List of countries by extreme temperatures

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This is a list of countries by lowest and highest temperature ever recorded.

Country/Region Lowest temperature Town/Location Date Highest temperature Town/Location Date
 Algeria −13.8 °C (7.2 °F) Mécheria 28 January 2005[1] 51.3 °C (124.3 °F) El Bayadh, El Bayadh Province 2 September 1979[1]
 Botswana 44.0 °C (111.2 °F) Maun 7 January 2016[2]
 Burkina Faso 5 °C (41 °F) Markoye January 1975[3] 47.2 °C (117.0 °F) Dori 1984[3]
 Chad 47.6 °C (117.7 °F) Faya-Largeau 22 June 2010[4]
 Ghana 43.3 °C (109.9 °F) Navrongo 10 April 2015[5]
 Niger 48.2 °C (118.8 °F) Bilma 23 June 2010[4]
 Nigeria 46.4 °C (115.5 °F) Yola 3 April 2010[4]
 Egypt −15 °C (5 °F) Mount Catherine 51 °C (124 °F) Aswan
 Lesotho −21.0 °C (−5.8 °F) ? ?[6]
 Morocco −23.9 °C (−11.0 °F) Ifrane 11 February 1935[7]
 South Africa −20.1 °C (−4.2 °F) Buffelsfontein, near Molteno, Eastern Cape 23 August 2013[8] 50.0 °C (122.0 °F) Dunbrody, Eastern Cape 3 November 1918[9]
 Sudan −1.0 °C (30.2 °F) Zalingei December 1961 and January 1962[10] 49.7 °C (121.5 °F) Dongola 25 June 2010[4]
 Swaziland −6.7 °C (19.9 °F) Big Bend ?[11] 47.7 °C (117.9 °F) Lavumisa ?[11]
 Tunisia 55 °C (131 °F) * Kebili 7 July 1931[12][13]
 Western Sahara 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) Semara 13 July 1961[14][15]
 Zambia 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) Mfuwe, Eastern Province 13 October 2010[4]
 Afghanistan −52.2 °C (−62.0 °F) Shahrak January 1964[16] 49.9 °C (121.8 °F) Farah August 2009[16]
 Armenia −42.0 °C (−43.6 °F) Paghakn and Ashocq 1961[17][18] 43.7 °C (110.7 °F) Meghri 1 August 2011[17][18]
 Azerbaijan −33.0 °C (−27.4 °F) Julfa and Ordubad ?[19] 46.0 °C (114.8 °F) Julfa and Ordubad ?[19]
 Bangladesh 2.6 °C (36.7 °F) Tetulia 8 January 2018 [20] 45.1 °C (113.2 °F) Rajshahi 30 May 1972[21]
 Bhutan 40 °C (104 °F) Phuentsholing 27 August 1997[22]
 Cambodia 10 °C (50 °F) Preah Vihea 6 February 2018[23] 42.6 °C (108.7 °F) Preah Vihea 15 April 2016[24]
 China, mainland −58 °C (−72 °F) Genhe, Inner Mongolia 31 December 2009[25] 50.3 °C (122.5 °F) Ayding Lake, Turpan, Xinjiang 24 July 2015[26]
 Hong Kong −6.0 °C (21.2 °F) Tai Mo Shan 24 January 2016[27] 37.9 °C (100.2 °F) Happy Valley 8 August 2015, 9 July 2016[28]
 India −33.9 °C (−29.0 °F) Dras, Jammu and Kashmir 22 March 1911[29] 51.0 °C (123.8 °F) Phalodi, Rajasthan 19 May 2016[30]
 Indonesia 39.5 °C (103.1 °F) Jatiwangi, Cirebon, West Java /
Semarang, Central Java
December 2006 /
27 October 2015[5]
 Iran −36.0 °C (−32.8 °F) Saqqez 1972[31] 54 °C (129 °F) Ahwaz
Airport (OIAW)
29 June 2017 [14][32][33]
 Iraq 53.9 °C (129.0 °F) Basra 22 July 2016[32][34]
 Israel −14.2 °C (6.4 °F) Merom Golan 10 January 2015[35] 54.0 °C (129.2 °F) * Tirat Zvi 21 June 1942[36]
 Japan −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Asahikawa, Hokkaidō 25 January 1902[37] 41.1 °C (106.0 °F) Kumagaya, Saitama 23 July 2018[37]
 Jordan −16.0 °C (3.2 °F) Shoubak 15 December 2013[38] 50 °C (122 °F) ? 6 September 2002[38]
