List of countries by date of transition to republican system of government

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This is a list of countries by date of their last transition from a monarchy to a republican form of government. There were two periods in recent history when many such transitions took place:

  • during or within five years after World War I (1914–1923) – marked in green;
  • during or within five years after World War II (1939–1950) – marked in pink.

Some of the countries on this list were part of larger, now extinct, states (such as the Russian Empire or Yugoslavia) when the transition to a republic took place. Countries that have always had non-republican forms of government (such as absolute monarchy, theocracy, etc.) are not included in this list. Some were also independent states that shared their head of state with other countries (such as Denmark or the United Kingdom) before abolishing the link with the shared monarchy. Countries marked in yellow have since ceased to be republics in favour of another form of government.

List of countries[edit]

Legend
  Later restored monarchy
  Transition during or following World War I (1914–1923)
  Transition during or following World War II (1939–1950)
  Transition in pre or post world war era
Country Date of
Transition
Remarks
San Marino 3 September 301 Marinus then went on to found an independently ruled monastic community on Mount Titan in AD 301; thus, San Marino lays claim to being the oldest extant sovereign state, as well as the oldest constitutional republic.
Netherlands 26 July 1581 The Republic of the Seven United Netherlands declared its independence from King Philip II of Spain on 26 July 1581, with the Act of Abjuration, and became the Batavian Republic in 1795. The Kingdom of Holland was formed on 5 June 1806.
Switzerland 24 October 1648 Switzerland became independent from the Holy Roman Empire by the Treaty of Westphalia
England 19 May 1649 The Commonwealth of England, later known as the Protectorate, was established on 19 May 1649, following the execution of King Charles I. At its height, it ruled over all the British Isles. The monarchy was restored on 29 May 1660.
United States 4 July 1776 Went de facto independent from Great Britain with adoption of the United States Declaration of Independence
Paraguay 12 October 1813 Republic proclaimed after independence from Spain on 14 May 1811
Argentina 9 July 1816 Independence won from the Spanish Empire. Republican governments established from 1811 onwards. Republican constitutions of 1819 and 1826 led to the adoption of the 1853 text
Chile 12 February 1818 Independence declared from the Spanish Empire. Between 1810 and 1814 there were republican governments although nominally remained loyal to the Spanish monarchy. In 1817 there was re-established the independentist government and established a republican system in different constitutional texts.
Venezuela 15 August 1819 Venezuelan constitution of 1819 adopted
Colombia 17 December 1819 Republic of Colombia declared during Congress of Angostura
Panama
Ecuador 24 May 1822 Incorporated into Republic of Colombia, end of Royal Audiencia of Quito
Costa Rica 1 July 1823 Independence of United Provinces of Central America
El Salvador
Guatemala
Honduras
Nicaragua
Peru 9 December 1824 Treaty signed after Battle of Ayacucho
Bolivia 6 August 1825 Constitutional congress declared Bolivia a republic
Uruguay 4 October 1828 Ratification of Treaty of Montevideo
Liberia 26 July 1847 Independent Republic of Liberia created
Haiti 15 January 1859 Abdication of Emperor Faustin
Dominican Republic 25 March 1865 Adoption of new constitution near end of Dominican Restoration War
Mexico 15 July 1867 Emperor Maxmilian executed; Federal Republic officially restored
France 4 September 1870 Emperor Napoleon III deposed and French Third Republic proclaimed as a result of the Franco-Prussian War
Algeria Republican government instituted when French mother country became a republic
Ivory Coast
Mauritania
Senegal
Brazil 15 November 1889 Emperor Pedro II deposed and Brazilian Republic proclaimed by Marshall Deodoro da Fonseca
Hawaii 4 July 1894 Queen Liliʻuokalani deposed and republic proclaimed following a provisional government
Madagascar 28 February 1897 End of Merina Kingdom
Philippines 23 January 1899 First Philippine Republic.[a]
Cuba 20 May 1902 Independence as Republic of Cuba following United States Military Government after the end of the Spanish–American War
Portugal 5 October 1910 King Manuel II deposed and Portuguese First Republic proclaimed as a result of the 1910 revolution
Angola Republican government instituted when Portuguese mother country became a republic
Cape Verde
East Timor
Guinea-Bissau
Mozambique
São Tomé and Príncipe
China 10 October 1911 Republic of China (ROC) proclaimed as a result of the Xinhai Revolution. The ROC was initially in control of mainland China but later relocated to Taiwan. It is now commonly known as "Taiwan".
