List of countries by ecological footprint

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National ecological surplus or deficit, measured as a country's biocapacity per person (in global hectares) minus its ecological footprint per person (also in global hectares). Data from 2013.[1]
  x ≤ -9
  -9 < x ≤ -8
  -8 < x ≤ -7
  -7 < x ≤ -6
  -6 < x ≤ -5
  -5 < x ≤ -4
  -4 < x ≤ -3
  -3 < x ≤ -2
  -2 < x ≤ -1
  -1 < x < 0
  0 ≤ x < 2
  2 ≤ x < 4
  4 ≤ x < 6
  6 ≤ x < 8
  8 ≤ x
  Data unavailable

This is a list of countries by ecological footprint. The table is based on data spanning from 1961 to 2013 from the Global Footprint Network's National Footprint Accounts published in 2016. Numbers are given in global hectares per capita. The world-average ecological footprint in 2012 was 2.84 global hectares per person (22.1 billion in total). With a world-average biocapacity of 1.73 global hectares (gha) per person (9.2 billion in total), this leads to a global ecological deficit of 1.1 global hectares per person (7.8 billion in total).[1]

For humanity, having a footprint smaller than the planet's biocapacity is a necessary condition for sustainability. After all, ecological overuse is only possible temporarily. A country that consumes more, on average, than 1.73 gha per person has a resource demand that is not replicable world-wide. Vice versa, with a footprint below 1.73 gha per person, is not necessarily sustainable, because the quality of the footprint may still lead to ecological destruction. If a country does not have enough ecological resources within its own territory to cover its population's footprint, then it runs an ecological deficit and the country is termed an ecological debtor. Otherwise, it has an ecological reserve and it is called a creditor.[1]

Countries[edit]

This table below is based on 2012 results (National Footprint Accounts edition 2016). The latest edition (2018) is available on Global Footprint Network's website at http://data.footprintnetwork.org. Note that this list contains only 188 countries, covering most of the countries with more than one million inhabitants.