 Kuwait 54.0 °C (129.2 °F) Mitribah 21 July 2016[32][34][notes 1]
 Kyrgyzstan −53.6 °C (−64.5 °F) ? ?[39] 44.0 °C (111.2 °F) ? ?[39]
 Laos 42.3 °C (108.1 °F) Seno 12 April 2016[24]
 Malaysia 7.8 °C (46.0 °F) Cameron Highlands 1 February 1978[40] 40.1 °C (104.2 °F) Chuping 9 April 1998[40]
 Maldives 17.2 °C (63.0 °F) Hulhulé Island, located at Ibrahim Nasir International Airport 11 April 1978[41] 34.9 °C (94.8 °F) Hanimaadhoo 16 April 2016[24]
 Mongolia −55.3 °C (−67.5 °F) Züüngovi, Uvs Province December 1976[42] 44.0 °C (111.2 °F) Khongor, Darkhan-Uul Province 24 July 1999[42]
 Myanmar −6.0 °C (21.2 °F) Hakha 30 December 1990[43] 47.2 °C (117.0 °F) Myinmu 14 May 2010[44][45]
   Nepal −26.0 °C (−14.8 °F) Thakmarpha, Mustang district ?[46] c 46.0 °C (114.8 °F) Chisapani ?[46]
 North Korea −43.6 °C (−46.5 °F) Chunggangjin 12 January 1933[47]
 Oman 50.8 °C (123.4 °F) Buraimi,
Sohar,
Qurayyat
July 1990,
May 2009,
30 May 2017 [48]
 Pakistan −52 °C (−62 °F)
−62 °C (−80 °F)
−24.1 °C (−11.4 °F)
K2 Base-camp
K2 Peak
Skardu[49]
53.5 °C (128.3 °F) Mohenjo-daro
Turbat
26 May 2010[50][51]
28 May 2017[48][notes 2]
 Philippines −5 °C (23 °F) Mount Pulag January 2010 42.2 °C (108.0 °F) Tuguegarao, Cagayan Valley 12 April 1912, 11 May 1969[52]
 Qatar 50.4 °C (122.7 °F) Doha 14 July 2010[4]
 Saudi Arabia −12.0 °C (10.4 °F) Turaif ?[53] 52.0 °C (125.6 °F) Jeddah 23 June 2010[54]
 Singapore 19.0 °C (66.2 °F) Paya Lebar 14 February 1989[55] 37.0 °C (98.6 °F) Tengah 17 April 1983[55]
 South Korea −32.8 °C (−27.0 °F) Yangpyeong 5 January 1981[56] 41.0 °C (105.8 °F) Hongcheon 1 August 2018[56]
 Syria −23.0 °C (−9.4 °F) Idlib January 1951[57] 49.4 °C (120.9 °F) ? ?[58]
 Taiwan −18.4 °C (−1.1 °F) Yushan 31 January 1970[59] 40.2 °C (104.4 °F) Taitung County 9 May 2004[60]
 Thailand −1.4 °C (29.5 °F) Sakon Nakhon 2 January 1974[61] 44.6 °C (112.3 °F) Mae Hong Son 28 April 2016[24]
 Turkey −46.4 °C (−51.5 °F) Çaldıran, Van Province 9 January 1990[62] 48.8 °C (119.8 °F) Mardin-Kocatepe [tr] (Kızıltepe) 14 August 1993[63]
 Turkmenistan −36.0 °C (−32.8 °F) Daşoguz Region ?[64][65] 50.1 °C (122.2 °F) Repetek Biosphere State Reserve, Karakum Desert 28 July 1983[64][65]
 United Arab Emirates −1.0 °C (30.2 °F) Rekna January 2008[66] 52.1 °C (125.8 °F) Al Jazeera Border Gate July 2002[67][68]
 Vietnam −6.1 °C (21.0 °F) Sa Pa 4 January 1974[69] 42.7 °C (108.9 °F) Con Cuong/Tuong Duong (tied) 30 May 2015[28]/12 May 1966[70]
 Austria −47.1 °C (−52.8 °F) Grünloch doline 19 February 1932[71] 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) Bad Deutsch-Altenburg 8 August 2013[72]
 Belarus −42.2 °C (−44.0 °F) Slavnom, Vitsebsk Voblast 17 January 1940[73] 38.9 °C (102.0 °F) Gomel 7 August 2010[4]
 Belgium −30.1 °C (−22.2 °F) Valley of the Lesse in Rochefort 20 January 1940[74] 38.8 °C (101.8 °F) Uccle 27 June 1947[75][76]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina −42.5 °C (−44.5 °F) Igman in Sarajevo Canton 24 January 1963[77] 46.2 °C (115.2 °F) Mostar 31 July 1901[78]
 Bulgaria −38.3 °C (−36.9 °F) Tran 25 January 1947[79] 45.2 °C (113.4 °F) Sadovo, Plovdiv Province 5 August 1916[79]
