List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

For consistency, forward currency swap contracts are not included in this list until they mature; figures that include them may be higher or lower than those listed here. IMF or other outstanding loans are also not shown here; if they were accounted for, many nations would list lower.

Rank Country Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  China[1] 3,899,285 Dec 2014[1]
2  Japan 1,250,073 Apr 2015[2]
3  Saudi Arabia 686,431 Apr 2015[3]
4   Switzerland 599,906 Apr 2015[4]
5  Republic of China (Taiwan) 423,171 Apr 2015[5]
6  South Korea 374,750 Jun 2015[6][7]
7  Brazil 364,473 Apr 2015[8]
8  Russia 362,000 Jun 26, 2015[9][10][11]
9  India 355,222 Jun 26, 2015[12][13]
-  Hong Kong 343,213 Apr 2015[14]
10  Singapore 250,189 May 2015[15]
11  Mexico 198,320 Apr 2015[16][17]
12  Algeria 193,600 Dec 2014[18]
13  Germany 192,627 Apr 2015[19]
14  Thailand 161,103 Apr 2015[20]
15  United Kingdom 156,056 Apr 2015[21]
16  France 141,503 Apr 2015[22]
17  Italy 139,916 Apr 2015[23]
18  Turkey 122,851 Apr 2015[24]
19  United States 121,505 Apr 2015[25]
20  Indonesia 110,867 Apr 2015[26]
21  Iran[2] 110,000 Dec 2014[18]
22  Denmark 108,283 Apr 2015[27]
23  Malaysia 105,848 Apr 2015[28][29]
24  Libya 105,000 Dec 2014[18]
25  Poland 102,918 Apr 2015[30]
26  Israel 86,287 Apr 2015[31]
27  Philippines 80,850 Apr 2015[32][33]
28  Canada 77,843 Apr 2015[34]
29  United Arab Emirates 74,700 Dec 2014[18]
30  Iraq 74,000 Dec 2014[18]
31  Norway 68,207 Apr 2015[35]
32  Sweden 60,489 Apr 2015[36]
33  Peru 59,778 Jun 15, 2015[37]
34  Spain 55,182 May 2015[38]
35  Australia 54,099 Apr 2015[39]
36  Czech Republic 54,735 Apr 2015[40]
37  Lebanon 49,430 Dec 2014[18]
38  Colombia 46,662 Apr 2015[41]
39  South Africa 46,437 Apr 2015[42]
40  Hungary 41,435 Apr 2015[43]
41  Netherlands 41,331 Apr 2015[44]
42  Qatar 41,036 Apr 2015[45]
43  Chile 38,819 Apr 2015[46]
44  Kuwait 38,500 Dec 2014[18]
45  Romania 37,774 Apr 2015[47]
46  Vietnam 35,700 Dec 2014[18]
47  Argentina 33,909 Apr 2015[48]
48  Angola 33,590 Dec 2014[18]
49  Nigeria 29,830 Apr 2015[49]
50  Kazakhstan 28,791 Apr 2015[50]
51  Turkmenistan 27,040 Dec 2014[18]
52  Belgium 25,110 Apr 2015[51]
53  Austria 24,620 Apr 2015[52]
54  Bangladesh 23,708 May 2015[53]
55  Bulgaria 21,833 Apr 2015[54]
56  Portugal 21,217 Apr 2015[55]
57  Morocco 20,970 Dec 2014[18]
58  Venezuela 20,200 Dec 2014[18]
59  Uruguay 18,810 Apr 2015[56]
60  Uzbekistan 18,000 Dec 2014[18]
61  Oman 17,850 Dec 2014[18]
62  New Zealand 17,807 Apr 2015[57]
