Social Progress Index

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2020 Social Progress Index

The Social Progress Index (SPI) measures the extent to which countries provide for the social and environmental needs of their citizens. Fifty-four indicators in the areas of basic human needs, foundations of well-being, and opportunity to progress show the relative performance of nations. The index is published by the nonprofit Social Progress Imperative, and is based on the writings of Amartya Sen, Douglass North, and Joseph Stiglitz.[1] The SPI measures the well-being of a society by observing social and environmental outcomes directly rather than the economic factors. The social and environmental factors include wellness (including health, shelter and sanitation), equality, inclusion, sustainability and personal freedom and safety.[2]

Introduction and methodology[edit]

The index combines three dimensions

  1. Basic human needs
  2. Foundations of well-being
  3. Opportunity

Each dimension includes four components, which are each composed of between three and five specific outcome indicators. The included indicators are selected because they are measured appropriately, with a consistent methodology, by the same organization across all (or essentially all) of the countries in the sample. Together, this framework aims to capture a broad range of interrelated factors revealed by the scholarly literature and practitioner experience as underpinning social progress.

Two key features of the Social Progress Index are:[2]

  1. the exclusion of economic variables
  2. the use of outcome measures rather than inputs

Social Progress Imperative evaluated hundreds of possible indicators while developing the Social Progress Index, including engaging researchers at MIT to determine what indicators best differentiated the performance of nations. The index uses outcome measures when there are sufficient data available or the closest possible proxies.[2]

History[edit]

In 2010, a group of scholars and business leaders sought to develop a better measure of a country's level of development and, by extension, better understand its development priorities.[3][4] Under the technical guidance of Professors Michael Porter from Harvard Business School and Scott Stern from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the group formed a US-based nonprofit called the Social Progress Imperative[5] and launched a beta version of the Social Progress Index for 50 countries in 2013 to measure a comprehensive array of components of social and environmental performance and aggregate them into an overall framework.

This work was influenced by the contributions of Amartya Sen on social development, as well as by the recent call for action in the report Mismeasuring Our Lives by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress.[6] The Social Progress Index was released in 2014 for 133 countries with a second version in 2015.[2]

On 11 July 2013, Social Progress Imperative's chairman and professor at Harvard Business School, Michael Porter, addressed the United Nations 6th Ministerial Forum for Development and discussed the Social Progress Index.[2]

In addition to the global Social Progress Index, the methodology used to create it has been adapted to measure social and environmental performance in smaller areas, such as the Amazon region of Brazil.[7] Other projects include a Social Progress Index for the Municipality of Guatemala City.[8] Fundacion Paraguaya has integrated elements of the Social Progress Index into its Poverty Stoplight tool. The national government of Paraguay is setting a target for Social Progress Index performance alongside GDP targets.

The Guardian reported that the European Commission had agreed to partner with Social Progress Imperative to create a social progress index for the European Union.[9] The EU Social Progress Index was published in October, 2016.

A similar index, although with some differences compared to the nation list (and therefore not directly comparable), has been published for the individual U.S. states.[10][11]

2020 Rankings and scores by country[edit]

Color key:

