 2020
 Nicaragua * Americas 2,375 2022 2,091 2021 1,905 2020
 Ghana * Africa 2,369 2022 2,445 2021 2,206 2020
 Mauritania * Africa 2,328 2022 1,723 2021 1,702 2020
 Nigeria * Africa 2,326 2022 2,085 2021 2,085 2020
 Kenya * Africa 2,255 2022 2,007 2021 1,879 2020
 Uzbekistan * Asia 2,243 2022 1,983 2021 1,724 2020
 Solomon Islands * Oceania 2,240 2022 2,337 2021 2,251 2020
 São Tomé and Príncipe * Africa 2,231 2022 2,449 2021 2,174 2020
 Laos * Asia 2,172 2022 2,551 2021 2,623 2020
 East Timor * Asia 1,793 2022 1,458 2021 1,443 2020
 Cambodia * Asia 1,771 2022 1,591 2021 1,513 2020
 Kiribati * Oceania 1,673 2022 1,515 2020 1,515 2020
 Haiti * Americas 1,673 2022 1,815 2021 1,360 2020
 Pakistan * Asia 1,658 2022 1,538 2021 1,167 2020
 Cameroon * Africa 1,584 2022 1,662 2021 1,502 2020
 Senegal * Africa 1,558 2022 1,607 2021 1,458 2020
 Kyrgyzstan * Asia 1,435 2022 1,276 2021 1,186 2020
 Benin * Africa 1,367 2022 1,428 2021 1,254 2020
 Zambia * Africa 1,348 2022 1,121 2021 985 2020
 Guinea * Africa 1,346 2022 1,174 2021 1,179 2020
 Comoros * Africa 1,300 2022 1,495 2021 1,421 2020
 Nepal * Asia 1,293 2022 1,223 2021 1,135 2020
 Tanzania * Africa 1,245 2022 1,136 2021 1,115 [n 11]2020
 Lesotho * Africa 1,187 2022 1,167 2021 1,061 2020
 Uganda * Africa 1,106 2022 858 2021 846 2020
 Myanmar * Asia 1,105 2022 1,187 2021 1,292 2020
 Ethiopia * Africa 1,098 2022 944 2021 840 2020
 Zanzibar Africa 1,031 2020
 Tajikistan * Asia 1,015 2022 897 2021 838 2020
 Togo * Africa 961 2022 992 2021 863 2020
 Sudan * Africa 916 2022 764 2021 1,415 2020
 Rwanda * Africa 913 2022 834 2021 798 2020
 Syria * Asia 1,266 2018 890 2020
 Yemen * Asia 874 2022 691 2021 937 2020
 Mali * Africa 858 2022 918 2021 856 2020
 Guinea-Bissau * Africa 857 2022 813 2021 668 2020
 Gambia * Africa 846 2022 836 2021 757 2020
 Burkina Faso * Africa 825 2022 918 2021 831 2020
 Chad * Africa 743 2022 696 2021 679 2020
 Liberia * Africa 735 2022 673 2021 491 2020
 DR Congo * Africa 660 2022 584 2021 506 2020
 Eritrea * Africa 647 2022 643 2011 588 2020
 North Korea * Asia 618 2020
 Afghanistan * Asia 611 2020 517 2020 508 2020
 Niger * Africa 561 2022 595 2021 568 2020
 Mozambique * Africa 542 2022 500 2021 449 2020
 Somalia * Africa 539 2022 446 2021 118 2020
 Malawi * Africa 523 2022 643 2021 615 2020
 Madagascar * Africa 522 2022 515 2021 470 2020
 Central African Republic * Africa 496 2022 512 2021 481 2020
 Sierra Leone * Africa 494 2022 516 2021 475 2020
 South Sudan * Africa 328 2022 1,120 2015 1,421 2020
 Burundi * Africa 293 2022 237 2021 286 2020

Note: Data unavailable for the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, the Holy See (Vatican City), Jersey, Niue, the Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Tokelau and Western Sahara.

Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

Many of the leading GDP-per-capita (nominal) jurisdictions are tax havens whose economic data is artificially inflated by tax-driven corporate accounting entries.

For instance, the Irish GDP data above is subject to material distortion by the tax planning activities of foreign multinationals in Ireland. To address this, in 2017 the Central Bank of Ireland created "modified GNI" (or GNI*) as a more appropriate statistic, and the OECD and IMF have adopted it for Ireland. 2015 Irish GDP is 143% of 2015 Irish GNI*.

