List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data, and while most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

Foreign-exchange reserves[edit]

Rank Country or region Foreign-exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  China 3,087,000 Sep 2018[1]
2  Japan 1,256,018 April 2018[2]
3   Switzerland 800,389 May 2018[3]
4  Saudi Arabia 506,400 July 2018[4]
5  Russia 459,200 05 Oct 2018[5]
6  Taiwan[6] 460,441 September 2018[7][8]
7  Hong Kong 424,900 Aug 2018[9]
8  South Korea 403,000 Sep 2018[10]
9  India 399,609 05 Oct 2018[11]
10  Brazil 380,738 Sep 2018[12]
11  Singapore 288,044 June 2018[13]
12  Thailand 249,312 April 2018[14]
13  Germany 200,312 September 2017[15]
14  France 175,890 December 2017[16]
15  Mexico 173,022 January 2018[17][18]
16  United Kingdom 164,210 31 March 2018[19]
17  Czech Republic 144,142 September 2018[20]
18  Italy 143,183 March 2016[21]
19  Iran 132,600 31 December 2017[22]
20  United States 120,493 27 July 2018[23]
21  Poland 119,470 March 2018[24]
22  Indonesia 117,927 August 2018[25]
23  Israel 115,459 September 2018[26]
24  Malaysia 104,500 31 July 2018[27]
25  Turkey 98,385 June 2018[28]
26  Algeria 97,670 December 2017[29]
27  United Arab Emirates 89,790 31 December 2017[22]
28  Canada 83,130 November 2016[30][31]
29  Philippines 77,934 August 2018[32][33]
 Europe (ECB) €62,944, 80,292.39 28 February 2018[34][35]
 Europe (ECB - Eurosystem) €667,754, 857,965.1 28 February 2018[36][37]
30  Libya 70,990 31 December 2015[22]
31  Norway 64,960 March 2018[38][39]
32  Peru 64,290 January 2018[40]
33  Denmark 64,016 March 2016[41]
34  Vietnam 63,000 May 2018[42]
35  Sweden 59,558 February 2016[43]
36  Australia 58,676 31 March 2018[44]
37  Spain 54,155 March 2016[45]
38  Iraq 54,060 31 December 2015[22]
39  South Africa 50,722 December 2017[46]
40  Argentina 50,613 12 September 2018
41  Nigeria 47,361 25 April 2018[47]
42  Colombia 46,798 April 2016[22][48]
43  Azerbaijan 44,000 March 2018[49][50][51]
44  Egypt 44,000 April 2018[52]
45  Lebanon 43,000 31 November 2017[22]
46  Netherlands 40,393 April 2016[53]
47  Romania 40,148 April 2016[54]
48  Chile 39,553 March 2016[55]
49  Bangladesh 32,951 August 2018[56]
50  Hungary 31,367 March 2016[57]
51  Kazakhstan 30,993 February 2018[58]
52  Kuwait 28,370 31 December 2015[22]
53  Belgium 24,861 March 2016[59]
54  Austria 24,758 March 2016[60]
55  Bulgaria 24,318 March 2016[22][61]
56  Angola 24,080 31 December 2015[22]
57  Qatar 24,030 July 2017[22]
58  Morocco 23,927 February 2016[22][62][63]
59  New Zealand 22,183 31 March 2018[64]
60  Portugal 21,328 March 2016[65]
61  Macau, China 19,330 October 2016[66]
62  Oman 17,540 31 December 2015[22]
63  Ukraine 17,175 1 May 2017[67]
64  Jordan 15,360 August 2017[68]
65  Uzbekistan 15,000 31 December 2015[22]
66  Uruguay 14,377 February 2016[69]
67  Croatia 14,307 February 2016[22][70]
68  Turkmenistan 13,620 31 December 2015[22]
69  Bolivia 12,818 January 2016[71]
70  Cambodia 12,300 May 2018[72]
71  Serbia 12,150 February 2018[73]
72  Cuba 12,100 31 December 2015[22]
73  Finland 10,552 March 2018[74]
74  Venezuela 9,591 March 2018[75]
75    Nepal 9,329 15 July 2018[76]
76  Sri Lanka 8,590 31 Aug 2018 [77]
77  Myanmar 8,463 31 December 2015[22]
78  Kenya 8,436 27 Sep 2018[78]
79  Trinidad and Tobago 8,111 April 2018[79]
80  Pakistan 8,088 12 Oct 2018[80]
81  North Korea 8,000 November 2013[81]
82  Costa Rica 7,784 February 2016[82]
83  Guatemala 7,658 March 2016[83]
84  Botswana 7,546 31 December 2015[22]
85  Greece 7,535 March 2016[84]
86  Afghanistan 7,500 31 December 2017[85]
87  Tunisia 6,714 February 2016[86]
88  Dominican Republic 6,459 March 2017[87]
89  Iceland 6,186 April 2016[88]
90  Paraguay 5,939 31 December 2015[22]
91  Ghana 5,885 31 December 2015[22]
92  Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,370 December 2017[89]
93  Belarus 4,817 1 November 2016[90][91]
94  Ivory Coast 4,716 31 December 2015[22]
95  Bahrain 4,657 31 December 2015[22]
96  Mauritius 4,498 March 2016[92]