Very high →  Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4 Tier 5 Tier 6  → Very low
Country 2020[12]
Rank Score Basic Human Needs Foundation of Well Being Opportunity
 Norway[13] 1 92.73 96.85 93.39 87.95
 Denmark[14] 2 92.11 96.11 91.58 88.66
 Finland[15] 3 91.89 96.22 91.29 88.15
 New Zealand[16] 4 91.64 97.22 92.57 85.13
 Sweden[17] 5 91.62 96.58 91.03 87.23
  Switzerland[18] 6 91.42 96.78 91.99 85.49
 Canada[19] 7 91.40 97.03 90.88 86.31
 Australia[20] 8 91.29 97.25 91.07 85.55
 Iceland[21] 9 91.09 98.07 92.81 82.39
 Netherlands[22] 10 91.06 96.48 91.18 85.53
 Germany[23] 11 90.56 96.14 89.02 86.53
 Ireland[24] 12 90.35 96.32 90.03 84.70
 Japan[25] 13 90.14 97.78 92.15 80.50
 Luxembourg[26] 14 89.56 95.72 91.84 81.13
 Austria[27] 15 89.50 96.03 91.84 80.63
 Belgium[28] 16 89.46 94.01 89.30 85.07
 South Korea[29] 17 89.06 96.92 90.12 80.13
 France[30] 18 88.78 94.48 90.78 81.09
 Spain[31] 19 88.71 95.27 89.71 81.15
 United Kingdom[32] 20 88.54 94.36 90.21 81.06
 Portugal[33] 21 87.79 95.69 88.12 79.57
 Slovenia[34] 22 87.71 95.62 88.85 78.64
 Italy[35] 23 87.36 93.19 88.59 80.30
 Estonia[36] 24 87.26 93.08 91.50 77.21
 Czech Republic[37] 25 86.69 95.45 86.79 77.83
 Cyprus[38] 26 86.64 93.40 89.66 76.84
 Greece[39] 27 85.78 93.78 85.11 78.46
 United States[40] 28 85.71 92.08 83.14 81.89
 Singapore[41] 29 85.46 97.66 86.13 72.58
 Malta[42] 30 84.89 93.25 87.98 73.43
 Poland[43] 31 84.32 94.44 83.67 74.86
 Lithuania[44] 32 83.97 90.83 83.77 77.30
 Israel[45] 33 83.62 93.43 85.53 71.89
 Chile[46] 34 83.34 90.79 81.87 77.35
 Latvia[47] 35 83.19 90.74 83.83 74.99
 Slovakia[48] 36 83.15 93.88 82.98 72.58
 Costa Rica[49] 37 83.01 89.88 84.62 74.51
 Uruguay[50] 38 82.99 88.64 82.59 77.74
 Croatia[51] 39 81.92 91.29 84.79 69.69
 Hungary[52] 40 81.02 92.10 80.76 70.19
 Argentina[53] 41 80.66 87.73 80.05 74.20
 Barbados[54] 42 80.50 87.25 80.08 74.16
 Bulgaria[55] 43 79.86 90.88 78.19 70.51
 Mauritius[56] 44 78.96 90.90 76.52 69.47
 Romania[57] 45 78.35 89.46 78.04 67.54
 Kuwait[58] 46 77.47 90.41 81.67 60.33
 Belarus[59] 47 77.00 89.80 76.83 64.38
 Malaysia[60] 48 76.96 88.77 80.52 61.59
 Panama[61] 49 76.55 86.00 79.83 63.82
 Armenia[62] 50 76.46 87.91 78.22 63.24
 Trinidad[63] 51 76.33 82.32 78.18 68.48
 Serbia[64] 52 75.54 87.53 75.19 63.90
 Ecuador[65] 53 75.45 84.35 79.45 62.55
 Albania[66] 54 75.41 86.92 82.71 56.60