Rank Country Ecological Footprint (gha/person) Biocapacity (gha/person) Biocapacity deficit or reserve (gha/person) Population (millions of people) Total Biocapacity (gMha)
1  Luxembourg 15.82 1.68 -14.14 0.52 -7.35
2  Aruba 11.88 0.57 -11.31 0.1 -1.13
3  Qatar 10.8 1.24 -9.56 2.05 -19.60
4  Australia 9.31 16.57 7.26 23.05 167.34
5  United States 8.22 3.76 -4.46 317.5 -1416.05
6  Canada 8.17 16.01 7.83 34.84 272.80
7  Kuwait 8.13 0.55 -7.58 3.25 -24.64
8  Singapore 7.97 0.05 -7.92 5.3 -41.98
9  United Kingdom 7.93 0.56 -7.37 65.648 -483.83
10  Trinidad and Tobago 7.92 1.56 -6.36 1.34 -8.52
11  Montserrat 7.78 1.36 -6.42 0.005 -0.03
12  Oman 7.52 1.92 -5.6 3.31 -18.54
13  Bahrain 7.49 0.58 -6.91 1.32 -9.12
14  Belgium 7.44 1.19 -6.25 11.06 -69.13
15  Sweden 7.25 10.62 3.38 9.51 32.14
16  Estonia 6.86 10.53 3.67 1.29 4.73
17  Bahamas 6.84 9.55 2.71 0.37 1.00
18  Latvia 6.29 9.55 3.26 2.06 6.72
19  Israel 6.22 0.35 -5.87 7.64 -44.85
20  Mongolia 6.08 15.66 9.58 2.8 26.82
21  Austria 6.06 3.07 -3 8.46 -25.38
22  Taiwan 5.93 1.0 -4.13 23.6 1.00
22  Finland 5.87 13.44 7.57 5.41 40.95
23  Lithuania 5.83 5.67 -0.17 3.03 -0.52
24  Slovenia 5.81 2.35 -3.47 2.07 -7.18
25   Switzerland 5.79 1.3 -4.48 8 -35.84
26  Bermuda 5.77 0.13 -5.64 0.06 -0.34
27  South Korea 5.69 0.68 -5.01 49 -245.49
28  Russia 5.69 6.79 1.1 143.17 157.49
29  Cayman Islands 5.65 0.32 -5.33 0.06 -0.32
30  Saudi Arabia 5.61 0.5 -5.12 28.29 -144.84
31  New Zealand 5.6 10.14 4.54 4.46 20.25
32  Ireland 5.57 3.73 -1.83 4.58 -8.38
33  Kazakhstan 5.55 3.41 -2.14 16.27 -34.82
34  Denmark 5.51 4.78 -0.73 5.6 -4.09
35  Turkmenistan 5.47 2.79 -2.68 5.17 -13.86
36  Antigua and Barbuda 5.38 0.94 -4.44 0.09 -0.40
37  Germany 5.3 2.27 -3.02 82.8 -250.06
38  Netherlands 5.28 1.17 -4.11 16.71 -68.68
39  Czech Republic 5.19 2.46 -2.73 10.66 -29.10
40  France 5.14 3.11 -2.04 63.98 -130.52
41  Belarus 5.09 3.64 -1.45 9.4 -13.63
42  Japan 5.02 0.72 -4.3 127.25 -547.18
43  Norway 4.98 8.18 3.19 4.99 15.92
44  Saint Kitts and Nevis 4.94 0.62 -4.31 0.05 -0.22
45  United Arab Emirates 4.94 1.32 -3.62 6.30 -22.82
46  Bhutan 4.84 5.27 0.43 0.74 0.32
47  French Polynesia 4.73 1.37 -3.36 0.27 -0.91
48  Italy 4.61 1.08 -3.53 60.92 -215.05
49  Barbados 4.48 0.19 -4.29 0.28 -1.20
50  Poland 4.44 2.08 -2.36 38.21 -90.18
51  Greece 4.38 1.61 -2.77 11.12 -30.80
52  Chile 4.36 3.63 -0.73 17.46 -12.75
53  Suriname 4.25 89.33 85.08 0.54 45.94
54  Cyprus 4.21 0.34 -3.87 1.13 -4.37
55  Paraguay 4.16 10.52 6.36 6.69 42.55
56  Brunei 4.06 2.87 -1.19 0.41 -0.49
57  Slovakia 4.06 2.71 -1.35 5.45 -7.36
58  Equatorial Guinea 3.97 4.4 0.44 0.74 0.33
59  Croatia 3.92 2.8 -1.12 4.31 -4.83
60  Portugal 3.88 1.51 -2.37 10.6 -25.12
61  Lebanon 3.84 0.33 -3.51 4.65 -16.32
62  Botswana 3.83 3.47 -0.35 2 -0.70
63  Montenegro 3.78 3.24 -0.54 0.62 -0.33
64  Malaysia 3.71 2.41 -1.3 29.24 -38.01