97  Tanzania 4,073 31 December 2015[22]
98  Honduras 3,755 March 2016[93]
99  Latvia 3,520 March 2016[62][94]
100  Panama 3,378 31 December 2015[22]
101  Brunei 3,366 2015[95]
102  Ireland 3,347 March 2016[62][96]
103  Albania 3,188 March 2016[22][62][97]
104  El Salvador 3,172 March 2016[98]
105  Ethiopia 3,113 31 December 2015[22]
106  Zambia 2,968 31 December 2015[22]
107  Uganda 2,909 31 December 2015[22]
108  Slovakia 2,879 January 2016[22][99]
109  Georgia 2,760 October 2016[62][100][101]
110  Jamaica 2,740 February 2016[22][62][102]
111  Cameroon 2,714 31 December 2015[22]
112  Mozambique 2,582 31 December 2015[22]
113  Nicaragua 2,520 April 2016[22][62][103]
114  Ecuador 2,496 31 December 2015[22]
115  Macedonia 2,480 February 2016[22][62][104]
116  Republic of the Congo 2,244 31 December 2015[22]
117  Moldova 2,098 25 November 2016[105][106][107]
118  Senegal 2,012 31 December 2015[22]
119  Armenia 2,008 May 2018[108]
120  Yemen 1,978 31 December 2015[22]
121  Kyrgyzstan 1,944 October 2016[22][62][109][110]
122  Haiti 1,919 31 December 2015[22]
123  Gabon 1,878 31 December 2015[22]
124  Curaçao 1,791 2015[95]
125  Papua New Guinea 1,738 31 December 2015[22]
126  Namibia 1,690 31 December 2015[22]
127  Lithuania 1,227 April 2016[62][111]
128  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,216 31 December 2015[22]
129  Equatorial Guinea 1,205 31 December 2015[22]
130  Bhutan 1,103 2015[95]
131  Luxembourg 1,077 March 2016[22][62][112]
132  Laos 1,058 31 December 2015[22][95]
133  Niger 1,039 2015[95]
133  Mongolia 1,039 October 2016[113]
135  Rwanda 1,030 31 December 2015[22]
136  Mauritania 969 2012[95]
137  Fiji 919 31 December 2015[22]
138  Lesotho 904 31 December 2015[22]
139  Bahamas 896 31 December 2015[22][95]
140  Kosovo 890 30 September 2015[22][95][114]
141  Cyprus 889 March 2016[22][62][115]
142  Slovenia 870 April 2016[62][116]
143  Madagascar 832 31 December 2015[22]
144  Aruba 816 2015[95]
145  Syria 773 31 December 2015[22]
146  Montenegro 734 2015[22][95]
147  Benin 732 31 December 2015[22][95]
148  Malawi 693 31 December 2015[22][95]
149  Malta 671 March 2016[22][62][117]
150  Barbados 658 31 December 2015[22]
151  Mali 624 2015[95]
152  Sierra Leone 621 2015[95]
153  Guyana 601 31 December 2015[22]
154  Maldives 576 2015[22][95]
155  Togo 574 31 December 2015[22][95]
156  Seychelles 555 March 2016[22][62][118]
157  Swaziland 548 31 December 2015[22][95]
158  Liberia 523 2015[95]
159  Solomon Islands 520 2015[95]
160  Cape Verde 495 31 December 2015[22][95]
161  Estonia 494 March 2016[22][62][119]
161  Tajikistan 494 31 December 2015[22]
163  Palestine 464 March 2016[62][120]
164  Timor-Leste 438 2015[95]
165  Belize 437 31 December 2015[22][95]
166  San Marino 392 2014[95]
167  Chad 383 31 December 2015[22]
168  Djibouti 365 2015[95]
169  Antigua and Barbuda 356 2015[95]
170  Zimbabwe 339 31 December 2015[22][95]
171  Burkina Faso 333 31 December 2016[22]
172  Guinea-Bissau 332 2015[95]
173  Suriname 330 31 December 2015[22][95]
174  Saint Lucia 318 2015[95]
175  Saint Kitts and Nevis 288 2015[95]
176  Vanuatu 251 31 December 2016[22][95]
177  Guinea 244 31 December 2016[22][95]
178  South Sudan 230 2015[95]
179  Central African Republic 214 2015[95]
180  Eritrea 213 31 December 2016[22]
181  Comoros 201 2015[95]
182  Grenada 198 2015[95]
183  Tonga 181 31 December 2016[22][95]
184  Sudan 167 31 December 2016[22][95]
185  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 165 31 December 2016[22][95]
186  Samoa 139 31 December 2015[22][95]
187  Federated States of Micronesia 135 2015[95]
188  Burundi 100 31 December 2016[22]
189  Dominica 100 31 December 2016[22]
190  Gambia 92 31 December 2016[22]
191  São Tomé and Príncipe 68 31 December 2016[22]
192  Montserrat 51 31 December 2015[22]
193  Somalia 30 2014[22]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ Indian reports are released on a weekly basis with the figures being of the previous week.
  3. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