 Croatia −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) Čakovec 3 February 1929[80] 42.8 °C (109.0 °F) Ploče 5 August 1981[80]
 Cyprus 45.6 °C (114.1 °F) Lefkoniko 1 August 2010[citation needed]
 Czech Republic −42.2 °C (−44.0 °F) Litvínovice 11 February 1929[81] 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) Dobřichovice, Prague-West District 20 August 2012[81]
 Denmark −31.2 °C (−24.2 °F) Thisted Municipality, North Denmark Region 8 January 1982[82] 36.4 °C (97.5 °F) Holstebro, Midtjylland 10 August 1975[82]
 Estonia −43.5 °C (−46.3 °F) Jõgeva, Jõgeva County 17 January 1940[83] 35.6 °C (96.1 °F) Võru 11 August 1992[83]
 Finland −51.5 °C (−60.7 °F) Kittilä, Lapland 28 January 1999[84] 37.2 °C (99.0 °F) Liperi 29 July 2010[84]
 France −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Mouthe, Doubs 17 January 1985[85] 44.1 °C (111.4 °F) Conqueyrac / Saint-Christol-lès-Alès 12 August 2003[86]
 Germany −45.9 °C (−50.6 °F) Funtensee, Berchtesgadener Land, Bavaria 24 December 2001[87] 40.3 °C (104.5 °F) Kitzingen, Lower Franconia, Bavaria 5 July 2015 / 7 August 2015[88]
 Greece −27.8 °C (−18.0 °F) Ptolemaida 27 January 1963[89] 48.0 °C (118.4 °F) Athens 10 July 1977[90]
 Hungary −35 °C (−31 °F) Görömbölytapolca 16 February 1940[91] 41.9 °C (107.4 °F) Kiskunhalas 20 July 2007[91]
 Iceland −37.9 °C (−36.2 °F) Grímsstaðir 21 January 1918[92][93] 30.5 °C (86.9 °F) Teigarhorn, Djúpivogur 22 June 1939[92][93]
 Ireland −19.1 °C (−2.4 °F) Markree Castle, County Sligo 16 January 1881[94] 33.3 °C (91.9 °F) Kilkenny Castle, County Kilkenny 26 June 1887[94]
 Italy −49.6 °C (−57.3 °F) Busa Fradusta, Pale di San Martino 10 February 2013[95] 47.0 °C (116.6 °F) Foggia, Apulia [notes 3] was measured on 10 August 1999 in Catenanuova, Sicily.[96] Christopher Burt considered this measurement reliable in 2016.[14]}} 25 June 2007[96][97]
 Latvia −43.2 °C (−45.8 °F) Daugavpils 8 February 1956[98] 37.8 °C (100.0 °F) Ventspils 4 August 2014[98]
 Lithuania −42.9 °C (−45.2 °F) Utena, Utena County 1 February 1956[99] 37.5 °C (99.5 °F) Zarasai, Utena County 30 July 1994[99]
 Macedonia −31.5 °C (−24.7 °F) Berovo, Berovo Municipality 27 January 1954[100] 45.7 °C (114.3 °F) Demir Kapija, Demir Kapija 24 July 2007[101][102]
 Malta 1.4 °C (34.5 °F) Malta International Airport 29 January 1981[103][104] 43.8 °C (110.8 °F) Malta International Airport 9 August 1999[103][104]
 Moldova −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) Brătușeni, Edineț District 20 January 1963[105] 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) Falesti 7 August 2012[105]
 Montenegro 44.8 °C (112.6 °F) Podgorica & Danilovgrad 16 August 2007 /
8 August 2012[106]
 Netherlands −27.4 °C (−17.3 °F) Winterswijk 27 January 1942[107] 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) Warnsveld 23 August 1944[107]
 Norway −51.4 °C (−60.5 °F) Karasjok, Finnmark 1 January 1886[108] 35.6 °C (96.1 °F) Nesbyen, Buskerud 20 June 1970[108]
 Poland −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Siedlce, Masovian Voivodeship 11 January 1940[109] 40.2 °C (104.4 °F) Proskau [notes 4] 29 July 1921[109]