65  Libya 3.69 0.7 -3 6.16 -18.48
66  Spain 3.67 1.25 -2.42 46.76 -113.16
67  Réunion 3.65 0.18 -3.47 0.86 -2.98
68  New Caledonia 3.58 7.67 4.09 0.25 1.02
69  Venezuela 3.57 2.78 -0.79 29.96 -23.67
70  Mauritius 3.46 0.71 -2.75 1.24 -3.41
71  China 3.38 0.94 -2.44 1408.04 -3435.62
72  Turkey 3.33 1.52 -1.81 74 -133.94
73  Bulgaria 3.32 2.86 -0.46 7.28 -3.35
74  South Africa 3.31 1.15 -2.16 52.39 -113.16
75  Macedonia 3.26 1.51 -1.75 2.11 -3.69
76  Guadeloupe 3.23 0.45 -2.77 0.46 -1.27
77  Argentina 3.14 6.92 3.78 41.09 155.32
78  Bosnia and Herzegovina 3.12 1.63 -1.49 3.83 -5.71
79  Brazil 3.11 9.08 5.97 198.66 1186.00
80  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3.11 1.26 -1.85 0.11 -0.20
81  Guyana 3.07 66.58 63.51 0.8 50.81
82  Grenada 2.98 1.96 -1.01 0.1 -0.10
83  Bolivia 2.96 16.73 13.77 10.5 144.59
84  Nauru 2.94 0.19 -2.76 0.01 -0.03
85  Hungary 2.92 2.17 -0.75 9.98 -7.49
86  Uruguay 2.91 10.32 7.41 3.4 25.19
87  Fiji 2.9 2.37 -0.52 0.88 -0.46
88  Mexico 2.89 1.27 -1.62 120.85 -195.78
89  British Virgin Islands 2.86 2.05 -0.81 0.03 -0.02
90  Costa Rica 2.84 1.53 -1.31 4.8 -6.29
91  Ukraine 2.84 2.27 -0.58 45.53 -26.41
92  Iran 2.79 0.9 -1.89 76.42 -144.43
93  Panama 2.79 2.94 0.15 3.8 0.57
94  Samoa 2.77 1.93 -0.85 0.19 -0.16
95  Romania 2.71 2.32 -0.39 21.76 -8.49
96  Serbia 2.7 1.25 -1.44 9.55 -13.75
97  Tonga 2.7 1.48 -1.22 0.1 -0.12
98  Thailand 2.66 1.24 -1.42 66.78 -94.83
99  Dominica 2.57 1.03 -1.54 0.07 -0.11
100  Mauritania 2.54 4.48 1.93 3.8 7.33
101  Cape Verde 2.52 0.62 -1.9 0.49 -0.93
102  Namibia 2.48 6.88 4.4 2.26 9.94
103  Saint Lucia 2.45 0.34 -2.1 0.18 -0.38
104  French Guiana 2.34 111.35 109.01 0.24 26.16
105  Tunisia 2.34 0.93 -1.4 10.88 -15.23
106  Uzbekistan 2.32 0.92 -1.4 28.54 -39.96
107  Azerbaijan 2.31 0.85 -1.46 9.31 -13.59
108  Peru 2.28 3.97 1.69 29.99 50.68
109  Armenia 2.23 0.89 -1.35 2.97 -4.01
110  Albania 2.21 1.18 -1.03 3.16 -3.25
111  Djibouti 2.19 0.77 -1.42 0.86 -1.22
112  Ecuador 2.17 2.2 0.03 15.49 0.46
113  Egypt 2.15 0.56 -1.59 80.72 -128.34
114  Algeria 2.12 0.59 -1.53 38.48 -58.87
115  Jordan 2.1 0.21 -1.89 7.01 -13.25
116  Martinique 2.08 0.39 -1.7 0.4 -0.68
117  El Salvador 2.07 0.61 -1.46 6.3 -9.20
118  Wallis and Futuna 2.07 1.51 -0.56 0.01 -0.01
119  Gabon 2.02 26.31 24.29 1.63 39.59
120  Swaziland 2.01 0.88 -1.14 1.23 -1.40
121  Ghana 1.97 1.35 -0.62 25.37 -15.73
122  Cuba 1.95 0.76 -1.19 11.27 -13.41
123  Kyrgyzstan 1.91 1.3 -0.61 5.47 -3.34
124  Papua New Guinea 1.91 3.92 2.01 7.17 14.41
125  Guatemala 1.89 0.99 -0.9 15.08 -13.57
126  Jamaica 1.89 0.43 -1.46 2.77 -4.04
127  Iraq 1.88 0.29 -1.59 32.78 -52.12
128  Colombia 1.87 3.6 1.72 47.7 82.04
129  Moldova 1.78 0.8 -0.98 3.51 -3.44
130  Honduras 1.68 1.77 0.09 7.94 0.71
131  Morocco 1.68 0.71 -0.96 32.52 -31.22
132  Lesotho 1.66 0.78 -0.87 2.05 -1.78
