List of countries by ecological footprint

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National ecological surplus or deficit, measured as a country's biocapacity per person (in global hectares) minus its ecological footprint per person (also in global hectares). Data from 2013.[1]
  x ≤ −9
  −9 < x ≤ −8
  −8 < x ≤ −7
  −7 < x ≤ −6
  −6 < x ≤ −5
  −5 < x ≤ −4
  −4 < x ≤ −3
  −3 < x ≤ −2
  −2 < x ≤ −1
  −1 < x < 0
  0 ≤ x < 2
  2 ≤ x < 4
  4 ≤ x < 6
  6 ≤ x < 8
  8 ≤ x
  Data unavailable

This is a list of countries by ecological footprint. The table is based on data spanning from 1961 to 2013 from the Global Footprint Network's National Footprint Accounts published in 2016. Numbers are given in global hectares per capita. The world-average ecological footprint in 2016 was 2.75 global hectares per person (22.6 billion in total). With a world-average biocapacity of 1.63 global hectares (gha) per person (12.2 billion in total), this leads to a global ecological deficit of 1.1 global hectares per person (10.4 billion in total).[1]

For humanity, having a footprint smaller than the planet's biocapacity is a necessary condition for sustainability. After all, ecological overuse is only possible temporarily. A country that consumes more than 1.73 gha per person has a resource demand that is not sustainable world-wide. Countries with a footprint below 1.73 gha per person might not be sustainable. The quality of the footprint may still lead to ecological destruction. If a country does not have enough ecological resources within its own territory to cover its population's footprint, then it runs an ecological deficit and the country is termed an ecological debtor. Otherwise, it has an ecological reserve and it is called a creditor.[1]

Countries[edit]

This table below is based on 2012 results (National Footprint Accounts edition 2016). The latest edition (2018) is available on Global Footprint Network's website at http://data.footprintnetwork.org. Note that this list contains only 188 countries, covering most of the countries with more than one million inhabitants.