 Tunisia[67] 55 75.02 85.56 71.29 68.19
 Georgia[68] 56 74.85 83.79 77.14 63.64
 Jamaica[69] 57 74.75 79.34 74.44 70.47
 Montenegro[70] 58 74.42 86.18 77.96 59.12
 Peru[71] 59 74.22 82.46 78.50 61.69
 Colombia[72] 60 74.00 83.31 80.09 58.59
 Brazil[73] 61 73.91 82.69 76.59 62.46
 Mexico[74] 62 73.52 82.54 74.67 63.36
 Ukraine[75] 63 73.38 83.36 71.97 64.79
 Sri Lanka[76] 64 73.20 81.89 80.33 57.39
 Republic of North Macedonia[77] 65 73.16 88.15 75.06 56.25
 Bosnia and Herzegovina[78] 66 72.74 86.41 74.08 57.72
 Kazakhstan[79] 67 72.66 85.60 76.13 56.24
 Moldova[80] 68 72.58 83.32 75.42 59.02
 Russia[81] 69 72.56 84.05 74.18 59.44
 Paraguay[82] 70 72.48 83.87 75.50 58.09
 Cabo Verde[83] 71 72.05 80.15 70.69 65.31
 Cuba[84] 72 71.52 86.20 71.86 56.51
 Jordan[85] 73 71.50 89.35 69.61 55.54
 Oman[86] 74 71.41 87.38 72.33 54.52
 Suriname[87] 75 71.12 82.82 69.06 61.48
 Mongolia[88] 76 71.07 77.42 71.27 64.52
 Dominican Republic[89] 77 71.05 78.69 74.99 59.48
 Maldives[90] 78 70.81 86.40 74.65 51.38
 Thailand[91] 79 70.72 80.89 75.44 55.83
 United Arab Emirates[92] 80 70.60 86.80 71.63 53.38
 Qatar[93] 81 70.58 90.40 72.10 49.23
 South Africa[94] 82 70.26 73.35 69.28 68.14
 Algeria[95] 83 69.92 87.69 66.05 56.02
 Indonesia[96] 84 69.49 79.79 68.76 59.92
 Lebanon[97] 85 69.37 84.32 67.14 56.63
 Botswana[98] 86 69.36 71.48 74.24 62.36
 Bolivia[99] 87 69.23 82.26 69.20 56.24
 Vietnam[100] 88 68.85 82.03 72.31 52.23
 Kyrgyzstan[101] 89 68.65 80.17 72.72 53.04
 Fiji[102] 90 68.42 80.28 66.33 58.65
 Bhutan[103] 91 68.34 82.02 65.90 57.09
 Turkey[104] 92 68.27 85.20 67.47 52.14
 Iran[105] 93 67.49 85.25 68.86 48.35
 El Salvador[106] 94 67.25 77.62 68.87 55.26
 Namibia[107] 95 67.14 67.29 70.92 63.21
 Guyana[108] 96 66.95 77.10 64.74 58.99
 Morocco[109] 97 66.90 84.78 64.50 51.43
 Philippines[110] 98 66.62 70.74 71.24 57.87
 Bahrain[111] 99 66.60 86.34 69.60 43.86
 China[112] 100 66.12 82.93 64.79 50.63
 Saudi Arabia[113] 101 65.06 84.54 67.64 43.02
 Uzbekistan[114] 102 64.98 80.35 64.65 49.94
 Ghana[115] 103 64.86 65.19 68.04 61.35
 Azerbaijan[116] 104 64.11 83.40 67.62 41.32
 Nicaragua[117] 105 64.02 75.09 72.83 44.13
 Gabon[118] 106 63.93 73.31 62.78 55.71
 Iraq[119] 107 63.52 78.06 63.19 49.31
 Honduras[120] 108 62.41 73.72 66.38 47.12
 Guatemala[121] 109 61.67 68.32 71.33 45.35
 Timor-Leste[122] 110 61.08 63.84 66.88 52.53
