List of countries by Social Progress Index

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In 2010, a group of global leaders from the social sector embarked on a goal of developing a better measure to assess a country’s level of development, and by extension better understand its development priorities. Funded by private foundations and under the technical guidance of Professors Michael Porter from Harvard Business School and Scott Stern from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the group formed the Social Progress Imperative and launched a beta version of the Social Progress Index for 50 countries in 2013 to measure a comprehensive array of components of social and environmental performance and aggregate them into an overall framework. The Index was developed based on extensive discussions with stakeholders around the world about what has been missed when policymakers focus on GDP to the exclusion of social performance. This work was influenced by the seminal contributions of Amartya Sen on social development, as well as by the recent call for action in the report Mismeasuring Our Lives by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress.[1] The Social Progress Index was released in 2014 for 133 with a second version in 2015.[2]

The Index defines social progress as the capacity of a society to meet the basic human needs of its citizens, establish the building blocks that allow citizens and communities to enhance and sustain the quality of their lives, and create the conditions for all individuals to reach their full potential.

The Index combines three dimensions – Basic Human Needs, Foundations of Wellbeing, and Opportunity. Each dimension comprises four components, which are each composed of between three and five specific outcome indicators. The included indicators are selected because they are measured appropriately, with a consistent methodology, by the same organization across all (or essentially all) of the countries in the sample. Together, this framework aims to capture a broad range of interrelated factors revealed by the scholarly literature and practitioner experience as underpinning social progress. Two key features of the Social Progress Index are the complete exclusion of economic variables and the use of outcome measures rather than inputs.[3]