Rank Country Ecological Footprint (gha/person) Biocapacity (gha/person) Biocapacity deficit or reserve (gha/person) Population (millions of people) Total Biocapacity (gMha) Population when Biocapacity equals Ecological Footprint*
1  Luxembourg 15.82 1.68 −14.14 0.52 −7.35 0.055221
2  Aruba 11.88 0.57 −11.31 0.1 −1.13 0.004798
3  Qatar 10.8 1.24 −9.56 2.05 −19.60 0.23537
4  Australia 9.31 16.57 7.26 23.05 167.34 41.02454
5  United States 8.22 3.76 −4.46 317.5 −1416.05 145.2311
6  Canada 8.17 16.01 7.83 34.84 272.80 68.27275
7  Kuwait 8.13 0.55 −7.58 3.25 −24.64 0.219865
8  Singapore 7.97 0.05 −7.92 5.3 −41.98 0.03325
9  United Kingdom 7.93 0.56 −7.37 65.648 −483.83 4.635924
10  Trinidad and Tobago 7.92 1.56 −6.36 1.34 −8.52 0.263939
11  Montserrat 7.78 1.36 −6.42 0.005 −0.03 0.000874
12  Oman 7.52 1.92 −5.6 3.31 −18.54 0.845106
13  Bahrain 7.49 0.58 −6.91 1.32 −9.12 0.102216
14  Belgium 7.44 1.19 −6.25 11.06 −69.13 1.769005
15  Sweden 7.25 10.62 3.38 9.51 32.14 13.93051
16  Estonia 6.86 10.53 3.67 1.29 4.73 1.980131
17  Bahamas 6.84 9.55 2.71 0.37 1.00 0.516594
18  Latvia 6.29 9.55 3.26 2.06 6.72 3.127663
19  Israel 6.22 0.35 −5.87 7.64 −44.85 0.429904
20  Mongolia 6.08 15.66 9.58 2.8 26.82 7.211842
21  Austria 6.06 3.07 −3 8.46 −25.38 4.285842
22  Taiwan 5.93 1.0 −4.13 23.6 1.00 3.979764
22  Finland 5.87 13.44 7.57 5.41 40.95 12.38678
23  Lithuania 5.83 5.67 −0.17 3.03 −0.52 2.946844
24  Slovenia 5.81 2.35 −3.47 2.07 −7.18 0.837263
25   Switzerland 5.79 1.3 −4.48 8 −35.84 1.7962
26  Bermuda 5.77 0.13 −5.64 0.06 −0.34 0.001352
27  South Korea 5.69 0.68 −5.01 49 −245.49 5.855888
28  Russia 5.69 6.79 1.1 143.17 157.49 170.8479
29  Cayman Islands 5.65 0.32 −5.33 0.06 −0.32 0.003398
30  Saudi Arabia 5.61 0.5 −5.12 28.29 −144.84 2.52139
31  New Zealand 5.6 10.14 4.54 4.46 20.25 8.075786
32  Ireland 5.57 3.73 −1.83 4.58 −8.38 3.067038
33  Kazakhstan 5.55 3.41 −2.14 16.27 −34.82 9.996523
34  Denmark 5.51 4.78 −0.73 5.6 −4.09 4.858076
35  Turkmenistan 5.47 2.79 −2.68 5.17 −13.86 2.636984
36  Antigua and Barbuda 5.38 0.94 −4.44 0.09 −0.40 0.015725
37  Germany 5.3 2.27 −3.02 82.8 −250.06 35.4634
38  Netherlands 5.28 1.17 −4.11 16.71 −68.68 3.702784
39  Czech Republic 5.19 2.46 −2.73 10.66 −29.10 5.052717
40  France 5.14 3.11 −2.04 63.98 −130.52 38.71163
41  Belarus 5.09 3.64 −1.45 9.4 −13.63 6.7222
42  Japan 5.02 0.72 −4.3 127.25 −547.18 18.251
43  Norway 4.98 8.18 3.19 4.99 15.92 8.196426
44  Saint Kitts and Nevis 4.94 0.62 −4.31 0.05 −0.22 0.006275
45  United Arab Emirates 4.94 1.32 −3.62 6.30 −22.82 1.683401
46  Bhutan 4.84 5.27 0.43 0.74 0.32 0.805744
47  French Polynesia 4.73 1.37 −3.36 0.27 −0.91 0.078203
48  Italy 4.61 1.08 −3.53 60.92 −215.05 14.27193
49  Barbados 4.48 0.19 −4.29 0.28 −1.20 0.011875
50  Poland 4.44 2.08 −2.36 38.21 −90.18 17.90018
51  Greece 4.38 1.61 −2.77 11.12 −30.80 4.087489
52  Chile 4.36 3.63 −0.73 17.46 −12.75 14.53665
53  Suriname 4.25 89.33 85.08 0.54 45.94 11.35016
54  Cyprus 4.21 0.34 −3.87 1.13 −4.37 0.091259
55  Paraguay 4.16 10.52 6.36 6.69 42.55 16.91798
56  Brunei 4.06 2.87 −1.19 0.41 −0.49 0.289828
57  Slovakia 4.06 2.71 −1.35 5.45 −7.36 3.637808
58  Equatorial Guinea 3.97 4.4 0.44 0.74 0.33 0.820151
59  Croatia 3.92 2.8 −1.12 4.31 −4.83 3.078571
60  Portugal 3.88 1.51 −2.37 10.6 −25.12 4.125258
61  Lebanon 3.84 0.33 −3.51 4.65 −16.32 0.399609
62  Botswana 3.83 3.47 −0.35 2 −0.70 1.81201
63  Montenegro 3.78 3.24 −0.54 0.62 −0.33 0.531429
64  Malaysia 3.71 2.41 −1.3 29.24 −38.01 18.99418