The People's Republic of China was proclaimed on 1 October 1949, and is now in control of mainland China. It is commonly known as "China".
Comoros 1912 End of last of indigenous sultanates
Armenia 14 September 1917 Emperor Nicholas II of Russia abdicated as a result of the February Revolution and Russia was proclaimed a republic
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Estonia
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Latvia
Russia
Ukraine
Czech Republic 18 October 1918 Czechoslovak Republic proclaimed
Slovakia
Lithuania 2 November 1918 King Mindaugas II deposed and Republic of Lithuania proclaimed
Germany 9 November 1918 Emperor William II abdicated as a result of the German Revolution
Austria 12 November 1918 Republic of German Austria proclaimed following the dethronement of Emperor Charles
Poland 14 November 1918 Power transferred from the Regency Council to Chief of State Józef Piłsudski
Finland 14 December 1918 King Frederic Charles renounced the throne
Turkmenistan 26 April 1920 Khan Sayid Abdullah deposed and Khorezm People's Soviet Republic proclaimed
Lebanon 23 July 1920 French Mandate of Syria established after the Battle of Maysalun
Syria
Tajikistan 8 October 1920 Emir Mohammed Alim Khan deposed and Bukharan People's Republic proclaimed
Uzbekistan
Togo 20 July 1922 Formal beginning of French Togoland League of Nations Mandate
Turkey 29 October 1923 Republic of Turkey was proclaimed after the Turkish War of Independence, succeeding the Ottoman Empire
Mongolia 26 November 1924 Mongolian People's Republic proclaimed[b]
Spain 14 April 1931 The Second Spanish Republic came to power on 14 April 1931, following the economic crisis caused by the 1929 Wall Street Crash. The Republic lost power after the Spanish Civil War. Francisco Franco then led Spain until his death on 20 November 1975, when democracy was restored.
Moldova 2 August 1940 Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic proclaimed following the annexation of Romanian Moldavia by the Soviet Union
Iceland 17 June 1944 Republic of Iceland established after a referendum
North Korea 15 August 1945 Korea liberated from Japan and the People's Republic of Korea established, divided into North Korea and South Korea a month later.
South Korea
Indonesia 17 August 1945 Republic of Indonesia's proclamation of independence triggering the Indonesian National Revolution
Vietnam 25 August 1945 Emperor Bảo Đại abdicated and Democratic Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed in the north, State of Vietnam then Republic of Vietnam proclaimed in the south.
Taiwan 25 October 1945 Taiwan and Penghu Islands transferred to the Republic of China. Since 1949, the ROC only controls Taiwan and the surrounding islands.[c]
Bosnia and Herzegovina 29 November 1945 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia proclaimed while King Peter II was in exile
Croatia
North Macedonia
Montenegro
Serbia
Slovenia
Albania 1 January 1946 People's Republic of Albania proclaimed while King Zog was in exile
Hungary 1 February 1946 Second Hungarian Republic proclaimed
Italy 12 June 1946 King Umberto II renounced the throne and the Italian Republic was established after a referendum
Bulgaria 15 September 1946 Tsar Simeon II deposed and People's Republic of Bulgaria proclaimed after a referendum
Marshall Islands 18 July 1947 end of South Seas Mandate and beginning of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
Federated States of Micronesia
Palau
Romania 30 December 1947 King Michael abdicated and the People's Republic of Romania was proclaimed
Myanmar 4 January 1948 Burmese independence declared
Israel 14 May 1948 State of Israel proclaimed
Ireland 18 April 1949 Republic of Ireland Act came into force
India 26 January 1950 Constitution of India came into effect
Egypt 18 June 1953 Republic proclaimed after revolution in 1952
Gaza Strip
South Sudan 1 January 1956 Independence of Republic of Sudan
Sudan
Pakistan 23 March 1956 Constitution of Pakistan came into effect and Governor General Iskander Mirza became President. Three coups in 1958 Pakistani coup d'état, 1977 and in 1999 respectively before restoration of civil electorate in 2008.
