List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available and also arguably more meaningful.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data, and while most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalents, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

Foreign exchange reserves[edit]

Rank
[a]
Country or region Foreign exchange
reserves
(millions of US$)
Figures as of Change from previous data
(millions of US$) weekly/monthly
1 Steady  China[b] 3,142,562 Sep 2020[1] Increase 9,720
2 Steady  Japan 1,402,475 July 2020[2] Increase 19,012
3 Steady   Switzerland 965,707 Aug 2020[3][4] Increase 10,635
4 Steady  Russia 585,300[c] 16 Oct 2020[5] Steady 0
5 Steady  India 555,120[d] 16 Oct 2020[6] Increase 3,615
6 Steady  Taiwan[e] 499,600 September 2020[7] Increase 1,431
7 Steady  Saudi Arabia 453,322[f] Aug 2020[8] Increase 5, 444
8 Steady  Hong Kong 445,900 June 2020[9] Increase 1,100
9 Steady  South Korea 420,500 September 2020[10] Increase 1,500
10 Steady  Brazil 357,803 17 September 2020[11] Increase 0,852
11 Steady  Singapore 328,022 Sept 2020[12] Increase 8,854
12 Steady  Thailand 277,383 August 2020[13] Increase 2,890
13 Steady  Germany 268,932 August 2020[14] Increase 10,628
14 Steady  France 231,420 August 2020[15] Increase 40,565
15 Steady  Mexico 196,146 April 2020[16] Increase 6,366
16 Steady  Italy 190,217 April 2020[17] Increase 8,823
17 Steady  United Kingdom 182,693 September 2020[18] Increase 2
18 Steady  Israel 161,688 August 2020[19] Increase 4,026
19 Steady  Czech Republic 159,057 August 2020[20] Increase 1138
20 Steady  United States 140,388[g] August 2020[21] Increase 8,149
21 Steady  Indonesia 135,153 September 2020[22] Decrease 1,888
22 Steady  Poland 112,943 March 2020[23] Decrease 458
23 Steady  Malaysia 104,300 August 2020[24] Increase 461
24 Increase  Philippines 100,490 September 2020[25] Increase 1,540
25  United Arab Emirates 97,741 Aug 2020[26] Increase 394
26 Increase  Vietnam 92,000 September 2020[27] Increase 1,430
27 Increase  Canada 89,895 August 2020[28] Increase 2,573
28 Steady  Iran[h] 86,000 February 2020[29] N/A
29 Decrease  Turkey 83,750 August 2020[30] Decrease 6,504
30 Steady  Spain 79,977.3 September 2020[31] Increase 313.3
-  European Union (ECB)[i] 79,240 April 2020[32] Increase 3,900
31 Increase  Norway 74,995 July 2020[33][34] Increase 5,856
32 Steady  Peru 74,667 August 2020[35][36] Increase 4,933
33 Increase  Iraq 62,900 February 2020 [37] Increase 15.000
34 Decrease  Algeria 62,000 February 2020[38] Decrease 10,600
35 Increase  Australia 55,922 March 2020[39] Increase 1,383
36 Increase  Colombia 55,000 May 2020[40] Increase 2,430
37 Increase  Sweden 54,648 March 2020[41] Increase 1,455
38  Denmark 54,251 March 2020[42] Decrease 8,313
39 Steady  South Africa 53,003 April 2020[43] Increase 576
40 Decrease  Libya 50,000 May 2020[44] Decrease 28,910
41 Increase  Kuwait 47,039 August 2020[45] Increase 1,934
42 Steady  Netherlands 44,859 March 2020[46] Decrease 80
43 Steady  Romania 42,654 March 2020[47] Decrease 1,910
44 Increase  Bangladesh 40,010 October 2020[48] Increase 760
