List of sovereign states and dependent territories by continent

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This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories of the world by continent, displayed with their respective national flags, including the following entities:

Following the United Nations geoscheme,[1] this list divides the world using the seven-continent model, with islands grouped into adjacent continents. Variations on this model are noted below and discussed in the article Continent.

Legend[edit]

Legend "Membership within the UN System" column

  UN Member states
  UN Observer states
  Member of a UN Specialized Agency
  Observer in a UN Specialized Agency
  No membership in the UN System
  Dependent Territory of UN member

Legend "Sovereignty dispute" column

  Undisputed sovereignty
  Sovereignty disputed


Africa[edit]

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see Africa: territories and regions.

Geologically, Africa is connected to Eurasia by the Isthmus of Suez and forms part of Afro-Eurasia.

Common and formal names Membership within the UN System[a] Sovereignty dispute[b] Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty[d]
AAA AAA AAA
AABUN member states and observer states AAB AAB
 Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria AACUN member state AACNone
 Angola – Republic of Angola AACUN member state AACNone
 Benin – Republic of Benin[e] AACUN member state AACNone
 Botswana – Republic of Botswana AACUN member state AACNone
 Burkina Faso[f] AACUN member state AACNone
 Burundi – Republic of Burundi AACUN member state AACNone
 Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon AACUN member state AACNone
 Cape Verde – Republic of Cabo Verde AACUN member state AACNone
 Central African Republic AACUN member state AACNone
 Chad – Republic of Chad AACUN member state AACNone
 Comoros – Union of the Comoros AACUN member state AACNone Comoros is a federation of 3 islands.[g]
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the[h] AACUN member state AACNone
 Congo, Republic of the[i] AACUN member state AACNone
Côte d'Ivoire → Ivory Coast ZZA ZZA
Democratic Republic of the Congo → Congo, Democratic Republic of the ZZA ZZA
 Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti AACUN member state AACNone
 Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt AACUN member state AACNone
 Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea AACUN member state AACNone
 Eritrea – State of Eritrea AACUN member state AACNone
 Eswatini – Kingdom of Eswatini[j] AACUN member state AACNone
 Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia AACUN member state AACNone Ethiopia is a federation of nine regions and two chartered cities.
 Gabon – Gabonese Republic AACUN member state AACNone
Gambia  Gambia, The – Republic of The Gambia[4] AACUN member state AACNone
 Ghana – Republic of Ghana AACUN member state AACNone
 Guinea – Republic of Guinea[k] AACUN member state AACNone
 Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau AACUN member state AACNone
 Ivory Coast – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire AACUN member state AACNone
 Kenya – Republic of Kenya AACUN member state AACNone
 Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho AACUN member state AACNone
 Liberia – Republic of Liberia AACUN member state AACNone
 Libya AACUN member state AACNone
 Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar AACUN member state AACNone
 Malawi – Republic of Malawi AACUN member state AACNone
 Mali – Republic of Mali AACUN member state AACNone
 Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania AACUN member state AACNone
 Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius AACUN member state AACNone Mauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.[l]
 Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco AACUN member state AACNone Morocco claims sovereignty over Western Sahara and controls most of it, which is disputed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
 Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique AACUN member state AACNone
 Namibia – Republic of Namibia AACUN member state AACNone
 Niger – Republic of Niger AACUN member state AACNone
 Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria AACUN member state AACNone Nigeria is a federation of 36 states and 1 federal territory.
Republic of the Congo → Congo, Republic of the ZZA ZZA
 Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda AACUN member state AACNone
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic → Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic ZZA ZZA
 São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe AACUN member state AACNone São Tomé and Príncipe contains 1 autonomous province, Príncipe.[l]
 Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles AACUN member state AACNone
 Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone AACUN member state AACNone
 Somalia – Federal Republic of Somalia AACUN member state AACNone Somalia has two self-declared autonomous regions: Puntland and Galmudug, while the territory of Somaliland has formed an unrecognised de facto state.
Somaliland → Somaliland ZZA ZZA
 South Africa – Republic of South Africa AACUN member state AACNone
 South Sudan – Republic of South Sudan AACUN member state AACNone South Sudan is a federation of 28 states.
 Sudan – Republic of the Sudan AACUN member state AACNone Sudan is a federation of 18 states. Sudan claims the Abyei Area, which is currently under UN protection and governed by South Sudan.[5][6]
Sudan, South → South Sudan ZZA ZZA
Swaziland → Eswatini ZZA ZZA
 Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania AACUN member state AACNone Tanzania contains 1 autonomous region, Zanzibar.[l]
The Gambia → Gambia, The ZZA ZZA
 Togo – Togolese Republic AACUN member state AACNone
 Tunisia – Tunisian Republic AACUN member state AACNone
 Uganda – Republic of Uganda AACUN member state AACNone
 Zambia – Republic of Zambia AACUN member state AACNone
 Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe AACUN member state AACNone
ZZBUN member states and observer states ZZB ZZB
ZZC ZZC ZZC
ZZD↓ Other states ↓ ZZD ZZD
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic ZZENo membership ZZEB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Recognised at some stage by 84 UN member states, 38 of which have since withdrawn or frozen their recognition. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian–African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian–African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.
 Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland ZZENo membership ZZEB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain A de facto independent state,[7][8][9][10][11] not diplomatically recognised by any other state, claimed in whole by the Federal Republic of Somalia.[12]
ZZF↑ Other states ↑ ZZF ZZF
ZZG ZZG ZZG
ZZHDependent Territories ZZH ZZH
 Bouvet Island ZZINorwegian Dependent Territory ZZINone
 British Indian Ocean Territory ZZIBritish Overseas Territory ZZIB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain
 French Southern and Antarctic Lands ZZIFrench Overseas Territory ZZINone
 Heard Island and McDonald Islands – Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands ZZIAustralian External Territory ZZINone
 Mayotte – Department of Mayotte ZZIFrench Overseas Department and Region ZZINone
 Réunion – Réunion Island ZZIFrench Overseas Department and Region ZZINone
 Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha ZZIBritish Overseas Territory ZZINone
ZZK↑ Dependent Territories ↑ ZZK ZZK
ZZL ZZL ZZL


Asia[edit]

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see Asia: territories and regions.