 Senegal[123] 111 60.04 66.20 61.17 52.76
 Egypt[124] 112 59.98 79.41 51.55 48.98
 Turkmenistan[125] 113 58.35 83.18 59.84 32.05
   Nepal[126] 114 57.60 67.59 53.43 51.79
 Kenya[127] 115 57.10 55.97 64.60 50.74
 Tajikistan[128] 116 56.99 76.81 59.94 34.22
 India[129] 117 56.80 66.24 50.15 54.01
 Cambodia[130] 118 56.27 67.27 62.09 39.43
 Tanzania[131] 119 56.20 56.26 62.91 49.42
 Myanmar[132] 120 55.99 64.61 59.27 44.10
 Benin[133] 121 55.56 51.94 60.97 53.77
 Zambia[134] 122 55.34 56.09 59.94 49.99
 Bangladesh[135] 123 55.23 64.18 59.75 41.76
 Gambia, The[136] 124 55.10 57.16 55.98 52.15
 Rwanda[137] 125 54.13 54.52 62.65 45.21
 Malawi[138] 126 54.07 53.60 59.58 49.02
 Lesotho[139] 127 53.80 44.33 60.05 57.02
 Cote D'Ivoire[140] 128 53.59 55.36 61.52 43.89
 Togo[141] 129 53.05 50.80 60.51 47.84
 Uganda[142] 130 52.98 53.67 59.20 46.08
 Swaziland[143] 131 52.92 60.25 59.03 39.48
 Zimbabwe[144] 132 52.26 51.40 64.48 40.88
 Laos[145] 133 51.80 62.64 55.18 37.58
 Sierra Leone[146] 134 51.74 47.00 58.15 50.07
 Liberia[147] 135 51.37 47.75 52.42 53.94
 Nigeria[148] 136 51.31 50.82 57.47 45.64
 Cameroon[149] 137 51.29 56.31 54.20 43.36
 Equatorial Guinea[150] 138 50.08 62.97 50.82 36.45
 North Korea[151] 139 50.01 63.94 52.79 33.30
 Burkina Faso[152] 140 49.87 47.93 54.74 46.95
 Pakistan[153] 141 49.25 59.49 46.88 41.39
 Mozambique[154] 142 49.00 46.93 56.22 43.85
 Mauritania[155] 143 48.95 56.63 52.69 37.52
 Haiti[156] 144 48.79 50.21 54.50 41.65
 Ethiopia[157] 145 48.59 51.65 53.38 40.74
 Djibouti[158] 146 48.53 58.14 45.43 42.03
 Sudan[159] 147 48.51 59.44 50.10 35.99
 Madagascar[160] 148 48.46 43.54 54.67 47.17
 Congo, Republic of[161] 149 48.45 52.57 56.29 36.48
 Mali[162] 150 48.29 51.99 51.69 41.19
 Angola[163] 151 48.16 52.60 52.20 39.69
 Guinea-Bissau[164] 152 46.69 46.79 47.50 45.79
 Papua New Guinea[165] 153 44.91 43.16 44.34 47.23
 Guinea[166] 154 43.41 44.61 52.88 32.76
 Afghanistan[167] 155 42.29 52.90 39.50 34.47
 Congo, Democratic Republic of[168] 156 42.25 41.30 52.21 33.23
 Niger[169] 157 42.21 42.20 42.81 41.63
 Burundi[170] 158 41.20 40.33 50.08 33.21
 Somalia[171] 159 35.58 36.87 43.98 25.90
 Eritrea[172] 160 35.20 43.03 38.42 24.16
 Central African Republic[173] 161 31.62 21.31 38.68 34.85
 Chad[174] 162 31.29 30.87 37.89 25.10
 South Sudan[175] 163 31.06 35.74 36.69 20.73