Currency composition of foreign-exchange reserves[edit]

IMF releases the quarterly data on the currency composition of official foreign exchange reserves. The data are reported to the IMF on a voluntary and confidential basis. As of Q4 2016, there are 146 reporters, consisting of IMF member countries, a number of non-member countries/economies, and other entities holding foreign exchange reserves. From Q4 2016, the data was expanded to include renminbi (RMB).[121]

Currency Composition of Foreign Exchange Reserves (COFER)
(US Dollars, Billions)[121]
No. Currency Q4 2016 Q1 2017 Q2 2017 Q3 2017 Q4 2017
1 United StatesUSD 5,501.98 5,713.35 5,909.13 6,124.73 6,281.54
2 European UnionEUR 1,610.87 1,703.13 1,847.19 1,933.68 2,018.54
3 JapanJPY 332.93 399.85 427.79 435.67 490.14
4 United KingdomGBP 365.85 377.89 409.48 434.08 454.55
5 CanadaCAD 163.14 167.49 178.77 192.85 202.82
6 AustraliaAUD 142.30 156.28 162.31 171.22 180.00
7 ChinaRMB 90.78 95.42 100.00 108.37 122.80
8 SwitzerlandCHF 13.69 14.45 15.60 16.31 18.15
Other currencies 199.51 208.28 209.55 228.81 250.08
Unallocated Reserves 2,293.61 2,063.28 1,859.04 1,650.32 1,406.34
Total 10,714.68 10,899.42 11,118.86 11,296.05 11,424.95

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External links[edit]