Geologically, Asia is part of Eurasia and due to the Isthmus of Suez forms part of Afro-Eurasia.

Common and formal names Membership within the UN System[m] Sovereignty dispute[n] Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty[o]
AAA AAA AAA
AABUN member states and observer states AAB AAB
Abkhazia → Abkhazia ZZA ZZA
 Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan AACUN member state AACNone
 Armenia – Republic of Armenia AACUN member state AACNone Not recognized by Pakistan.[13][14][15]

See Armenia–Pakistan relations and Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.

Artsakh → Artsakh ZZA ZZA
 Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan AACUN member state AACNone Azerbaijan contains two autonomous regions, Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh (Dağlıq Qarabağ).[l] The Republic of Artsakh, a de facto state, has been established in the latter.
 Bahrain – Kingdom of Bahrain AACUN member state AACNone
 Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh AACUN member state AACNone
 Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan AACUN member state AACNone
 Brunei – Nation of Brunei, Abode of Peace AACUN member state AACNone
Burma → Myanmar ZZA ZZA
 Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia AACUN member state AACNone
 China – People's Republic of China[p] AACUN member state Partially unrecognized. B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain The People's Republic of China (PRC) contains five autonomous regions:[l]

Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:

China claims, but does not control Taiwan, which is governed by a rival administration (the Republic of China) that claims all of China as its territory.[q]

China is not recognised by 19 UN member states and the Holy See, which, with the exception of Bhutan, recognise Taiwan instead.[r]

China controls part of the territory of Kashmir, which is disputed by India and Pakistan.

China, Republic of → Taiwan ZZA ZZA
 Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus AACUN member state Not recognized by Turkey[16] Member of the EU.[c] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus. See Foreign relations of Cyprus and Cyprus dispute. Turkey refers to the Republic of Cyprus government as "The Greek Cypriot Administration of Southern Cyprus".[17]
Democratic People's Republic of Korea → Korea, North ZZA ZZA
 East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste[s] AACUN member state AACNone
 Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt AACUN member state AACNone
 Georgia AACUN member state AACNone Georgia contains two autonomous republics, Adjara and Abkhazia.[l] In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de facto states have been formed.
 India – Republic of India AACUN member state AACNone India is a federation of 29 states and seven union territories. India claims the entire territory of Kashmir as one of its states, but only exercises control over part of it, while the rest is controlled by the People's Republic of China and Pakistan.
 Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia AACUN member state AACNone Indonesia has five provinces with official special autonomy status: Aceh, Jakarta SCR, Yogyakarta SR, Papua, and West Papua.[l]
 Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran AACUN member state AACNone
 Iraq – Republic of Iraq AACUN member state AACNone Iraq is a federation[g][18] of 19 governorates, five of which make up the autonomous Iraqi Kurdistan.[l]
 Israel – State of Israel AACUN member state Partially unrecognized Israel exerts strong control over the territory claimed by Palestine. Israel annexed East Jerusalem,[19] an annexation not recognised by the international community.[20] Israel maintains varying levels of control over the rest of the West Bank, and although Israel no longer has a permanent civilian or military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement, it is still considered by some to be the occupying power under international law.

[21] [22] [23] [24] [25] Israel is not recognised as a state by 32 UN members (including most Arab states) nor by the SADR.

 Japan – State of Japan AACUN member state AACNone
 Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan AACUN member state AACNone
 Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan AACUN member state AACNone
 Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of Korea AACUN member state B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain North Korea is not recognised by three UN members: France, Japan and South Korea.[t]
 Korea, South – Republic of Korea AACUN member state B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain South Korea has 1 autonomous region:[l]

South Korea is not recognised by one UN member: North Korea.[t]

 Kuwait – State of Kuwait AACUN member state AACNone
 Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic AACUN member state AACNone
 Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic AACUN member state AACNone
 Lebanon – Lebanese Republic AACUN member state AACNone
 Malaysia AACUN member state AACNone Malaysia is a federation of 13 states and three federal territories.
 Maldives – Republic of Maldives AACUN member state AACNone
 Mongolia AACUN member state AACNone
 Myanmar – Republic of the Union of Myanmar[u] AACUN member state AACNone
Nagorno-Karabakh → Artsakh ZZA ZZA
   Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal AACUN member state AACNone Nepal is a federation composed of 14 zones.
Northern Cyprus → Northern Cyprus ZZA ZZA
North Korea → Korea, North ZZA ZZA
 Oman – Sultanate of Oman AACUN member state AACNone
 Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan AACUN member state AACNone Pakistan is a federation of four provinces, 1 capital territory, and tribal regions. Pakistan disputes the entire territory of Kashmir with India, and part of it with the People's Republic of China. It exercises control over certain portions of Kashmir, but has not officially annexed any of it,[29][30] instead regarding it as a disputed territory.[31][32] The portions that it controls are divided into two territories, administered separately from Pakistan proper:[v]

Azad Kashmir describes itself as a "self-governing state under Pakistani control", while Gilgit-Baltistan is described in its governance order as a group of "areas" with self-government.[33][34][35] These territories are not usually regarded as sovereign, as they do not fulfill the criteria set out by the declarative theory of statehood (for example, their current laws do not allow them to engage independently in relations with other states). Several state functions of these territories (such as foreign affairs and defence) are performed by Pakistan.[34][36][37]