45 Steady  Argentina 39,189 February 2020[49] Increase 317
46 Steady  Qatar 37,729 February 2020[50][51] Increase 430
47 Increase  Chile 37,714 August 2020[52] Increase 1,879
48 Steady  Bulgaria 36,991 March 2020[53] Decrease 300
49 Decrease  Nigeria 36,563 June 2020[54][j] Increase 2,673
50 Steady  Egypt 36,254 April 2020[55]
51 Increase  Uzbekistan 31,000 May 2020 [56] Increase 15.000
52 Steady  Kazakhstan 29,967 March 2020[53] Increase 76
53 Steady  Belgium 29,676 March 2020[53] Increase 46
54 Decrease  Lebanon 29,100 March 2020[57] Decrease 24,000
55 Steady  Hungary 28,209 March 2020[53] Increase 988
56 Increase  Portugal 27,053 March 2020[53] Increase 1,671
57 Decrease  Ukraine 26,500 October 2020[53] Decrease 2,55
58 Decrease  Austria 26,443 March 2020[53] Decrease 557
59 Steady  Morocco 24,644 February 2020[53] Decrease 326
60 Increase  New Zealand 23,897 March 2020[53] Increase 4,959
61 Increase  Macau, China 22,430 April 2020[58] Decrease 391
62 Decrease  Croatia 21,304 February 2020[53] Increase 430
63 Decrease  Turkmenistan 20,600 December 2017[29] N/A
64 Increase  Cambodia 19,500 June 2020 [59] Increase 6.000
65  Jordan 17,267 March 2020[53] Increase 129
66  Guatemala 17,023 July 2020[60] Increase 2.500
67  Serbia 16,930 May 2020[61][k] Increase 3.000
68  Angola 16,400 March 2020[62] Decrease 600
69  Oman 15,867 February 2020[53] Decrease 469
70  Uruguay 15,340 April 2020[63] Increase 1,100
71  Cuba 12,800 31 Dec 2017[29]
72  Kenya 12,766 January 2020[64]
73 Increase  Pakistan 12,066 16 Oct 2020 [65] Increase 268
74  Finland 11,961 July 2020[66] Increase 429
75    Nepal 10,585 July 2020[67] Increase 760
76  Greece 9,798 April 2020[68] Increase 670
77 Increase  Paraguay 8,541 April 2020[69] Increase 800
78 Increase  Dominican Republic 8,215 July 2020 [70] Increase 700
79  North Korea 8,000 November 2013[71]
80 Increase  Costa Rica 7,911 August 2020[72] Increase 500
81  Belarus 7,883 April 2020[66] Decrease 1311
82  Afghanistan 7,800 30 March 2019[73]
83  Slovakia 7,524 April 2020[66]
84  Botswana 7,476 31 December 2017[29]
85  Mauritius 7,217 September 2019[66]
86 Decrease  Azerbaijan 7,115.4 July 2020[74] Decrease 44,414.60
87  Trinidad and Tobago 7,103 October 2019[75]
88  Sri Lanka 7,102 31 July 2020[76]
89  Iceland 6,776 October 2019[66]
90 Decrease  Venezuela 6,330 May 2020[77] Decrease 2,200
91 Decrease  Bolivia 6,272 June 2020[78] Decrease 200
92  Ireland 5,644 October 2019[66]
93  Tunisia 5,540 October 2019[66]
94 Increase  Ecuador 5,377 April 2020[79] Increase 431
95  Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,370 31 December 2017[29]
96 Decrease  Ghana 5,060 April 2020[80] Decrease 2.500
97  Myanmar 5,032 31 December 2017[29][l]
98  Honduras 5,005 July 2019[66]
99  El Salvador 4,735 September 2019[66]
100  Ivory Coast 4,688 31 December 2017[29]
101  Latvia 4,498 September 2019[66]
102  Lithuania 4,481 October 2019[66]
103  Tanzania 4,174 31 December 2017[29]
104  Mongolia 3,986 September 2019[66]
105  Panama 3,888 31 December 2017[29]
106  Albania 3,724 October 2019[66]
107  Jamaica 3,605 March 2019[66]