 Portugal −16.0 °C (3.2 °F) Penhas da Saúde, Covilhã Municipality
Miranda do Douro
16 January 1945 and 5 February 1954[111] 47.4 °C (117.3 °F) Amareleja, Beja 1 August 2003[112]
 Romania −38.5 °C (−37.3 °F) Bod, Braşov County 25 January 1942[113] 44.5 °C (112.1 °F) Ion Sion, Brăila County 10 August 1951[114]
 Russia −67.8 °C (−90.0 °F) Verkhoyansk and
Oymyakon, both in Sakha Republic
7 February 1892
6 February 1933[115]
45.4 °C (113.7 °F) Utta, Kalmykia 12 July 2010[116]
 Serbia −39.5 °C (−39.1 °F) Karajukica Bunari, Zlatibor District 13 January 1985[117] 44.9 °C (112.8 °F) Smederevska Palanka, Podunavlje 24 July 2007[117]
 Slovakia −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Vígľaš-Pstruša 11 February 1929[118] 40.3 °C (104.5 °F) Hurbanovo 20 July 2007[118]
 Slovenia −34.5 °C (−30.1 °F) Babno Polje 15 February 1956 / 16 February 1956 / 13 January 1968[notes 5][119] 40.8 °C (105.4 °F) Cerklje ob Krki 8 August 2013[120]
 Spain −30 °C (−22 °F) Calamocha Airport, Teruel Province 17 December 1963[121] 47.2 °C (117.0 °F) Murcia 4 July 1994[121]
 Sweden −53.0 °C (−63.4 °F) Malgovik, Västerbotten County 13 December 1941[122] 38.0 °C (100.4 °F) Ultuna, Uppsala County/
Målilla, Kalmar County (tied)
9 July 1933 /
29 June 1947[122]
  Switzerland −41.8 °C (−43.2 °F) La Brévine 12 January 1987[123] 41.5 °C (106.7 °F) Grono, Moesa District 11 August 2003[123]
 Ukraine −41.9 °C (−43.4 °F) Luhansk 8 January 1935[124][125] 42.0 °C (107.6 °F) Luhansk 12 August 2010[124]
 United Kingdom −27.2 °C (−17.0 °F) Braemar, Aberdeenshire
Altnaharra, Sutherland
11 February 1895 and 10 January 1982[126] 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) Faversham, Kent 10 August 2003[126]
 Antigua and Barbuda 16.1 °C (61.0 °F) V. C. Bird International Airport, St. John's 31 December 1974 and 28 January 1976[127][128] 34.9 °C (94.8 °F) V. C. Bird International Airport, St. John's 12 August 1995[127][128]
 Canada −63.0 °C (−81.4 °F) Snag, Yukon 3 February 1947[129][130] 45 °C (113 °F) Yellow Grass, Saskatchewan
Midale, Saskatchewan
5 July 1937[131]
 Cayman Islands 11.1 °C (52.0 °F) Owen Roberts International Airport, Grand Cayman ?[132]
 Cuba 0.6 °C (33.1 °F) Bainoa, Mayabeque Province 18 February 1996[133][134] 38.8 °C (101.8 °F) Jucarito (Granma Province) 17 April 1999[133]
 Dominican Republic −7.0 °C (19.4 °F) Valle Nuevo, Constanza 17 January 1983[135] 43.0 °C (109.4 °F) Mao 31 August 1954[136]
 Greenland −66.1 °C (−87.0 °F) North Ice 9 January 1954[137]
 Guatemala −11.5 °C (11.3 °F) Olintepeque, Quetzaltenango ?[138] 45 °C (113 °F) Estanzuela, Zacapa ?[138] do
 Panama 2.0 °C (35.6 °F) Bajo Grande 20 February 1995[139] 40 °C (104 °F) San Francisco 20 March 1998[139]
 Puerto Rico 4 °C (40 °F) Aibonito/San Sebastian 9 March 1911/ 24 January 1966[140] 40 °C (104 °F) Mona Island 2 July 1996[140]
 United States
−62.2 °C (−80 °F) Prospect Creek, Alaska 23 January 1971[141] 56.7 °C (134 °F) * Furnace Creek Ranch
(formerly Greenland Ranch),
Death Valley, California