Criticism[edit]

The index's measure of good governance has been criticised for using data biased against the Global South, and some critics have noted that much of the criteria are based on Western values. There has also been debate on the relevance or accuracy of many of the measurements for gender equality.[176] A 2016 survey of online users browsing the SPI website indicated that as one of the index's flaws, 34% of respondents found the data incomplete and/or inaccurate, primarily referencing environmental hazards, energy usage, specific health issues, employment availability and quality, income inequality, gender inequality, and corruption as areas not sufficiently taken into account.[177]

From an econometric stand point, the Index appears to be similar to other efforts aimed at overcoming the limitation of traditional economic measures such as the gross domestic product (GDP). A notable criticism is that although the Social Progress Index can be seen as a superset of indicators used by earlier econometric models such as Gross National Well-being Index 2005, Bhutan Gross National Happiness Index of 2012, and World Happiness Report of 2012, unlike them, it ignores measures of subjective life satisfaction and psychological well-being. Other critics point out that "there remain certain dimensions that are currently not included in the SPI. These are the concentration of wealth in the top 1 percent of the population, efficiency of the judicial system, and quality of the transportation infrastructure."[178]

Some critics argue for caution. Though words such as “inclusive capitalism” are now bandied around increasingly to signal a new age, free from ideological battlegrounds between public and private, much of what the organization’s founders say about it confirms that the index is about more “business inclusive” than “inclusive capitalism.”[179]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Beyond GDP". The Economist. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Social Progress Imperitive Website". Social Progress Imperitive. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
  3. ^ "Beyond GDP: How social progress and competitiveness are closely related". LSE Business Review. 2017-08-10. Retrieved 2020-09-13.
  4. ^ "Philanthrocapitalists propose a Social Progress Index". Humanosphere. 2013-04-15. Retrieved 2020-09-13.
  5. ^ "Measuring a progressive society". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-09-13.
  6. ^ "Beyond GDP". The Economist. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  7. ^ "Conservation of Amazon threatened by poor social conditions of its people: study". Global Post. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  8. ^ "ÍNDICE DE PROGRESO SOCIAL DE LA CIUDAD DE GUATEMALA - Progreso Social". progresosocial.org. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  9. ^ Jo Confino. "European Commission agrees to investigate using social progress tool alongside GDP". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  10. ^ "Social Progress Index: US States – Methodology Summary" (PDF). Social Progress Imperative. 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  11. ^ "State Progress Reports". Social Progress Imperative. 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
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  14. ^ "Social Progress Index: Denmark". The Social Progress Imperative. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  15. ^ "Social Progress Index: Finland". The Social Progress Imperative. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  16. ^ "Social Progress Index: New Zealand". The Social Progress Imperative. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  17. ^ "Social Progress Index: Sweden". The Social Progress Imperative. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
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  21. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=ISL
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  24. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=IRL
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  26. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=LUX
  27. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=AUT
  28. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=BEL
  29. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=KOR
  30. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=FRA
  31. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=ESP
  32. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=GBR
  33. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=PRT
  34. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=SVN
  35. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=ITA
  36. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=EST
  37. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=CZE
  38. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=CYP
  39. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=GRC
  40. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=USA
  41. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=SGP
  42. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=MLT
  43. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=POL
  44. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=LTU
  45. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=ISR
  46. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=CHL
  47. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=LVA
  48. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=SVK
  49. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=CRI
  50. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=URY
  51. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=HRV
  52. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=HUN
  53. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=ARG
  54. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=BRB
  55. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=BGR
  56. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=MUS
  57. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=ROU
  58. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=KWT
  59. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=BLR
  60. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=MYS
  61. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=PAN
  62. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=ARM
  63. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=TTO
  64. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=SRB
  65. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=ECU
  66. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=ALB
  67. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=TUN
  68. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=GEO
  69. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=JAM
  70. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=MNE
  71. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=PER
  72. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=COL
  73. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=BRA
  74. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=MEX
  75. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=UKR
  76. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=LKA
  77. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=MKD
  78. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=BIH
  79. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=KAZ
  80. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=MDA
  81. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=RUS
  82. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=PRY
  83. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=CPV
  84. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=CUB
  85. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=JOR
  86. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=OMN
  87. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=SUR
  88. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=MNG
  89. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=DOM
  90. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=MDV
  91. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=THA
  92. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=ARE
  93. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=QAT
  94. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=ZAF
  95. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=DZA
  96. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=IDN
  97. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=LBN
  98. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=BWA
  99. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=BOL
  100. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=VNM
  101. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=KGZ
  102. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=FJI
  103. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=BTN
  104. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=TUR
  105. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=IRN
  106. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=SLV
  107. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=NAM
  108. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=GUY
  109. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=MAR
  110. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=PHL
  111. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=BHR
  112. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=CHN
  113. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=SAU
  114. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=UZB
  115. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=GHA
  116. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=AZE
  117. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=NIC
  118. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=GAB
  119. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=IRQ
  120. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=HND
  121. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=GTM
  122. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=TLS
  123. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=SEN
  124. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=EGY
  125. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=TKM
  126. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=NPL
  127. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=KEN
  128. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=TJK
  129. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=IND
  130. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=KHM
  131. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=TZA
  132. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=MMR
  133. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=BEN
  134. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=ZMB
  135. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=BGD
  136. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=GMB
  137. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=RWA
  138. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=MWI
  139. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=LSO
  140. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=CIV
  141. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=TGO
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  143. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=SWZ
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  145. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=LAO
  146. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=SLE
  147. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=LBR
  148. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=NGA
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  150. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=GNQ
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  153. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=PAK
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  156. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=HTI
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  168. ^ https://www.socialprogress.org/?tab=2&code=COD
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External links[edit]