2015 Social Progress Index[edit]

Country Rank (SPI) Social Progress Index Rank (BHN) Basic Human Needs Rank (FW) Foundations of Well-being Rank (O) Opportunity
 Norway 1 88.36 9 94.8 1 88.46 9 81.82
 Sweden 2 88.06 8 94.83 3 86.43 5 82.93
  Switzerland 3 87.97 2 95.66 2 86.5 10 81.75
 Iceland 4 87.62 6 95 4 86.11 11 81.73
 New Zealand 5 87.08 17 92.87 6 82.77 2 85.61
 Canada 6 86.89 7 94.89 14 79.22 1 86.58
 Finland 7 86.75 3 95.05 8 82.58 7 82.63
 Denmark 8 86.63 1 96.03 7 82.63 12 81.23
 Netherlands 9 86.5 9 94.8 5 83.81 13 80.88
 Australia 10 86.42 13 93.73 12 79.98 3 85.55
 United Kingdom 11 84.68 19 92.22 15 79.04 6 82.78
 Ireland 12 84.66 15 93.68 29 76.34 4 83.97
 Austria 13 84.45 4 95.04 9 82.53 18 75.77
 Germany 14 84.04 12 94.12 10 81.5 16 76.49
 Japan 15 83.15 5 95.01 20 78.78 19 75.66
 United States 16 82.85 21 91.23 35 75.15 8 82.18
 Belgium 17 82.83 13 93.73 27 76.57 14 78.19
 Portugal 18 81.91 18 92.81 31 76.17 15 76.76
 Slovenia 19 81.62 16 92.88 11 80.87 24 71.12
 Spain 20 81.17 23 91.09 26 76.79 20 75.62
 France 21 80.82 22 91.16 17 78.83 23 72.46
 Czech Republic 22 80.59 11 94.23 15 79.04 27 68.49
 Estonia 23 80.49 28 88.44 13 79.61 22 73.42
 Uruguay 24 79.21 37 86.18 36 75.03 17 76.41
 Slovakia 25 78.45 20 92.19 19 78.8 35 64.35
 Chile 26 78.29 35 86.32 38 74.85 21 73.69
 Poland 27 77.98 34 86.67 24 77.19 26 70.07
 Costa Rica 28 77.88 41 84.22 17 78.83 25 70.59
 Korea 29 77.7 26 89.11 34 75.6 28 68.4
 Cyprus 30 77.45 25 89.3 33 75.95 29 67.11
 Italy 31 77.38 29 88.39 25 77 30 66.76
 Hungary 32 74.8 27 88.8 62 70.4 33 65.21
 Latvia 33 74.12 42 83.84 21 77.76 42 60.75
 Greece 34 74.03 31 87.64 42 74.53 43 59.91
 Lithuania 35 74 43 83.75 39 74.79 36 63.47
 Mauritius 36 73.66 30 88.02 53 72.09 40 60.88
 Croatia 37 73.3 32 87.49 32 76.09 52 56.32
 Argentina 38 73.08 54 80.51 47 73.57 34 65.17
 United Arab Emirates 39 72.79 24 89.63 43 74.16 57 54.59
 Israel 40 72.6 33 86.96 48 72.99 49 57.85
 Panama 41 71.79 67 75.91 22 77.55 38 61.9
 Brazil 42 70.89 74 71.14 30 76.21 32 65.33
 Bulgaria 43 70.19 40 84.73 66 69.57 53 56.29
 Jamaica 44 69.83 78 70.52 49 72.84 31 66.14
 Serbia 45 69.79 45 83.38 40 74.74 63 51.25
 Malaysia 46 69.55 38 86.13 37 74.87 76 47.66
 Kuwait 47 69.19 36 86.28 44 73.96 77 47.35
 Montenegro 48 69.01 50 81.89 53 72.09 58 53.04
 Colombia 49 68.85 77 70.98 23 77.3 47 58.26
 Romania 50 68.37 63 77.35 58 71.53 54 56.24
 Ecuador 51 68.25 72 73.56 28 76.46 56 54.72
 Albania 52 68.19 53 80.71 46 73.64 68 50.23
 Macedonia 53 67.79 44 83.53 80 67.04 59 52.8
 Mexico 54 67.5 73 72.81 71 68.82 40 60.88
 Peru 55 67.23 79 69.89 45 73.89 48 57.92
 Paraguay 56 67.1 76 71.11 59 71.11 45 59.09
 Thailand 57 66.34 68 75.77 51 72.35 65 50.9
 Turkey 58 66.24 51 81.5 83 66.61 67 50.61
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 59 66.15 39 85.78 63 70.35 94 42.33
 Georgia 60 65.89 55 80.15 65 69.61 75 47.92
 Armenia 61 65.7 49 82.6 68 69.28 83 45.24
 Ukraine 62 65.69 60 78.28 97 61.74 50 57.05
 South Africa 63 65.64 92 64.59 64 69.94 37 62.38
 Philippines 64 65.46 83 68.23 70 68.86 44 59.3
 Botswana 65 65.22 89 65.51 57 71.69 46 58.46
 Belarus 66 64.98 46 83.03 82 66.72 85 45.19
 Tunisia 67 64.92 52 81.13 73 68.43 84 45.2
 El Salvador 68 64.31 82 68.38 72 68.81 55 55.75
 Saudi Arabia 69 64.27 47 82.87 61 70.46 107 39.49
 Moldova 70 63.68 62 77.65 90 64.85 73 48.54
 Russia 71 63.64 70 74.1 77 67.63 70 49.19
 Venezuela 72 63.45 87 66.12 41 74.69 69 49.55
 Bolivia 73 63.36 85 67.24 60 70.86 61 51.98
 Jordan 74 63.31 48 82.63 89 64.93 93 42.38
 Namibia 75 62.71 100 59.73 56 71.93 51 56.47
 Azerbaijan 76 62.62 66 76.43 76 68.03 88 43.41
 Dominican Republic 77 62.47 91 64.8 55 71.95 66 50.65
 Nicaragua 78 62.2 88 65.87 52 72.17 72 48.58
 Guatemala 79 62.19 80 69.32 69 68.96 74 48.29
 Lebanon 80 61.85 69 75.69 87 65.89 86 43.97
 Mongolia 81 61.52 103 58.36 92 64.49 39 61.71
 Honduras 82 61.44 90 65.29 50 72.71 79 46.32
 Kazakhstan 83 61.38 64 77.17 110 58.21 71 48.75
 Cuba 84 60.83 56 80.08 105 60.51 97 41.9
 Algeria 85 60.66 58 78.88 85 66.22 113 36.87
 Indonesia 86 60.47 86 66.52 67 69.54 82 45.35
 Guyana 87 60.42 81 68.8 104 60.57 62 51.89
 Sri Lanka 88 60.1 75 71.12 81 67.03 95 42.14
 Egypt 89 59.91 61 77.69 78 67.59 118 34.47
 Uzbekistan 90 59.71 57 79.31 118 54.25 81 45.56
 Morocco 91 59.56 65 76.64 93 64.14 112 37.89
 China 92 59.07 71 73.74 88 65.4 110 38.08
 Kyrgyzstan 93 58.58 84 67.87 101 61.16 78 46.7