 Palestine – State of Palestine UN observer state; member of 1 UN specialized agency Partially unrecognized. B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain The declared State of Palestine has received diplomatic recognition from 137 states.[38] The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control on much of the territory that it proclaimed.[39] The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories. In foreign relations, Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization.[40] The State of Palestine is a member state of UNESCO,[41] and an observer state in the UN.
 Philippines – Republic of the Philippines AACUN member state AACNone The Philippines contains one autonomous region, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.[l]
 Qatar – State of Qatar AACUN member state AACNone
Republic of Korea → Korea, South ZZA ZZA
 Russia – Russian Federation AACUN member state AACNone Russia is officially a federation of 85 federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics.[l] Russia also forms the Union State jointly with Belarus.
 Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia AACUN member state AACNone
 Singapore – Republic of Singapore AACUN member state AACNone
South Korea → Korea, South ZZA ZZA
South Ossetia → South Ossetia ZZA ZZA
 Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka[w] AACUN member state AACNone
 Syria – Syrian Arab Republic AACUN member state AACNone The Syrian National Coalition, which is recognized as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people by 20 UN members, has established an interim government to rule rebel controlled territory during the Syrian civil war.

Syria has one self-declared autonomous region: Rojava.

Taiwan (Republic of China) → Taiwan ZZA ZZA
 Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan AACUN member state AACNone Tajikistan contains 1 autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.[l]
 Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand AACUN member state AACNone
Timor-Leste → East Timor ZZA ZZA
 Turkey – Republic of Turkey AACUN member state AACNone
 Turkmenistan AACUN member state AACNone
 United Arab Emirates AACUN member state AACNone The United Arab Emirates is a federation of seven emirates.
 Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan AACUN member state AACNone Uzbekistan contains 1 autonomous region, Karakalpakstan.[l]
 Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam AACUN member state AACNone
 Yemen – Republic of Yemen AACUN member state AACNone
ZZBUN member states and observer states ZZB ZZB
ZZC ZZC ZZC
ZZD↓ Other states ↓ ZZD ZZD
 Abkhazia – Republic of Abkhazia ZZENo membership ZZEB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Recognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Artsakh, South Ossetia and Transnistria.[42] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
 Artsakh – Republic of Artsakh ZZENo membership ZZEB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain A de facto independent state,[7][43][44] recognized only by Abkhazia,[45] South Ossetia[45] and Transnistria.[45][46] Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.[47]
 Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus ZZENo membership ZZEB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Recognised only by Turkey. Under the name "Turkish Cypriot State", it is an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.[48]
 South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia ZZENo membership ZZEB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain A de facto independent state,[49] recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Syria, Venezuela, Abkhazia, Artsakh and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.[50]
 Taiwan – Republic of China[p] ZZEFormer UN member (as Republic of China, 1945–1971)
Observer in one UN specialized agency under the name "Chinese Taipei"
ZZEB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain A state competing (nominally) for recognition with the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China (ROC) controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and parts of the Spratly Islands,[x] and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland.[51] The ROC is recognised by 16 UN member states and the Holy See as of 21 August 2018. All these states do not recognise the PRC either. Additionally, one UN member (Bhutan) has refrained from recognising either the ROC or the PRC.

The territory of the ROC is claimed in whole by the PRC.[q] The ROC participates in international organizations under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei" and in the WTO it has full membership. The ROC was a founding member of the UN and enjoyed membership from 1945 to 1971, with veto power in the UN Security Council. See China and the United Nations.

ZZF↑ Other states ↑ ZZF ZZF
ZZG ZZG ZZG
ZZHDependent Territories ZZH ZZH
 Akrotiri and Dhekelia – The Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia ZZIBritish Overseas Territory ZZINone
 British Indian Ocean Territory ZZIBritish Overseas Territory ZZIB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain
 Christmas Island – Territory of Christmas Island ZZIAustralian External Territory ZZINone
 Cocos (Keeling) Islands – Territory of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands ZZIAustralian External Territory ZZINone
 Hong Kong – Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China ZZIPRC Special Administrative Region ZZINone
 Macau – Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China ZZIPRC Special Administrative Region ZZINone
ZZK↑ Dependent Territories ↑ ZZK ZZK
ZZL ZZL ZZL


Europe[edit]

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see Europe: political geography.

Geologically, Europe is part of Eurasia and due to the Isthmus of Suez forms part of Afro-Eurasia.

Common and formal names Membership within the UN System[y] Sovereignty dispute[z] Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty[aa]
AAA AAA AAA
AABUN member states and observer states AAB AAB
Abkhazia → Abkhazia ZZA ZZA
 Albania – Republic of Albania AACUN member state AACNone
 Andorra – Principality of Andorra AACUN member state AACNone Andorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell,[52] who himself is appointed by the Holy See.
 Armenia – Republic of Armenia AACUN member state AACNone Not recognized by Pakistan.[53][54][55]

See Armenia–Pakistan relations and Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.