Tunisia 25 July 1957 King Muhammad VIII al-Amin deposed
Iraq 14 July 1958 Faisal II deposed/killed in 14 July Revolution
Guinea 2 October 1958 Gained independence as a republic
Tibet 23 March 1959[4] The unrecognized de facto state of Tibet was annexed by the People's Republic of China and its political system was eliminated in 1959[d]
Mali 20 June 1960 Gained independence as a republic
Somalia 26 June 1960 Independence of State of Somaliland, which was united with the Trust Territory of Somalia on 1 July to form the Somali Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo 30 June 1960 Gained independence as a republic
Ghana 1 July 1960 Constitutional change after referendum on 27 April
Benin 1 August 1960 Gained independence as a republic
Niger 3 August 1960 Gained independence as a republic
Republic of the Congo 15 August 1960 Declared independence from France
Cyprus 16 August 1960 Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus adopted
South Africa 31 May 1961 Republican constitution adopted
Cameroon 1 October 1961 End of British Trusteeship in Southern Cameroons, union with rest of Cameroon
Samoa 1 January 1962 Gained independence as a republic
Rwanda 1 July 1962 Independence as a republic following monarchy referendum in 1961
Yemen 27 September 1962 King Muhammad al-Badr deposed and Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen) proclaimed
Tanganyika 9 December 1962 Republican constitution adopted
Nigeria 1 October 1963 Constitutional amendment
Uganda 9 October 1963 Constitutional amendment
Zanzibar 12 January 1964 Sultanate overthrown in Zanzibar Revolution
Zambia 24 October 1964 Gained independence as a republic
Kenya 12 December 1964 Republican constitution adopted
Singapore 9 August 1965 Ousted from the Federation of Malaysia
Malawi 6 July 1966 Republican constitution adopted
Botswana 30 September 1966 Gained independence as a republic
Burundi 28 November 1966 Republic declared after army coup d'état
West Bank 7 June 1967 Conquered from Jordan and occupied by Israel
South Yemen 30 November 1967 Independence of People's Republic of South Yemen
Nauru 31 January 1968 Gained independence as a republic
Equatorial Guinea 12 October 1968 Gained independence as a republic
Maldives 11 November 1968 Sultan Muhammad Fareed Didi deposed and Maldivian Second Republic established after a referendum
Libya 1 September 1969 King Idris I deposed by Muammar Gaddafi's coup d'état
Guyana 23 February 1970 Co-operative Republic of Guyana proclaimed
Cambodia 18 March 1970 The Khmer Republic (later known as Democratic Kampuchea, then the People's Republic of Kampuchea, and finally the State of Cambodia) was declared in 1970 when Prince Norodom Sihanouk was deposed. The monarchy was restored in 1993.
The Gambia 24 April 1970 Republic proclaimed following constitutional referendum
Sierra Leone 19 April 1971 Republican constitution adopted
Sri Lanka 22 May 1972 Sri Lankan constitution adopted
Bangladesh 16 December 1972 Constitution came into effect after a year of formation of state in 1972. Three coups followed in 1975 and 1982.