 Ghana 94 58.29 105 55.5 73 68.43 64 50.93
 Iran 95 56.82 59 78.42 102 61.14 121 30.9
 Tajikistan 96 56.49 95 62.58 94 63.09 87 43.79
 Senegal 97 56.46 99 60.35 86 65.97 90 43.07
   Nepal 98 55.33 96 62.54 96 62.71 102 40.74
 Cambodia 99 53.96 106 53.86 79 67.52 104 40.52
 Bangladesh 100 53.39 97 61.94 95 62.73 115 35.5
 India 101 53.06 101 58.87 113 57.38 91 42.93
 Laos 102 52.41 98 60.43 98 61.7 117 35.09
 Lesotho 103 52.27 111 48.62 116 55.82 60 52.35
 Kenya 104 51.67 117 46.48 75 68.17 105 40.36
 Zambia 105 51.62 121 43.87 91 64.82 80 46.19
 Rwanda 106 51.6 108 52.52 103 60.63 99 41.67
 Swaziland 107 50.94 107 53.34 115 57.02 92 42.45
 Benin 108 50.04 109 50.41 108 58.96 103 40.73
 Congo 109 49.6 127 40.67 84 66.56 100 41.58
 Uganda 110 49.49 114 47.91 99 61.54 108 39.02
 Malawi 111 48.95 118 46.42 114 57.31 89 43.12
 Burkina Faso 112 48.82 116 46.56 112 57.79 96 42.11
 Iraq 113 48.35 94 63.11 117 55.29 129 26.67
 Cameroon 114 47.42 112 48.48 111 58.15 114 35.61
 Djibouti 115 47.27 93 64.18 133 44.02 119 33.62
 Tanzania 116 47.14 124 41.39 109 58.23 98 41.79
 Togo 117 46.66 119 45.11 106 59.4 116 35.46
 Mali 118 46.51 112 48.48 122 52.45 109 38.6
 Myanmar 119 46.12 101 58.87 128 49.19 123 30.28
 Mozambique 120 46.02 122 43.13 120 53.49 101 41.43
 Mauritania 121 45.85 115 47.73 107 59.08 122 30.73
 Pakistan 122 45.66 104 56.37 125 50.71 124 29.9
 Liberia 123 44.89 126 41.15 121 53.23 106 40.3
 Madagascar 124 44.5 123 41.93 119 53.53 111 38.04
 Nigeria 125 43.31 130 39.04 100 61.51 125 29.37
 Ethiopia 126 41.04 120 44.04 126 50.49 126 28.59
 Niger 127 40.56 128 40.55 129 48.99 120 32.15
 Yemen 128 40.3 110 49.72 127 50.07 133 21.12
 Angola 129 40 125 41.27 123 52.2 130 26.51
 Guinea 130 39.6 129 40 124 51.2 127 27.59
 Afghanistan 131 35.4 131 37.17 130 46.5 132 22.51
 Chad 132 33.17 132 28.09 132 44.12 128 27.3
 Central African Republic 133 31.42 133 26.81 131 44.84 131 22.62
 Burundi not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked 46.63 not ranked 32.2
 Bahrain not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked 67.17 not ranked 46.94
 Belize not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked 65.56 not ranked no score
 Bhutan not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked 69.17 not ranked no score
 Côte d'Ivoire not ranked no score not ranked 47.09 not ranked no score not ranked 31.58
 Comoros not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked 55.01 not ranked 42.51
 Cape Verde not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked 70.5 not ranked no score
 Gabon not ranked no score not ranked 61.91 not ranked no score not ranked 48.07
 The Gambia not ranked no score not ranked 57.9 not ranked 55.36 not ranked no score
 Guinea-Bissau not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked no score
 Haiti not ranked no score not ranked 36.02 not ranked no score not ranked 36.89
 Libya not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked 56.43 not ranked no score
 Luxembourg not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked 82.42 not ranked 81.95
 Malta not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked 73.61 not ranked 70.38
 Oman not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked 70.47 not ranked no score
 Papua New Guinea not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked 55.39 not ranked no score
 Qatar not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked 70.6 not ranked 52.15
 Sudan not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked 25.14
 Singapore not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked 62.83
 Sierra Leone not ranked no score not ranked 34.43 not ranked no score not ranked 36.16
 Suriname not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked 75.4 not ranked 58.02
 Syria not ranked no score not ranked no score not ranked 56.14 not ranked 24.25
 Turkmenistan not ranked no score not ranked 75.82 not ranked no score not ranked no score
 Timor-Leste not ranked no score not ranked 50.55 not ranked 59.34 not ranked no score
 Trinidad and Tobago not ranked no score not ranked 75.18 not ranked no score not ranked 63.83
 Vietnam not ranked no score not ranked 74.19 not ranked no score not ranked 36.28
 Democratic Republic of Congo not ranked no score not ranked no score 47.69 no score 26.26 no score
 Zimbabwe not ranked no score not ranked 45.16 not ranked no score not ranked 33.4