Artsakh → Artsakh ZZA ZZA
 Austria – Republic of Austria AACUN member state AACNone Member of the European Union.[c] Austria is a federation of nine states (Bundesländer).
 Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan AACUN member state AACNone Azerbaijan contains two autonomous regions, Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh (Dağlıq Qarabağ).[l] The Republic of Artsakh, a de facto state, has been established in the latter.
 Belarus – Republic of Belarus AACUN member state AACNone Belarus forms the Union State jointly with Russia.
 Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c] Belgium is a federation divided into linguistic communities and regions.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina AACUN member state AACNone Bosnia and Herzegovina is a federation of two constituent units:

and Brčko District, a self-governing administrative unit.[57]

 Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c]
 Croatia – Republic of Croatia AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c]
 Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus AACUN member state Not recognized by Turkey[58] Member of the EU.[c] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus. See Foreign relations of Cyprus and Cyprus dispute. Turkey refers to the Republic of Cyprus government as "The Greek Cypriot Administration of Southern Cyprus".[17]
 Czech Republic[ab] AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c]
 Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c] The Kingdom of Denmark includes 2 self-governing territories:

The continental territory of Denmark, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland form the three constituent countries of the Kingdom. The designation "Denmark" can refer either to continental Denmark or to the short name for the entire Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations). The Kingdom of Denmark as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law does not apply to the Faroe Islands and Greenland.[59][60] Also see Greenland Treaty.

 Estonia – Republic of Estonia AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c]
 Finland – Republic of Finland AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c]
  •  Åland is a neutral and demilitarised autonomous region of Finland.[l][ac]
 France – French Republic AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c] France contains five overseas regions/departments: French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion. France also includes the overseas territories of:
 Georgia AACUN member state AACNone Georgia contains two autonomous republics, Adjara and Abkhazia.[l] In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de facto states have been formed.
 Germany – Federal Republic of Germany AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c] Germany is a federation of 16 federated states (Länder).
 Greece – Hellenic Republic AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c] Mount Athos is an autonomous part of Greece that is jointly governed by the multinational "Holy Community" on the mountain and a civil governor appointed by the Greek government.[61]
Holy See → Vatican City ZZA ZZA
 Hungary AACUN member state AACNone
 Iceland[ad] AACUN member state AACNone
 Ireland[66] AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c]
 Italy – Italian Republic AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c] Italy has 5 autonomous regions,[l] with varying levels of autonomy from the central government of Italy, and known officially as "special status regions":
 Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan AACUN member state AACNone
Kosovo → Kosovo ZZA ZZA
 Latvia – Republic of Latvia AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c]
 Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein AACUN member state AACNone
 Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c]
 Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c]
 Macedonia – Republic of Macedonia AACUN member state AACNone Because of the Macedonia naming dispute, the country is referred to by the UN and a number of states and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".[67]
 Malta – Republic of Malta AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c]
 Moldova – Republic of Moldova AACUN member state AACNone Moldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and Transnistria, the latter of which has established a de facto state.
 Monaco – Principality of Monaco AACUN member state AACNone
 Montenegro AACUN member state AACNone
Nagorno-Karabakh → Artsakh ZZA ZZA
 Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c] The Kingdom of the Netherlands includes four areas with substantial autonomy:

The continental part of the Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten form the four constituent countries of the Kingdom. Three other territories (Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius) are special municipalities of the continental Netherlands.

The designation "Netherlands" can refer either to the continental Netherlands or to the short name for the entire Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations). The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to parts within Europe.

Northern Cyprus → Northern Cyprus ZZA ZZA
 Norway – Kingdom of Norway AACUN member state AACNone

Norway has the dependent territories of:

 Poland – Republic of Poland AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c]
 Portugal – Portuguese Republic AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c] Portugal contains two autonomous regions, Azores and Madeira.[l]
Pridnestrovie → Transnistria ZZA ZZA
 Romania AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c]
 Russia – Russian Federation AACUN member state AACNone Russia is officially a federation of 85 federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics.[l] Russia also forms the Union State jointly with Belarus.
 San Marino – Republic of San Marino AACUN member state AACNone
 Serbia – Republic of Serbia AACUN member state AACNone Serbia contains two autonomous regions, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija.[l] The latter is under the de facto control of the Republic of Kosovo.
 Slovakia – Slovak Republic AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c]
 Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c]
South Ossetia → South Ossetia ZZA ZZA
 Spain – Kingdom of Spain AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c] Spain is divided into 17 autonomous communities and 2 special autonomous cities.[l]
 Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c]
  Switzerland – Swiss Confederation AACUN member state AACNone Switzerland is a federation of 26 cantons.
Transnistria → Transnistria ZZA ZZA
 Turkey – Republic of Turkey AACUN member state AACNone
 Ukraine AACUN member state AACNone Ukraine contains an autonomous republic, Crimea. In 2014 Russia annexed the region along with Sevastopol turning them in one of its federal subjects as Republic of Crimea and city of Sevastopol.
 United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c] The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm[ae] consisting of four constituent countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:

The British monarch has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:

  Vatican City – Vatican City State UN observer state under the designation of "Holy See"; member of three UN specialized agencies and the IAEA AACNone Administered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic ties to 183 states – 180 UN member states, one UN observer state (Palestine), the Cook Islands and the Republic of China (Taiwan).[68] The Holy See is a member of the IAEA, ITU, UPU, and WIPO and a permanent observer of the UN (in the category of "Non-member State")[40] and multiple other UN System organizations. The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Diocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City.
ZZBUN member states and observer states ZZB ZZB
ZZC ZZC ZZC
ZZD↓ Other states ↓ ZZD ZZD
 Abkhazia – Republic of Abkhazia ZZENo membership ZZEB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Recognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Artsakh, South Ossetia and Transnistria.[42] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
 Artsakh – Republic of Artsakh ZZENo membership ZZEB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain A de facto independent state,[7][69][70] recognized only by Abkhazia,[45] South Ossetia[45] and Transnistria.[45][46] Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.[71]
 Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo ZZEMember of two UN specialized agencies ZZEB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo was placed under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo in 1999.[72] Kosovo declared independence in 2008, and it has received diplomatic recognition from 113 UN member states and the Republic of China. Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognise Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.
 Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus ZZENo membership ZZEB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Recognised only by Turkey. Under the name "Turkish Cypriot State", it is an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.[73]
 South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia ZZENo membership ZZEB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain A de facto independent state,[74] recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Syria, Venezuela, Abkhazia, Artsakh and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.[50]
 Transnistria – Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic ZZENo membership ZZEB Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain A de facto independent state,[7] recognised only by Abkhazia, Artsakh and South Ossetia.[42] Claimed in whole by Moldova as the Transnistria autonomous territorial unit.[75]
ZZF↑ Other states ↑ ZZF ZZF
ZZG ZZG ZZG
ZZHDependent Territories ZZH ZZH
 Akrotiri and Dhekelia – The Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia ZZIBritish Overseas Territory ZZINone
Bailiwick of Guernsey → Guernsey, Bailiwick of ZZJ ZZJ
Bailiwick of Jersey → Jersey ZZJ ZZJ
 Faroe Islands ZZIDanish Constituent Country ZZINone
 Gibraltar ZZIBritish Overseas Territory ZZINone
 Greenland ZZIDanish Constituent Country ZZINone
 Guernsey, Bailiwick of ZZICrown Dependency of the British Crown ZZINone
 Isle of Man ZZICrown Dependency of the British Crown ZZINone
 Jan Mayen ZZINorwegian Unincorporated Area ZZINone
 Jersey – Bailiwick of Jersey ZZICrown Dependency of the British Crown ZZINone
 Svalbard ZZINorwegian Unincorporated Area ZZINone
 Åland – Åland Islands ZZIFinnish Autonomous Region ZZINone
ZZK↑ Dependent Territories ↑ ZZK ZZK
ZZL ZZL ZZL


North America[edit]

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in North America with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see North America: countries and territories.

Geologically, North America is joined with South America by the Isthmus of Panama to form the Americas.

Common and formal names Membership within the UN System[af] Sovereignty dispute[ag] Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty[ah]
AAA AAA AAA
AABUN member states and observer states AAB AAB
 Antigua and Barbuda AACUN member state AACNone Antigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm[ae] with 1 autonomous region, Barbuda.[l]
 Bahamas, The – Commonwealth of The Bahamas[77] AACUN member state AACNone The Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.[ae]
 Barbados AACUN member state AACNone Barbados is a Commonwealth realm.[ae]
 Belize AACUN member state AACNone Belize is a Commonwealth realm.[ae]
 Canada[ai] AACUN member state AACNone Canada is a Commonwealth realm[ae] and a federation of 10 provinces and 3 territories.
 Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica AACUN member state AACNone
 Cuba – Republic of Cuba AACUN member state AACNone
 Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark AACUN member state AACNone Member of the EU.[c] The Kingdom of Denmark includes 2 self-governing territories:

The continental territory of Denmark, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland form the three constituent countries of the Kingdom. The designation "Denmark" can refer either to continental Denmark or to the short name for the entire Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations). The Kingdom of Denmark as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law does not apply to the Faroe Islands and Greenland.[78][79] Also see Greenland Treaty.

 Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica AACUN member state AACNone
 Dominican Republic AACUN member state AACNone
 El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador AACUN member state AACNone
 Grenada AACUN member state AACNone Grenada is a Commonwealth realm.[ae]
 Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala AACUN member state AACNone
 Haiti – Republic of Haiti AACUN member state AACNone
 Honduras – Republic of Honduras AACUN member state AACNone
 Jamaica AACUN member state AACNone
 Mexico – United Mexican States AACUN member state AACNone Mexico is a federation of 31 states and one autonomous city.
 Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua AACUN member state AACNone Nicaragua contains two autonomous regions, Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte.[l]
 Panama – Republic of Panama AACUN member state AACNone
 Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis AACUN member state AACNone Saint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm[ae] and is a federation[g] of two islands, St. Kitts and Nevis.
 Saint Lucia AACUN member state AACNone Saint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.[ae]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines AACUN member state AACNone Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.[ae]
The Bahamas → Bahamas, The ZZA ZZA
 Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago AACUN member state AACNone Trinidad and Tobago contains 1 autonomous region, Tobago.[l]
 United States – United States of America AACUN member state AACNone The United States is a federation of 50 states and 1 federal district with shared sovereignty. The Federal government of the United States has sovereignty over the following inhabited possessions and commonwealths:

It also has sovereignty over several uninhabited territories:

It also has sovereignty over the following incorporated territories:

Three sovereign states have become associated states of the United States under the Compact of Free Association:

It also disputes sovereignty over the following territories:

ZZBUN member states and observer states ZZB ZZB
ZZC ZZC ZZC
ZZHDependent Territories ZZH ZZH
 Anguilla ZZIBritish Overseas Territory ZZINone
 Aruba ZZIDutch Constituent Country ZZINone
 Bermuda – Bermuda Islands ZZIBritish Overseas Territory ZZINone
 Bonaire ZZIDutch Special Municipality ZZINone
 British Virgin Islands – Virgin Islands ZZIBritish Overseas Territory ZZINone
 Cayman Islands ZZIBritish Overseas Territory ZZINone
 Clipperton Island ZZIFrench Overseas Minor Territory ZZINone
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico → Puerto Rico ZZJ ZZJ
 Curaçao – Country of Curaçao ZZIDutch Constituent Country ZZINone
 Greenland ZZIDanish Constituent Country ZZINone
 Guadeloupe ZZIFrench Overseas Department and Region ZZINone
 Martinique ZZIFrench Overseas Department and Region ZZINone
 Montserrat ZZIBritish Overseas Territory ZZINone
 Navassa Island ZZIUS Insular Area ZZINone
 Puerto Rico – Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ZZIUS Insular Area ZZINone
 Saba ZZIDutch Special Municipality ZZINone
 Saint Barthélemy – Collectivity of Saint Barthélemy ZZIFrench Overseas Collectivity ZZINone
 Saint Martin – Collectivity of Saint Martin ZZIFrench Overseas Collectivity ZZINone
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon – Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon ZZIFrench Overseas Collectivity ZZINone
 Sint Eustatius ZZIDutch Special Municipality ZZINone
 Sint Maarten ZZIDutch Constituent Country ZZINone
 Turks and Caicos Islands ZZIBritish Overseas Territory ZZINone
 United States Virgin Islands – Virgin Islands of the United States ZZIUS Insular Area ZZINone
Virgin Islands → British Virgin Islands ZZJ ZZJ
Virgin Islands of the United States → United States Virgin Islands ZZJ ZZJ
ZZK↑ Dependent Territories ↑ ZZK ZZK
ZZL ZZL ZZL


Oceania[edit]

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Oceania with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see Oceania: territories and regions.