108  North Macedonia 3,420 September 2019[66]
109  Bahrain 3,415 29 February 2020[citation needed]
110  Brunei 3,407 2018[64]
111  Georgia 3,387 October 2019[66]
112  Ethiopia 3,147 31 December 2017[29]
113  Uganda 3,045 31 December 2017[29]
114  Moldova 2,942 September 2019[66]
115  Armenia 2,840 December 2019[81]
116  Zambia 2,426 31 December 2017[29]
117  Cameroon 2,357 31 December 2017[29]
118  Kyrgyzstan 2,203 September 2019[66]
119  Nicaragua 2,201 August 2019[66]
120  Mozambique 2,193 31 December 2017[29]
121  Haiti 2,044 31 December 2017[29]
122  Namibia 1,949 31 December 2017[29]
123  Papua New Guinea 1,800 31 December 2017[29]
124  Madagascar 1,740 2018[64]
125  Bahamas 1,414 2017[64]
126  Estonia 1,352 October 2019[66]
127  Tajikistan 1,284 2018[64]
128  Montenegro 1,261 2018[64]
138  Bhutan 1,238. 2019[64]
129  Guinea 1,225 2018[64]
130  Luxembourg 1,070 October 2019[66]
131  Curaçao 1,055 31 October 2019[82][m]
132  Niger 1,039 2015[64][failed verification]
133  Cyprus 1,034 October 2019[66]
134  Rwanda 1,026 31 December 2017[29]
135  Slovenia 1,022 October 2019[66]
136  Laos 990 31 December 2017[29]
137  Aruba 980 2018[64]
139  Lesotho 983 31 December 2017[29]
140  Fiji 967 31 December 2017[29]
141  Mauritania 934 2018[64]
142  Malta 890 October 2019[66]
143  Kosovo 881 2018[64]
144  Gabon 835 31 December 2017[29]
145  Republic of the Congo 813 31 December 2017[29]
146  Malawi 760 2018[64]
147  Maldives 722 2018[64]
148  Timor-Leste 674 2018[64]
149  Palestine 632 August 2019[66][n]
150  Mali 624 2015[64][failed verification]
151  Solomon Islands 617 2018[64]
152  Cape Verde 606 2018[64]
153  Seychelles 535 September 2019[66]
154  Guyana 518 2018[64]
155  Sierra Leone 503 2018[64]
156  Suriname 581 2018[64]
157  Liberia 475 2017[64]
158  Djibouti 454 2018[64]
159  Democratic Republic of the Congo 445 31 December 2017[29]
160  Eswatini 441 2018[64]
161  Vanuatu 421 2018[64]
162  Equatorial Guinea 416 31 December 2017[29]
163  Syria 407 31 December 2017[29]
164  Antigua and Barbuda 389 2018[64]
165  Saint Kitts and Nevis 363 2018[64]
166  Central African Republic 362 2018[64]
167  San Marino 339 2018[64]
168  Guinea-Bissau 332 2015[64][failed verification]
169  Belize 294 2018[64]
170  Saint Lucia 286 2018[64]
171  Tonga 277 2018[64]
172  Eritrea 237 31 December 2017[29]
173  Grenada 234 2018[64]
174  Togo 215 31 December 2017[29]
175  Barbados 205 31 December 2017[29]
176  Yemen 245 31 December 2017[29]
177  Sudan 178 2017[64]
178  Federated States of Micronesia 204 2017[64]
179  Comoros 199 2018[64]
180  Gambia 192 2018[64]
181  Dominica 191 2018[64]
182  Samoa 170 2018[64]
183  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 170 2018[64]
184  Senegal 152 31 December 2017[29]
185  Chad 148 2018[64]
186  Zimbabwe 87 2018[64]
187  South Sudan 68 2016[64]
188  Burundi 68 2018[64]
189  Benin 60 31 December 2017[29]
190  Montserrat 49 31 December 2017[29]
191  Burkina Faso 45 31 December 2017[29]
192  São Tomé and Príncipe 47 2018[64]
193  Somalia 32 30 December 2017[29]
194  Kiribati 7 31 December 2017[29]