10 July 1913[142][143]
 Argentina −32.8 °C (−27.0 °F) Sarmiento, Chubut Province 1 June 1907[144] 48.9 °C (120.0 °F) * Rivadavia, Salta Province 11 December 1905[145][146][147][148]
 Bolivia 46.7 °C (116.1 °F) Villamontes, Tarija Department 29 October 2010 [4][notes 6]
 Brazil −14.0 °C (6.8 °F) Caçador, Santa Catarina June 1952[149][150] 44.7 °C (112.5 °F) Bom Jesus, Piauí 21 November 2005 [151]
 Colombia 45.0 °C (113.0 °F) Puerto Salgar, Cundinamarca 29 December 2015 [152]
 Chile −37.0 °C (−34.6 °F) Coyhaique Alto June 2002[153] 44.9 °C (112.8 °F) Quillón, Biobio Region[notes 7] 26 January 2017[154][155][156]
 Paraguay −7.5 °C (18.5 °F) Pratts Gill, Boquerón Department 13 July 2000[157] 45.0 °C (113.0 °F) Pratts Gill, Boquerón Department 14 November 2009[158][159]
 Peru −25.2 °C (−13.4 °F) Mazo Cruz, Puno Region 30 June 1966[160]
 Uruguay −11.0 °C (12.2 °F) Melo, Cerro Largo Department 14 June 1967[161][162] 44.0 °C (111.2 °F) Paysandú, Paysandú Department 20 January 1943[161][162]
 Venezuela 43.6 °C (110.5 °F) Santa Ana de Coro, Falcón 29 April 2015[28]/12 May 1966[70]
 Australia −23.0 °C (−9.4 °F) Charlotte Pass, New South Wales 29 June 1994[146] 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) Oodnadatta, South Australia 2 January 1960[145][146][163]
 New Zealand −25.6 °C (−14.1 °F) Ranfurly, Central Otago 18 July 1903[164] 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) Rangiora, Canterbury /
Jordan, Marlborough (tied)
7 February 1973[165]
 Samoa 11.1 °C (52.0 °F) Afiamalu 29 September 1971[166] 35.3 °C (95.5 °F) Asau 24 December 1968[166]
 Solomon Islands 36.1 °C (97.0 °F) Honiara, Guadalcanal Province 1 February 2010[4]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to the World Meteorological Organization, the reported temperature is currently under investigation.[34]
  2. ^ The Pakistan Meteorological Department later rounded the temperature on 28 May 2017 in Turbat to 54.0°C, which would be an Asian record shared with Kuwait as well as the highest reliably measured temperature on earth.[48]
  3. ^ A disputed record temperature of 48.5
  4. ^ Record measured on German territory at that time: Proskau, Landkreis Oppeln, Oberschlesien (now Prószków, Opole Voivodeship). The record in Poland proper at that time was attained on the same day by the village of Zbiersk at 40.0 °C.[110]
  5. ^ The lowest unofficially measured temperature in Slovenia was recorded at Komna on 9 January 2009 and reached −49 °C (−56 °F).
  6. ^ Temperature reached on multiple occasions; this is the most recent.
  7. ^ This record is disputed because of the forest fires that occurred around the town of Quillón. It is highly probable those fires have influenced this record.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Seconde Communication Nationale de L'Algerie Sur Les Changements Climatiques a la CCNUCC" (PDF) (in French). Ministere de L'Amenagement du Territoire et de L'Environnement. 2010. p. 27. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  2. ^ "Botswana: Heat Wave Breaks Maximum Temperature Records".