133  Vietnam 1.65 1 -0.65 90.8 -59.02
134  Georgia 1.58 1.17 -0.41 4.36 -1.79
135  Indonesia 1.58 1.26 -0.32 246.86 -79.00
136  Niger 1.56 1.24 -0.32 17.16 -5.49
137  Dominican Republic 1.53 0.56 -0.97 10.28 -9.97
138  Guinea-Bissau 1.53 3.03 1.49 1.66 2.47
139  Mali 1.53 1.58 0.05 14.85 0.74
140  Syria 1.51 0.6 -0.91 21.89 -19.92
141  Sao Tome and Principe 1.49 0.87 -0.61 0.19 -0.12
142  Chad 1.46 2.03 0.57 12.45 7.10
143  Myanmar 1.43 1.84 0.41 52.8 21.65
144  Benin 1.41 0.88 -0.53 10.05 -5.33
145  Guinea 1.41 2.09 0.68 11.45 7.79
146  Nicaragua 1.39 2.25 0.87 5.99 5.21
147  Zimbabwe 1.37 0.62 -0.75 13.72 -10.29
148  Sri Lanka 1.32 0.44 -0.88 21.1 -18.57
149  Tanzania 1.32 1.08 -0.24 47.78 -11.47
150  Congo 1.29 10.91 9.63 4.34 41.97
151  Solomon Islands 1.29 4.36 3.08 0.55 1.69
152  Côte d'Ivoire 1.27 1.78 0.51 19.84 10.12
153  Central African Republic 1.24 7.87 6.62 4.53 29.99
154  Sierra Leone 1.24 1.24 0 5.98 0.00
155  Somalia 1.24 1.27 0.03 10.2 0.31
156  Uganda 1.24 0.59 -0.66 36.35 -23.99
157  Laos 1.22 1.62 0.4 6.65 2.66
158  Burkina Faso 1.21 0.98 -0.22 16.46 -3.62
159  Cambodia 1.21 1.09 -0.11 14.86 -1.63
160  Liberia 1.21 2.57 1.35 4.19 5.66
161  Senegal 1.21 1.05 -0.16 13.73 -2.20
162  Cameroon 1.17 1.69 0.52 21.7 11.28
163  North Korea 1.17 0.6 -0.57 24.76 -14.11
164  India 1.16 0.45 -0.71 1236.69 -878.05
165  Nigeria 1.16 0.7 -0.47 168.83 -79.35
166  Togo 1.13 0.53 -0.6 6.64 -3.98
167  Philippines 1.1 0.54 -0.56 96.71 -54.16
168  Comoros 1.03 0.32 -0.7 0.72 -0.50
169  Gambia 1.03 0.82 -0.21 1.79 -0.38
170  Kenya 1.03 0.51 -0.52 43.18 -22.45
171  Yemen 1.03 0.5 -0.53 23.85 -12.64
172  Ethiopia 1.02 0.58 -0.44 91.73 -40.36
173  Madagascar 0.99 2.63 1.64 22.29 36.56
174  Zambia 0.99 2.23 1.24 14.08 17.46
175    Nepal 0.98 0.59 -0.38 27.47 -10.44
176  Angola 0.93 2.55 1.61 20.82 35.52
177  Tajikistan 0.91 0.53 -0.38 8.01 -3.04
178  Mozambique 0.87 2.06 1.19 25.2 29.99
179  Rwanda 0.87 0.54 -0.32 11.46 -3.67
180  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 0.82 3.07 2.25 65.7 147.83
181  Malawi 0.81 0.66 -0.15 15.91 -2.39
182  Burundi 0.8 0.32 -0.48 9.85 -4.73
183  Afghanistan 0.79 0.5 -0.3 29.82 -8.95
184  Pakistan 0.79 0.35 -0.44 179.16 -78.83
185  Bangladesh 0.72 0.38 -0.35 154.7 -54.15
186  Haiti 0.61 0.27 -0.34 10.17 -3.46
187  Timor-Leste 0.48 1.78 1.3 1.11 1.44
188  Eritrea 0.49 1.3 0.88 6.13 5.39

See also[edit]

World map of countries by ecological footprint (2007 data).
World map of countries by their raw ecological footprint compared against the global average biocapacity of 2.1 gha per person in 2007.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Open Data Platform". data.footprintnetwork.org. Retrieved 2018-03-30.

"National Footprint Accounts 2016, Open Data Platform". Global Footprint Network. 5 January 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.