Timeline of the top 5 countries[edit]

The five countries with the largest foreign exchange reserves almost all have reserves of at least 500 billion USD and higher and have maintained such an amount for at least a week. At present there are only five countries whose reserves are at such a figure; this includes China, Japan, Russia, Switzerland and India. Saudi Arabia formerly included on the list until March 2020; its reserves were severely depleted by the low oil price during the economic fallout of from the global outbreak of coronavirus disease, its ongoing oil price war with Russia and competition from US shale oil.[84]

The images below shows the timeline of their reserves since the earliest available forex data. The list is in accordance to their respective positions.

China

Foreign Exchange Reserves of China

The foreign-exchange reserves of China are the greatest of all countries and been so for more than 14 years.[85][86] The main composition of Chinese forex reserves is approximately two-thirds USD and one-fifth Euros with the rest made up of Japanese Yen and the British Pound. China is also the only country that has ever had net reserves greater than $4 trillion.

Japan

Foreign Exchange Reserves of Japan

Japanese foreign exchange reserves are the second biggest reserves in the world. Japan was the first country to reach $500 billion in reserves and had the highest forex reserves in the world until they were surpassed by China in 2006. Since 2006 they have remained in second place with over $1 trillion, being only the second country to surpass such an amount.[87]

Switzerland

Foreign Exchange Reserves of Switzerland in CHF

Swiss forex reserves are the third biggest reserves in the world and reached $500 Billion in 2014 becoming fifth country to do so after Saudi Arabia. Swiss reserves are compiled in Swiss franc. The high reserves are mainly because of their historic high net trade surplus.

Russia

Foreign Exchange Reserves of Russia

Russian reserves are the world's fourth biggest; they were the third country to reach $500 billion.[88] The first fall in reserves was because of the 2008 financial crisis, the second fall in 2015 was due to sanctions imposed by the European Union following the Russian annexation of the Crimea.

India

Foreign Exchange Reserves of India

The Foreign-exchange reserves of India became the fifth largest on 5th June 2020 after the Reserve Bank of India released its weekly bulletin. On 12th June 2020 reserves exceeded $500 billion for the first time and they became the sixth country after Switzerland to do so.[89] During the 1991 Indian economic crisis country only had $5 billion of reserves left which led to subsequent economic liberalisation. Since then the reserves had seen a 10,000% increase in under 30 years.[90]

Currency composition of foreign exchange reserves[edit]

IMF releases the quarterly data on the currency composition of official foreign exchange reserves. The data are reported to the IMF on a voluntary and confidential basis. As of Q4 2016, there are 146 reporters, consisting of IMF member countries, a number of non-member countries/economies, and other entities holding foreign exchange reserves. From Q4 2016, the data was expanded to include renminbi (RMB).[91]Monetary gold is not covered in COFER but included in reserved assets, a broader scope than that of COFER.[92]