Common and formal names Membership within the UN System[aj] Sovereignty dispute[ak] Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty[al]
AAA AAA AAA
AABUN member states and observer states AAB AAB
 Australia – Commonwealth of Australia AACUN member state AACNone Australia is a Commonwealth realm[ae] and a federation of six states and 10 territories. The external territories of Australia are:
Cook Islands → Cook Islands ZZA ZZA
 Fiji – Republic of Fiji AACUN member state AACNone Fiji contains 1 autonomous region, Rotuma.[l][80][81]
 Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia AACUN member state AACNone Indonesia has five provinces with official special autonomy status: Aceh, Jakarta SCR, Yogyakarta SR, Papua, and West Papua.[l]
 Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati AACUN member state AACNone
 Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands AACUN member state AACNone Under Compact of Free Association with the United States.
 Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia AACUN member state AACNone Under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation of four states.
 Nauru – Republic of Nauru AACUN member state AACNone
 New Zealand AACUN member state AACNone New Zealand is a Commonwealth realm,[ae] and has the dependent territories of:

New Zealand has responsibilities for (but no rights of control over) two freely associated states:

The Cook Islands and Niue have diplomatic relations with 49 and 18 UN members respectively.[82][83][84] They have full treaty-making capacity in the UN,[85] and are members of some UN specialized agencies.

Niue → Niue ZZA ZZA
 Palau – Republic of Palau AACUN member state AACNone Under Compact of Free Association with the United States.
 Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea AACUN member state AACNone Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm[ae] with 1 autonomous region, Bougainville.[l]
 Samoa – Independent State of Samoa AACUN member state AACNone
 Solomon Islands AACUN member state AACNone The Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.[ae]
 Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga AACUN member state AACNone
 Tuvalu AACUN member state AACNone Tuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.[ae]
 Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu AACUN member state AACNone
ZZBUN member states and observer states ZZB ZZB
ZZC ZZC ZZC
ZZD↓ Other states ↓ ZZD ZZD
 Cook Islands ZZEMember of eight UN specialized agencies ZZENone
(See political status)
A state in free association with New Zealand, the Cook Islands maintains diplomatic relations with 52 states. The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[85] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
 Niue ZZEMember of five UN specialized agencies ZZENone
(See political status)
A state in free association with New Zealand, Niue maintains diplomatic relations with 20 states. Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[85] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
ZZF↑ Other states ↑ ZZF ZZF
ZZG ZZG ZZG
ZZHDependent Territories ZZH ZZH
 American Samoa – Territory of American Samoa ZZIUS Insular Area ZZINone
 Ashmore and Cartier Islands – Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands ZZIAustralian External Territory ZZINone
 Baker Island ZZIUS Insular Area ZZINone
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands → Northern Mariana Islands ZZJ ZZJ
 Coral Sea Islands – Coral Sea Islands Territory ZZIAustralian External Territory ZZINone
 Easter Island ZZIChilean Dependent Territory ZZINone
 French Polynesia – Overseas Lands of French Polynesia ZZIFrench Overseas Collectivity ZZINone
 Guam – Territory of Guam ZZIUS Insular Area ZZINone
 Heard Island and McDonald Islands – Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands ZZIAustralian External Territory ZZINone
 Howland Island ZZIUS Insular Area ZZINone
 Jarvis Island ZZIUS Insular Area ZZINone
 Johnston Atoll ZZIUS Insular Area ZZINone
 Kingman Reef ZZIUS Insular Area ZZINone
 Midway Atoll ZZIUS Insular Area ZZINone
 New Caledonia – Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies ZZIFrench Sui Generis Collectivity ZZINone
 Norfolk Island – Territory of Norfolk Island ZZIAustralian External Territory ZZINone
 Northern Mariana Islands – Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands ZZIUS Insular Area ZZINone
 Palmyra Atoll ZZIUS Insular Area ZZINone
 Pitcairn Islands – Pitcairn Group of Islands ZZIBritish Overseas Territory ZZINone
 Tokelau ZZIDependent Territory of New Zealand ZZINone
 Wake Island ZZIUS Insular Area ZZINone
 Wallis and Futuna – Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands ZZIFrench Overseas Collectivity ZZINone
ZZK↑ Dependent Territories ↑ ZZK ZZK
ZZL ZZL ZZL


South America[edit]

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in South America with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see South America: demographics.

Geologically, South America is joined with North America by the Isthmus of Panama to form the Americas.