Afghanistan 17 July 1973 King Mohammed Zahir Shah abdicated after Mohammed Daoud Khan's coup d'état
Greece 8 December 1974 Final abolition of monarchy; referendum
Malta 13 December 1974 Republic of Malta proclaimed
Eritrea 21 March 1975 Monarchy of Ethiopian Empire finally abolished
Ethiopia
Suriname 25 November 1975 Gained independence as a republic
Laos 2 December 1975 King Savang Vatthana abdicated as a result of a communist revolution
Seychelles 29 June 1976 Gained independence as a republic
Trinidad and Tobago 1 August 1976 Republican constitution adopted
Dominica 3 November 1978 Gained independence as a republic
Iran 11 February 1979 Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi deposed and Islamic Republic of Iran (a theocratic republic) proclaimed as a result of the Iranian Revolution[9]
Kiribati 12 July 1979 Gained independence as a republic[10]
Central African Empire 21 September 1979 Emperor Bokassa I deposed in a coup d'état[11]
Zimbabwe 17 April 1980 Full independence of Zimbabwe[12]
Fiji 6 October 1987 Fiji Republic proclaimed as a result of the coup d'état of Sitiveni Rabuka[13]
Mauritius 12 March 1992 Republic of Mauritius proclaimed as a result of constitutional changes[14]
Nepal 28 May 2008 Abolition of monarchy[15]
Barbados 30 November 2021 Proclaimed itself a republic via constitutional changes[14]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This polity was not recognized during its existence,[1] but is considered by the current Philippine government to have been legitimate.[2]
  2. ^ This polity was not recognized by many countries between 1940 and 1960 due to Outer Mongolia being part of the Republic of China. The ROC recognized Mongolia's independence in 1946, cancelled in 1953 and the independence-minded government re-recognized it in 2002.[3]
  3. ^ See also Political status of Taiwan.
  4. ^ This polity was not recognized by all countries as it was integral part of China,[5][6] though the Central Tibetan Administration asserted that Tibet was an independent state without international recognition until the PRC invaded Tibet in 1949/1950.[7][8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tucker, S. (2009). The Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History. The Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 496. ISBN 978-1-85109-951-1.
  2. ^ "EXECUTIVE BRANCH OF GOVERNMENT". Official Gazette of the Philippine Government. HISTORY. Retrieved 15 June 2022.
  3. ^ Kotkin, Stephen; Elleman, Bruce A. (ed.), Mongolia in the Twentieth Century: Landlocked Cosmopolitan, p139
  4. ^ Sperling (2004) p.17. Shakya (1999) p.90. Latourette (1964) p.419. Spence (1999) p.500.
  5. ^ Wang and Nyima (1997) p.20. Grunfeld (1996) p.256. Sperling (2004) p.10.
  6. ^ Sperling (2004) pp.6,7. Goldstein (1989) p.72. Both cite the ROC's position paper at the 1914 Simla Conference.
  7. ^ Sperling (2004) p.21
  8. ^ "Five Point Peace Plan". The Dalai Lama. 21 September 1987. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  9. ^ AFP (8 February 2019). "Iran celebrates 40th anniversary of Islamic Revolution". France 24. Tehran. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  10. ^ Raghavan, Dee (11 July 2021). "Celebrating Kiribati Independence Day!". CulturalPulse. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  11. ^ "Bokassa Is Reported Overthrown In Coup in Central African Empire". The New York Times. 21 September 1979. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  12. ^ Musvanhiri, Privilege (17 April 2020). "Zimbabwe celebrates 40 years of independence". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  13. ^ Associated Press (7 October 1987). "FIJI COUP LEADER DECLARES REPUBLIC". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  14. ^ a b Landler, Mark; Ahmed, Azam (18 September 2020). "'The Time Has Come': Barbados Casts Off the Queen as Head of State, and Others May Follow". The New York Times.
  15. ^ Monk, Katie (9 June 2008). "Nepal hails a new republic". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 October 2021.

Sources[edit]