Currency Composition of Foreign Exchange Reserves (COFER)
(US Dollars, billions)[91]
No. Currency Q4 2016 Q1 2017 Q2 2017 Q3 2017 Q4 2017 Q1 2018 Q2 2018 Q3 2018 Q4 2018 Q1 2019 Q2 2019 Q3 2019 Q4 2019 Q1 2020
1 United StatesUSD 5,501.98 5,713.35 5,909.13 6,124.73 6,280.61 6,530.87 6,560.78 6,632.15 6,617.84 6,727.09 6,752.28 6,728.85 6,674.83 6,794.91
2 European UnionEUR 1,610.87 1,703.13 1,847.19 1,933.68 2,019.25 2,117.57 2,129.41 2,192.43 2,219.34 2,208.79 2,264.88 2,212.74 2,279.30 2,197.30
3 JapanJPY 332.93 399.85 427.79 435.67 491.01 477.28 511.52 532.94 558.36 584.63 611.87 612.75 631.00 624.97
4 United KingdomGBP 365.85 377.89 409.48 434.08 454.12 486.13 469.86 481.10 475.45 495.70 497.41 492.22 511.51 486.08
5 CanadaCAD 163.14 167.49 178.77 192.85 202.80 193.29 200.22 208.74 197.76 208.64 209.85 205.44 206.71 195.13
6 AustraliaAUD 142.30 156.28 162.31 171.22 180.01 176.96 178.61 180.91 174.21 181.95 186.71 182.48 187.18 170.16
7 ChinaRMB 90.78 95.42 100.00 108.37 123.47 145.67 192.75 192.38 202.79 212.26 212.80 213.83 215.81 221.48
8 SwitzerlandCHF 13.69 14.45 15.60 16.31 18.09 17.93 17.18 17.18 15.86 15.27 15.53 16.20 17.36 16.05
Other currencies 199.51 208.28 209.55 228.81 244.69 256.46 254.62 269.60 266.07 263.50 270.56 262.92 281.50 255.53
Unallocated Reserves 2,293.61 2,063.28 1,859.04 1,650.32 1,430.36 1,201.40 951.69 692.22 690.55 712.93 715.88 729.40 749.55 770.32
Total 10,714.68 10,899.42 11,118.86 11,296.05 11,444.41 11,603.57 11,466.63 11,399.66 11,418.24 11,610.77 11,737.76 11,656.82 11,824.74 11,731.94

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ increment & decrement icon of countries resets at end of month or till specific country releases its forex reserve data.
  2. ^ Excluding figures for Hong Kong and Macau.
  3. ^ Russian Federation release weekly data of its reserves instead of monthly data.
  4. ^ Indian reports are released on a weekly basis rather than the traditional monthly basis with the figures being of the previous week.
  5. ^ Formally known as the Republic of China
  6. ^ Amount calculated on 01 Sep 2020 when 1sar : 0.2666 usd.
  7. ^ US reports are released on a weekly basis with the figures being of two weeks back.
  8. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.
  9. ^ Not to be confused over 'Eurozone' ECB is the common bank of European countries that have opted for Euro as their common currency but eurozone includes the total amount of foreign reserves held by the different European countries central bank and provides collective data of all European members.
  10. ^ Nigeria's number is of 30-day moving average.
  11. ^ September 2019 number is based on EUR reported and EUR/USD average rate of 1.0917 as reported.
  12. ^ Indicated as Burma in CIA report.
  13. ^ Figure reported in NAf (ANG), and derived using currency peg of 1USD to 1.79ANG[83].
  14. ^ Name in IMF data is "West Bank and Gaza".

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  88. ^ "Russian Reserves March Toward $600 Billion As Sanction Threats Loom, Fitch Says". www.rferl.org.
  89. ^ "India's forex reserves crosses half trillion for the first time".
  90. ^ {{Cite India's total foreign exchange (Forex) reserves stand at around US$538.191 Billion on 07 August 2020, the highest ever, with the Foreign Exchange Assets (FCA) component at around US$492.293 Billion, Gold Reserves at around US$39.785 Billion, SDRs (Special Drawing Rights with the IMF) of around US$1.481 Billion and around US$4.632 Billion Reserve Position in the IMF, as per Reserve Bank of India's (RBI) weekly statistical supplement published on 07 August 2020.[3] The Economic survey of India 2014-15 said India could target foreign exchange reserves of US$750 Billion-US$1 Trillion.[4 web|url=https://www.bloombergquint.com/amp/opinion/from-5-to-500-indias-forex-reserves-journey-since-1991%7Ctitle=From 5 to 500}}
  91. ^ a b "IMF Data - Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves (COFER)". International Monetary Fund. 30 March 2018.
  92. ^ " ". data.imf.org. Retrieved 22 August 2020.

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