Common and formal names Membership within the UN System[am] Sovereignty dispute[an] Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty[ao]
AAA AAA AAA
AABUN member states and observer states AAB AAB
 Argentina – Argentine Republic[ap] AACUN member state AACNone Member of the UNASUL.[aq] Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces and 1 autonomous city.
 Bolivia – Plurinational State of Bolivia AACUN member state AACNone Member of the UNASUL.[aq]
 Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil AACUN member state AACNone Member of UNASUL.[aq] Brazil is a federation of 26 states and 1 federal district.
 Chile – Republic of Chile AACUN member state AACNone Member of the UNASUL.[aq] Chile has two "special territories" in the Valparaíso Region: Easter Island and Juan Fernández Islands
 Colombia – Republic of Colombia AACUN member state AACNone Member of the UNASUL.[aq]
 Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador AACUN member state AACNone Member of the UNASUL.[aq]
 Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana AACUN member state AACNone Member of the UNASUL.[aq]
 Panama – Republic of Panama AACUN member state AACNone
 Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay AACUN member state AACNone Member of the UNASUL.[aq]
 Peru – Republic of Peru AACUN member state AACNone Member of the UNASUL.[aq]
 Suriname – Republic of Suriname AACUN member state AACNone Member of the UNASUL.[aq]
 Uruguay – Oriental Republic of Uruguay AACUN member state AACNone Member of the UNASUL.[aq]
 Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela AACUN member state AACNone Member of the UNASUL.[aq] Venezuela is a federation of 23 states, 1 capital district, and federal dependencies.
ZZBUN member states and observer states ZZB ZZB
ZZC ZZC ZZC
ZZHDependent Territories ZZH ZZH
 Bouvet Island ZZINorwegian Dependent Territory ZZINone
 Falklands – Falkland Islands ZZIBritish Overseas Territory ZZINone
 French Guiana – Guiana ZZIFrench Overseas Department and Region ZZINone
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands ZZIBritish Overseas Territory ZZINone
ZZK↑ Dependent Territories ↑ ZZK ZZK
ZZL ZZL ZZL


Antarctica[edit]

Antarctica is regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System, which defines it as all land and ice shelves south of 60°S, and has no government and belongs to no country. However, the following territorial claims in Antarctica have been made:

The United States and Russia have reserved the right to claim territory on Antarctica.

Moreover, the following dependent territories are situated in the wider Antarctic Region:

Flag Name Capital Status
Bouvet Island Bouvet Island Dependent territory of Norway
French Southern and Antarctic Lands French Southern and Antarctic Lands Alfred Faure (Crozet Islands)
Port-aux-Français (Kerguelen Islands)
Martin-de-Viviès (Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands)
Overseas territory of France
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands External territory of Australia
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands King Edward Point Overseas territory of the United Kingdom

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations.[2] It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
  2. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai The member states of the European Union have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, which is an example of supranational union. The EU has 28 member states.[56]
  4. ^ Information is included on:
  5. ^ Formerly referred to as Dahomey, its official name until 1975.
  6. ^ Also known as Burkina; formerly referred to as Upper Volta, its official name until 1984.
  7. ^ a b c More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations.[3]
  8. ^ Also known as Congo-Kinshasa. Formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
  9. ^ Also known as Congo-Brazzaville.
  10. ^ Formerly referred to as the Kingdom of Swaziland, its official name until 2018.
  11. ^ Also known as Guinea-Conakry.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see the List of autonomous areas by country.[76]
  13. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations.[2] It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
  14. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed.
  15. ^ Information is included on:
  16. ^ a b The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as "China", while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as "Taiwan". The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei, along with other names.
  17. ^ a b In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC and the ROC withdrew from the UN. Most states recognise the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
  18. ^ See also Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of China.
  19. ^ The government of East Timor uses "Timor-Leste" as the English translation.
  20. ^ a b Both North Korea and South Korea claim to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. See also Foreign relations of North Korea and Foreign relations of South Korea.[26]
  21. ^ The government changed the state's official name in English from "Union of Myanmar" to "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" in October 2010.[28]
  22. ^ Sovereignty over Kashmir is disputed between India and Pakistan; smaller parts are disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan and the PRC. See the List of territorial disputes.
  23. ^ Formerly known as Ceylon until 1972.
  24. ^ The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by China, Taiwan, Vietnam, and in part by Brunei, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Except for Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
  25. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations.[2] It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
  26. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed.
  27. ^ Information is included on:
  28. ^ A simpler official short name has been encouraged by the Czech government, "Czechia". By 2017, this variant remains uncommon. Nevertheless, this term has been adopted by several companies and organisations, including Google Maps, instead of the term "Czech Republic". See Name of the Czech Republic
  29. ^ Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
  30. ^ While sometimes referred to as the "Republic of Iceland"[62][63] and sometimes its counterpart Lýðveldið Ísland in Icelandic, the official name of the country is simply Iceland.[64] One example of the former is the name of the Constitution of Iceland, which in Icelandic is Stjórnarskrá lýðveldisins Íslands and literally means "the Constitution of the republic of Iceland", but note that "republic" is not capitalized. The official title of the President of Iceland (Forseti Íslands) does also not include the word republic as in some other republics. See Names for Iceland.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations in which the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The realms are sovereign states; see Relationship of the realms.
  32. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations.[2] It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
  33. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed.
  34. ^ Information is included on:
  35. ^ The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
  36. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations.[2] It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
  37. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed.
  38. ^ Information is included on:
  39. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations.[2] It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
  40. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed.
  41. ^ Information is included on:
  42. ^ The Argentine Constitution (Art. 35) recognises the following denominations for Argentina: "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation"; furthermore, it establishes the usage of "Argentine Nation" for purposes of legislation.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The member states of the Union of South American Nations have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the UNASUL, which is an example of supranational union. The UNASUL has 12 member states.[86]

Geographical boundaries of continents[edit]

In this section, the geographical boundaries of the continents are used to divide the world into continents, where differences from the previous list according to the United Nations geoscheme are noted.

Boundaries of Africa[edit]

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries of Africa, see Borders of the continents: Africa.

Suez Canal[edit]

Considering the Suez Canal as a boundary between Africa and Asia, the following change from the previous list occurs:

  •  Egypt: Africa, west of the Suez Canal; to the east, Asia.