65  Libya 3.69 0.7 −3 6.16 −18.48 1.168564
66  Spain 3.67 1.25 −2.42 46.76 −113.16 15.92643
67  Réunion 3.65 0.18 −3.47 0.86 −2.98 0.042411
68  New Caledonia 3.58 7.67 4.09 0.25 1.02 0.535615
69  Venezuela 3.57 2.78 −0.79 29.96 −23.67 23.3302
70  Mauritius 3.46 0.71 −2.75 1.24 −3.41 0.254451
71  China 3.38 0.94 −2.44 1408.04 −3435.62 391.5851
72  Turkey 3.33 1.52 −1.81 74 −133.94 33.77778
73  Bulgaria 3.32 2.86 −0.46 7.28 −3.35 6.271325
74  South Africa 3.31 1.15 −2.16 52.39 −113.16 18.20196
75  Macedonia 3.26 1.51 −1.75 2.11 −3.69 0.977331
76  Guadeloupe 3.23 0.45 −2.77 0.46 −1.27 0.064087
77  Argentina 3.14 6.92 3.78 41.09 155.32 90.55503
78  Bosnia and Herzegovina 3.12 1.63 −1.49 3.83 −5.71 2.000929
79  Brazil 3.11 9.08 5.97 198.66 1186.00 580.0105
80  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3.11 1.26 −1.85 0.11 −0.20 0.044566
81  Guyana 3.07 66.58 63.51 0.8 50.81 17.34984
82  Grenada 2.98 1.96 −1.01 0.1 −0.10 0.065772
83  Bolivia 2.96 16.73 13.77 10.5 144.59 59.34628
84  Nauru 2.94 0.19 −2.76 0.01 −0.03 0.000646
85  Hungary 2.92 2.17 −0.75 9.98 −7.49 7.416644
86  Uruguay 2.91 10.32 7.41 3.4 25.19 12.05773
87  Fiji 2.9 2.37 −0.52 0.88 −0.46 0.719172
88  Mexico 2.89 1.27 −1.62 120.85 −195.78 53.10709
89  British Virgin Islands 2.86 2.05 −0.81 0.03 −0.02 0.021503
90  Costa Rica 2.84 1.53 −1.31 4.8 −6.29 2.585915
91  Ukraine 2.84 2.27 −0.58 45.53 −26.41 36.39194
92  Iran 2.79 0.9 −1.89 76.42 −144.43 24.65161
93  Panama 2.79 2.94 0.15 3.8 0.57 4.004301
94  Samoa 2.77 1.93 −0.85 0.19 −0.16 0.132383
95  Romania 2.71 2.32 −0.39 21.76 −8.49 18.62849
96  Serbia 2.7 1.25 −1.44 9.55 −13.75 4.421296
97  Tonga 2.7 1.48 −1.22 0.1 −0.12 0.054815
98  Thailand 2.66 1.24 −1.42 66.78 −94.83 31.13053
99  Dominica 2.57 1.03 −1.54 0.07 −0.11 0.028054
100  Mauritania 2.54 4.48 1.93 3.8 7.33 6.702362
101  Cape Verde 2.52 0.62 −1.9 0.49 −0.93 0.120556
102  Namibia 2.48 6.88 4.4 2.26 9.94 6.269677
103  Saint Lucia 2.45 0.34 −2.1 0.18 −0.38 0.02498
104  French Guiana 2.34 111.35 109.01 0.24 26.16 11.42051
105  Tunisia 2.34 0.93 −1.4 10.88 −15.23 4.324103
106  Uzbekistan 2.32 0.92 −1.4 28.54 −39.96 11.31759
107  Azerbaijan 2.31 0.85 −1.46 9.31 −13.59 3.425758
108  Peru 2.28 3.97 1.69 29.99 50.68 52.21943
109  Armenia 2.23 0.89 −1.35 2.97 −4.01 1.185336
110  Albania 2.21 1.18 −1.03 3.16 −3.25 1.68724
111  Djibouti 2.19 0.77 −1.42 0.86 −1.22 0.302374
112  Ecuador 2.17 2.2 0.03 15.49 0.46 15.70415
113  Egypt 2.15 0.56 −1.59 80.72 −128.34 21.02474
114  Algeria 2.12 0.59 −1.53 38.48 −58.87 10.70906
115  Jordan 2.1 0.21 −1.89 7.01 −13.25 0.701
116  Martinique 2.08 0.39 −1.7 0.4 −0.68 0.075
117  El Salvador 2.07 0.61 −1.46 6.3 −9.20 1.856522
118  Wallis and Futuna 2.07 1.51 −0.56 0.01 −0.01 0.007295
119  Gabon 2.02 26.31 24.29 1.63 39.59 21.23035
120  Swaziland 2.01 0.88 −1.14 1.23 −1.40 0.538507
121  Ghana 1.97 1.35 −0.62 25.37 −15.73 17.38553
122  Cuba 1.95 0.76 −1.19 11.27 −13.41 4.39241
123  Kyrgyzstan 1.91 1.3 −0.61 5.47 −3.34 3.723037
124  Papua New Guinea 1.91 3.92 2.01 7.17 14.41 14.71539
125  Guatemala 1.89 0.99 −0.9 15.08 −13.57 7.899048
126  Jamaica 1.89 0.43 −1.46 2.77 −4.04 0.630212
127  Iraq 1.88 0.29 −1.59 32.78 −52.12 5.056489
128  Colombia 1.87 3.6 1.72 47.7 82.04 91.82888
129  Moldova 1.78 0.8 −0.98 3.51 −3.44 1.577528
130  Honduras 1.68 1.77 0.09 7.94 0.71 8.365357
131  Morocco 1.68 0.71 −0.96 32.52 −31.22 13.74357
132  Lesotho 1.66 0.78 −0.87 2.05 −1.78 0.963253