A stunning $12 trillion—almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 percent of the world’s investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.

— "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[11]

Further discussion on this topic can be found in the List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita article.

Manipulation of data

A peer-reviewed study published in the Journal of Political Economy in October 2022 found signs of manipulation of economic growth statistics in the majority of countries.[12] According to the study, this mainly applied to countries that were governed semi-authoritarian/authoritarian or did not have a functioning separation of powers. The study took the annual growth in brightness of lights at night, as measured by satellites, and compared it to officially reported economic growth. Authoritarian states had consistently higher reported growth in GDP than their growth in night lights would suggest. An effect that also cannot be explained by different economic structures, sector composition or other factors. Incorrect growth statistics can also falsify indicators such as GDP or GDP per capita.[13]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The EU is included because it is far more than a free-trade association such as ASEAN, NAFTA, or Mercosur. It has certain attributes associated with independent nations: its own flag, anthem, currency (for some members), parliament and other law-making abilities, as well as diplomatic representation and a common foreign and security policy when dealing with external partners. However, because the EU is an organization and not a sovereign state, it does not receive a ranking in this list.
  2. ^ a b c Data are for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
  3. ^ Note the IMF converts Iran's nominal GDP using the official exchange rate of the rial. Kazemzadeh, Masoud (2022-05-09). The Iran National Front and the Struggle for Democracy: 1949–Present. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. pp. 134–140. ISBN 9783110782158. Retrieved 2022-06-27. Looking at the market exchange rate of Iran's national currency, the rial, would be a better way to capture the decline of Iran's economy.
  4. ^ a b Figures for China exclude Taiwan, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  5. ^ Figures exclude special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  6. ^ a b c Excludes Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
  7. ^ a b c Excludes data for Transnistria.
  8. ^ a b c Figures exclude the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol.
  9. ^ a b The name used by the IMF and World Bank is "West Bank and Gaza"
  10. ^ The name used by UN is "State of Palestine".
  11. ^ The UN figure excludes autonomous region of Zanzibar.

References

  1. ^ O'Sullivan, Arthur
  2. ^ French President seeks alternatives to GDP, The Guardian 14-09-2009.
    "European Parliament, Policy Department Economic and Scientific Policy: Beyond GDP Study" (PDF). (1.47 MB)
  3. ^ Richard Phillips; Matt Gardner; Alexandria Robins; Michelle Surka (2017). "Offshore Shell Games 2017" (PDF). Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy.
  4. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2022". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 11 October 2022. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
  5. ^ "IMF DataMapper / Datasets / World Economic Outlook (October 2022) / GDP per capita, current prices / List (2022) - Analytical group: European Union, World". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 11 October 2022. Retrieved 17 November 2022.
  6. ^ "GDP per capita (current US$)". World Development Indicators. The World Bank. Retrieved 18 October 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ [1], (Select all countries, "GDP, Per Capita GDP - US Dollars", and "2020" to generate the table), United Nations Statistics Division. Access date: 18 October 2022.
  8. ^ United Nations Statistics Division - National Accounts - Basic Data Selection, unstats.un.org. Manually select the 27 member states, the latest available year (2020) and the parameter "GDP, Per Capita GDP - US Dollars", then press "Send request" to generate the table. Export the table as an Excel file ("Export to .xlsx" button), where you can use the Average formula to determine the GDP per capita at EU level. United Nations. Retrieved 17 November 2022.
  9. ^ "GDP: Preliminary estimate for 2021 Q1 and outlook for 2021" (PDF). eng.stat.gov.tw. Retrieved 2021-07-02.
  10. ^ "國民所得統計摘要" (PDF). eng.stat.gov.tw (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Retrieved 2021-07-02.
  11. ^ "Piercing the Veil, FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT, JUNE 2018, VOL. 55, NO. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
  12. ^ "A study of lights at night suggests dictators lie about economic growth". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2022-10-25.
  13. ^ Martínez, Luis R. (2022-10-01). "How Much Should We Trust the Dictator's GDP Growth Estimates?". Journal of Political Economy. 130 (10): 2731–2769. doi:10.1086/720458. ISSN 0022-3808. S2CID 158256267.

External links