Continental shelf of Africa[edit]

Considering the continental shelf of Africa, the following changes from the previous list occur:

Boundaries between Asia and Europe[edit]

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries between Asia and Europe, see Borders of the continents: Europe and Asia.

Sea of Marmara and Turkish Straits[edit]

Considering the Sea of Marmara and the Turkish Straits (the Bosporus and the Dardanelles) as a boundary between Asia and Europe, the following change from the previous list occurs:

  •  Turkey: Asia, east and south of the Sea of Marmara and the Turkish Straits; to the west and north, Europe.

Ural definitions[edit]

Considering the Ural definition that follows the watershed of the Ural Mountains, and then the Ural River until the Caspian Sea, as a boundary between Asia and Europe, the following changes from the previous list occur:

  •  Kazakhstan: Asia, east of the Ural River; to the west, Europe.
  •  Russia: Europe, west and north of the Ural Mountains watershed and the Ural River; to the east and south, Asia.

Considering the Ural definition that follows the watershed of the Ural Mountains, and then the Ural River until it reaches Kazakhstan's border for the first time, and then the Or River and the Emba River, as a boundary between Asia and Europe, the following changes from the previous list occur:

  •  Kazakhstan: Asia, east of the Or River and the Emba River; to the west, Europe.
  •  Russia: Europe, west of the Ural Mountains watershed and the Ural River (until it reaches Kazakhstan's border for the first time); to the east, Asia.

Caucasus definitions[edit]

Considering the Caucasus definition that follows the watershed of the Greater Caucasus of the Caucasus Mountains as a boundary between Asia and Europe, the following changes from the previous list occur:

  •  Azerbaijan: Asia, south of the Greater Caucasus watershed; to the north, Europe (very small area).
  •  Georgia: Asia, south of the Greater Caucasus watershed; to the north, Europe (very small area).
  •  Russia: Europe, north of the Greater Caucasus watershed; to the south, Asia (very small area).

Considering the Caucasus definition that follows the Kuma-Manych Depression, marked by the Kuma River and the Manych River, as a boundary between Asia and Europe, the following change from the previous list occurs:

  •  Russia: Europe, north of the Kuma River and the Manych River; to the south, Asia.

Continental shelves of Asia and Europe[edit]

Considering the continental shelves of Asia and Europe, the following change from the previous list occurs:

Boundaries between Asia and North America[edit]

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries between Asia and North America, see Borders of the continents: Asia and North America.

Continental shelves of Asia and North America[edit]

Considering the continental shelves of Asia and North America, the following change from the previous list occurs:

Boundaries between Europe and North America[edit]

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries between Europe and North America, see Borders of the continents: Europe and North America.

Mid-Atlantic Ridge[edit]

Though very rare, considering the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as a boundary between Europe and North America, the following change from the previous list occurs:

Boundaries between North and South America[edit]

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries between North and South America, see Borders of the continents: the Americas.

Panama Canal[edit]

Considering the Panama Canal as a boundary between North and South America, the following change from the previous list occurs:

  •  Panama: North America, west of the Panama Canal; to the east, South America.

Continental shelves of North and South America[edit]

Considering the continental shelves of North and South America, the following changes from the previous list occur:

Boundaries of Oceania[edit]

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries of Oceania, see Borders of the continents: Asia and Oceania.

Pacific Islands[edit]

Considering all Pacific Islands as being part of Oceania, the following changes from the previous list occur:

Boundaries of Antarctica[edit]

For a detailed description of the geographical boundaries of Antarctica, see Borders of the continents: Antarctica.

Subantarctic islands[edit]

Considering List of Antarctic and subantarctic islands north of 60°S which are fully integrated with its country, the following changes from the previous list occur:

Continental intergovernmental organizations[edit]

There are a number of intergovernmental organizations with continental scope and having the most wide and possibly non-overlapping membership:

Therefore, a member of one of these organizations may be considered as belonging to that particular continent according to political criteria. Considering this, the following changes from the previous list occur:

However, in general only internationally recognized sovereign states are members of intergovernmental organizations, and not every one of them is a member of one of the organizations listed above.

Dependent territories[edit]

Dependent territories, through political ties with their mother countries, may be associated with another continent other than its own geographical continent. For example, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Réunion, all overseas departments of France, are part of the EU and use the euro as their official currency. Other dependent territories of EU members, such as Greenland, while not part of the EU, enjoy special relationships with the EU.

The following dependent territories, all of them sparsely populated islands remote from continental mass, may be grouped into more than one continent, as there is no general convention as to which continent they belong to:

  • The British Indian Ocean Territory is geographically located in the Indian Ocean, about equidistant from Africa and Asia. Politically it is administered from the United Kingdom, while historically it is part of Mauritius. It may be grouped into either Africa or Asia.
  • Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands are geographically located in the Indian Ocean, much closer to Asia than to Australia. Politically they are administered from Australia. They may be grouped into Asia or Oceania.
  • Clipperton Island is geographically located in the Pacific Ocean, much closer to North America than to other Pacific Islands. Politically it is administered from France, previously from French Polynesia. It may be grouped into North America or Oceania.
  • The French Southern Territories, which exclude the Antarctic territorial claim of Adélie Land, are geographically located in the Indian Ocean; the Îles Éparses are close to Madagascar, while other islands are approximately equidistant from Africa, Antarctica and Australia. Politically they are administered from Réunion. They may be grouped into Africa or Antarctica.
  • South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is geographically in the Atlantic Ocean, about equidistant from South America and Antarctica. Politically it is administered from the Falkland Islands. It may be grouped into South America or Antarctica.

See also[edit]

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External links[edit]