Methodology[edit]

The Social Progress Imperative evaluated hundreds of possible indicators while developing the Social Progress Index, including engaging researchers at MIT to determine what indicators best differentiated the performance of nations. The index uses outcome measures when there is sufficient data available or the closest possible proxies.[4]

The three different dimensions of the model—Basic Human Needs, Foundations of Wellbeing, and Opportunity—are each weighted equally in the overall index; each of these dimensions is calculated as the sum of four components, each of which is equally weighted. Finally, each component is based on a varying number of individual indicators of social progress within that component. The component scores are calculated using a procedure called principal component factor analysis, which allows one to calculate an aggregate score from multiple indicators related to a common concept.[4]

On July 11, 2013, Social Progress Imperative Chairmain, and professor at Harvard Business School, Michael E. Porter addressed the United Nations 6th Ministerial Forum for Development and discussed the Social Progress Index.[5]

Report Findings[edit]

The Social Progress Index score is an average across three dimensions: Basic Human Needs, Foundations of Wellbeing, and Opportunity. Each dimension is made up of four equally-weighted individual components scored on an objective scale from 0 to 100. Higher scores mean higher social progress, and lower the reverse. The scale is determined by identifying the best and worst actual global performance on each indicator by any country since 2004, and using these levels to set the maximum (100) and minimum (0) bounds. Thus, the scaling of Social Progress Index scores allows the tracking of absolute performance that can be compared across peers, rather than using abstract, relative measures.

If the world were a country, it would score 64.39 in Social Progress based on a simple average of countries and 61.00 on a population-weighted basis. These averages are the equivalent to countries such as Guatemala and Kazakhstan.

On a population-weighted basis, there are important global differences across the various aspects of social progress. While the world scores 68.33 in Basic Human Needs and 66.45 on the Foundations of Wellbeing dimension, Opportunity scores just 48.23. Creating opportunity remains a goal that many nations fail to achieve. Simple average global scores tell the same story. The world remains best at meeting Basic Human Needs and creating the Foundations of Wellbeing (70.82 and 67.68). There is a significant drop in the Opportunity score (52.03), despite the fact that developing countries have a smaller weight under this approach. This shows the challenges all countries face in this dimension.

Examining the components of social progress on a global basis in more detail yields further insight into areas of progress as well as challenges.

  • Basic Human Needs: Average world performance is best on Nutrition and Basic Medical Care (87.47) and Water and Sanitation (68.57). This reflects important progress in global development in areas that have been the focus of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. The last two and a half decades have seen child mortality fall by 49% and access to safe drinking water increase from 76% to 89%. Shelter, not addressed in the Millennium Development Goals, scores 60.99. The worst performing component is Personal Safety (56.27), also not a Millennium Development Goal.
  • Foundations of Wellbeing: Average world performance is best on Access to Basic Knowledge (85.98), an area of focus for the Millennium Development Goals. Primary school enrolment has increased 11 percentage points since 1990 . Access to Information and Communications (63.56) and Health and Wellness (64.67) have lower but similar scores. Access to Information and Communications will probably continue to rise with the continued spread of mobile telecommunications. While Health and Wellness has an uneven relationship with economic development and rising wealth (see below). The worst performing component of this dimension is Ecosystem Sustainability (51.60), which remains a problem for countries at all income levels.
  • Opportunity: Average world performance is best on Personal Freedom and Choice (61.23) with scores on the other three components significantly lower: Access to Advanced Education (46.24), Personal Rights (43.10), and Tolerance and Inclusion (42.36). Of these, Personal Rights is the area that has the widest variance, with some countries scoring very poorly with scores as low as 2.32, while others perform well with scores as high as 98.84. Tolerance and Inclusion is the worst or second-worst scoring component for one-third of countries. As countries move into middle income status, Tolerance and Inclusion scores often deteriorate before they improve. Access to Advanced Education, on the other hand, tends to improve as countries get richer, first achieving high primary and secondary education levels, and building the proportion of citizens with university training.[6]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Beyond GDP". The Economist. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  2. ^ "Social Progress Index: Measuring National Progress". Social Progress Imperitive. Retrieved 14 May 2015. 
  3. ^ "Data - Social Progress - Methodology". Social Progress Imperative. Retrieved 14 May 2015. 
  4. ^ a b "Social Progress Index 2013 Methodology" (PDF). Social Progress Imperative. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  5. ^ "Michael E Porter at the UN 6th Ministerial Forum for Development". 17 Jul 2013. Retrieved 27 Jul 2013. 
  6. ^ "Findings". Social Progress Imperative. Retrieved 14 May 2015. 

External links[edit]