  3. ^ a b "Programme D'Action National D'Adaptation a la Variabilite et aux Changements Climatiques (Pana du Burkina Faso)" (PDF) (in French). Ministere de L'Environnnement et du Cadre de Vie. p. 11. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Masters, Jeff (7 August 2010). "Bolivia ties its all-time heat record". Weather Underground. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
  5. ^ a b "Indonesia ties all-time national heat record". Archived from the original on 9 November 2016. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
  6. ^ "Lesotho – National report on climate change" (PDF). Ministry of Natural Resources. April 2000. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
  7. ^ "WMO Region I (Africa): Lowest Temperature". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
  8. ^ "New minimum temperature record for South Africa". Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  9. ^ "What are the temperature, rainfall and wind extremes in SA?". South African Weather Service. Archived from the original on 17 May 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
  10. ^ "Sudan". Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles. Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  11. ^ a b "Groundwater Resources of Swaziland" (PDF). Swaziland Ministry of Natural Resources, Land Use and Energy. December 1992. p. 6. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  12. ^ Hottest air temperatures reported on Earth Archived 2014-01-03 at the Wayback Machine Weather Underground. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  13. ^ Khalid Ibrahim El Fadli; Randall S. Cerveny; Christopher C. Burt; Philip Eden; David Parker; Manola Brunet; Thomas C. Peterson; Gianpaolo Mordacchini; Vinicio Pelino; Pierre Bessemoulin; José Luis Stella; Fatima Driouech; M.M Abdel wahab; Matthew B. Pace (2012). "World Meteorological Organization Assessment of the Purported World Record 58°C Temperature Extreme at El Azizia, Libya (13 September 1922)". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 94: 199–204. Bibcode:2013BAMS...94..199E. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00093.1. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  14. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference reliably was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  15. ^ Christopher C. Burt , Hottest Reliably Measured Air Temperatures on Earth Archived 2016-08-12 at the Wayback Machine, 22 July 2016, at Weather Underground website.
  16. ^ a b inc, Ibp (2013). Afghanistan Constitution and Citizenship Law Handboook - Strategic Information and Basic Laws. Int'l Business Publications. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-4387-7835-8.
  17. ^ a b "Republic of Armenia Third National Communication on Climate Change" (PDF). Ministry of Nature Protection. 2015. p. 3. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  18. ^ a b "Hottest Day on Record - 43.7 Celsius". Hetq Online. 3 August 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  19. ^ a b Mahmudov, Rza. "Water Resources of the Azerbaijan Republic". Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Azerbaijan Republic. Archived from the original on 24 May 2007. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
  20. ^ "Temperature in Tetulia hits 50-year low". Dhaka Tribune. 8 January 2018.
  21. ^ "Bangladesh records highest temperature 42.2 degree Celsius in last 14 years". Asian Tribune. 27 April 2009. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  22. ^ Passang Norbu (14 June 2013). "The heat has got into the Himalayas". Kuensel. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  23. ^ http://www.mowram.gov.kh/. Retrieved 29 April 2016. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  24. ^ a b c d "Exceptional Heat Wave 2016". Meteo France. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  25. ^ https://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20180123000102-260309/
  26. ^ 50.3℃吐鲁番市艾丁湖刷新"中国热极"记录. news.ts.cn (in Chinese). 2015-07-29.
  27. ^ 多雨極寒的一月. 5 February 2016 – via YouTube.
  28. ^ a b c Masters, Jeff (27 January 2016). "Sixteen National/Territorial All-Time Extreme Heat Records Set in 2015". Wunderground. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  29. ^ De, U.; Dube, R.; Rao, G. (2005). "Extreme Weather Events over India in the last 100 years" (PDF). Journal of Indian Geophysical Union. 3 (3): 173–187. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
  30. ^ "Indian summer makes history, Phalodi in Rajasthan boils at 51°C". Skymet Weather.
  31. ^ رکورد گرمترین و سردترین نقطه ایران مربوط به کی و کجاست؟ / ثبت دمای بالای 71 درجه تا 46 درجه زیر صفر.
  32. ^ a b c Samenow, Jason (22 July 2016). "Two Middle East locations hit 129 degrees, hottest ever in Eastern Hemisphere, maybe the world". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  33. ^ "Temperatures in Iranian city of Ahvaz hit 129.2F (54C), near hottest on Earth in modern measurements". independent.com. 2017-06-30. Retrieved 2017-06-30.
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