133  Vietnam 1.65 1 −0.65 90.8 −59.02 55.0303
134  Georgia 1.58 1.17 −0.41 4.36 −1.79 3.228608
135  Indonesia 1.58 1.26 −0.32 246.86 −79.00 196.863
136  Niger 1.56 1.24 −0.32 17.16 −5.49 13.64
137  Dominican Republic 1.53 0.56 −0.97 10.28 −9.97 3.762614
138  Guinea-Bissau 1.53 3.03 1.49 1.66 2.47 3.287451
139  Mali 1.53 1.58 0.05 14.85 0.74 15.33529
140  Syria 1.51 0.6 −0.91 21.89 −19.92 8.698013
141  Sao Tome and Principe 1.49 0.87 −0.61 0.19 −0.12 0.11094
142  Chad 1.46 2.03 0.57 12.45 7.10 17.31062
143  Myanmar 1.43 1.84 0.41 52.8 21.65 67.93846
144  Benin 1.41 0.88 −0.53 10.05 −5.33 6.27234
145  Guinea 1.41 2.09 0.68 11.45 7.79 16.97199
146  Nicaragua 1.39 2.25 0.87 5.99 5.21 9.696043
147  Zimbabwe 1.37 0.62 −0.75 13.72 −10.29 6.209051
148  Sri Lanka 1.32 0.44 −0.88 21.1 −18.57 7.033333
149  Tanzania 1.32 1.08 −0.24 47.78 −11.47 39.09273
150  Congo 1.29 10.91 9.63 4.34 41.97 36.70496
151  Solomon Islands 1.29 4.36 3.08 0.55 1.69 1.858915
152  Côte d'Ivoire 1.27 1.78 0.51 19.84 10.12 27.80724
153  Central African Republic 1.24 7.87 6.62 4.53 29.99 28.75089
154  Sierra Leone 1.24 1.24 0 5.98 0.00 5.98
155  Somalia 1.24 1.27 0.03 10.2 0.31 10.44677
156  Uganda 1.24 0.59 −0.66 36.35 −23.99 17.29556
157  Laos 1.22 1.62 0.4 6.65 2.66 8.830328
158  Burkina Faso 1.21 0.98 −0.22 16.46 −3.62 13.33124
159  Cambodia 1.21 1.09 −0.11 14.86 −1.63 13.38628
160  Liberia 1.21 2.57 1.35 4.19 5.66 8.899421
161  Senegal 1.21 1.05 −0.16 13.73 −2.20 11.91446
162  Cameroon 1.17 1.69 0.52 21.7 11.28 31.34444
163  North Korea 1.17 0.6 −0.57 24.76 −14.11 12.69744
164  India 1.16 0.45 −0.71 1236.69 −878.05 479.7504
165  Nigeria 1.16 0.7 −0.47 168.83 −79.35 101.8802
166  Togo 1.13 0.53 −0.6 6.64 −3.98 3.114336
167  Philippines 1.1 0.54 −0.56 96.71 −54.16 47.47582
168  Comoros 1.03 0.32 −0.7 0.72 −0.50 0.223689
169  Gambia 1.03 0.82 −0.21 1.79 −0.38 1.425049
170  Kenya 1.03 0.51 −0.52 43.18 −22.45 21.38039
171  Yemen 1.03 0.5 −0.53 23.85 −12.64 11.57767
172  Ethiopia 1.02 0.58 −0.44 91.73 −40.36 52.1602
173  Madagascar 0.99 2.63 1.64 22.29 36.56 59.21485
174  Zambia 0.99 2.23 1.24 14.08 17.46 31.71556
175    Nepal 0.98 0.59 −0.38 27.47 −10.44 16.53806
176  Angola 0.93 2.55 1.61 20.82 35.52 57.0871
177  Tajikistan 0.91 0.53 −0.38 8.01 −3.04 4.665165
178  Mozambique 0.87 2.06 1.19 25.2 29.99 59.66897
179  Rwanda 0.87 0.54 −0.32 11.46 −3.67 7.113103
180  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 0.82 3.07 2.25 65.7 147.83 245.9744
181  Malawi 0.81 0.66 −0.15 15.91 −2.39 12.9637
182  Burundi 0.8 0.32 −0.48 9.85 −4.73 3.94
183  Afghanistan 0.79 0.5 −0.3 29.82 −8.95 18.87342
184  Pakistan 0.79 0.35 −0.44 179.16 −78.83 79.37468
185  Bangladesh 0.72 0.38 −0.35 154.7 −54.15 81.64722
186  Haiti 0.61 0.27 −0.34 10.17 −3.46 4.501475
187  Timor-Leste 0.48 1.78 1.3 1.11 1.44 4.11625
188  Eritrea 0.49 1.3 0.88 6.13 5.39 16.26327

*Biocapacity / Ecological Footprint * Population in million assuming that biocapacity and ecological footprint will not change, when population changes

See also[edit]

World map of countries by ecological footprint (2007 data).
World map of countries by their raw ecological footprint compared against the global average biocapacity of 2.1 gha per person in 2007.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Open Data Platform". data.footprintnetwork.org. Retrieved 2018-03-30.

"National Footprint Accounts 2016, Open Data Platform". Global Footprint Network. 5 January 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.