63  Azerbaijan 17,710 Dec 2014[18]
-  Macau 17,195 Apr 2015[58]
64  Jordan 16,270 Apr 2015[59]
65  Croatia 16,218 Apr 2015[60]
66  Pakistan 15,692 May 2015[61]
67  Bolivia 15,380 Dec 2014[18]
68  Egypt 15,130 Dec 2014[18]
69  Serbia 13,700 Dec 2014[18]
70  Trinidad and Tobago 11,317 Dec 2014[62]
71  Finland 10,446 Apr 2015[63]
72  Cuba 10,400 Dec 2014[18]
73  Ukraine 9,918 May 2015[64]
74  Kenya 9,259 Dec 2014[18]
75  Botswana 8,885 Dec 2014[18]
76  Burma 8,727 Dec 2014[18]
77  Costa Rica 8,444 Apr 2015[65]
78  Sri Lanka 8,314 Dec 2014[18]
79  Guatemala 7,717 Apr 2015[66]
80  Paraguay 7,241 Dec 2014[18]
81  Tunisia 7,198 Dec 2014[18]
82  Ecuador 6,811 Dec 2014[18]
83  Afghanistan 6,442 Dec 2013[18]
84  Bahrain 6,011 Dec 2014[18]
85  Cambodia 5,801 Dec 2014[18]
86  Greece 5,756 May 2015[67]
87  Ghana 5,482 Dec 2014[18]
88    Nepal 5,439 Dec 2013[18]
89  Republic of the Congo 5,200 Dec 2014[18]
90  Tanzania 4,758 Dec 2014[18]
91  Ivory Coast 4,752 Dec 2014[18]
92  Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,750 Dec 2014[18]
93  Yemen 4,688 Dec 2014[18]
94  Belarus 4,571 Apr 2015[68]
95  Dominican Republic 4,503 Dec 2014[18]
96  Iceland 4,373 May 2015[69]
97  Mauritius 3,919 Dec 2014[70]
98  Ethiopia 3,785 Dec 2014[18]
99  Uganda 3,711 Dec 2014[18]
100  Papua New Guinea 3,647 Dec 2014[18]
101  Honduras 3,587 Apr 2015[71]
102  Cameroon 3,503 Dec 2014[18]
103  Latvia 3,349 May 2015[72]
104  Mozambique 3,334 Dec 2014[18]
105  Panama 3,048 Dec 2014[18]
106  Zambia 3,000 Dec 2014[18]
107  Macedonia 2,869 Dec 2014[18]
108  Albania 2,825 Dec 2014[18]
109  Equatorial Guinea 2,763 Dec 2014[18]
110  Georgia 2,699 Dec 2014[73]
111  El Salvador 2,693 Dec 2014[74]
112  Slovakia 2,634 Dec 2014[75]
113  Gabon 2,397 Dec 2014[18]
114  Nicaragua 2,333 Mar 2015[76]
115  Moldova 2,157 Dec 2014[77]
116  Senegal 2,150 Dec 2013[18]
117  Jamaica 1,900 Dec 2013[18]
118  Syria 1,895 Dec 2013[18]
119  Kyrgyzstan 1,855 Dec 2014[78]
120  Ireland 1,792 Dec 2014[79]
121  Namibia 1,651 Dec 2014[18]
122  Mongolia 1,650 Dec 2014[80]
123  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,582 Dec 2013[18]
124  Armenia 1,489 Dec 2014[81]
125  Rwanda 1,354 Dec 2013[18]
126  Haiti 1,335 Dec 2013[18]
127  Chad 1,304 Dec 2013[18]
128  Madagascar 1,249 Dec 2013[18]
129  Burkina Faso 1,115 Dec 2013[18]
130  Tajikistan 1,072 Dec 2013[18]
131  Lithuania 1,069 May 2015[82]
132  Slovenia 1,017 Dec 2014[83]
133  Suriname 1,008 Dec 2013[18]
134  Fiji 981 Dec 2014[18]
135  Cyprus 899 Apr 2015[84]
136  Lesotho 858 Dec 2013[18]
137  Guyana 855 Dec 2013[18]
138  Laos 846 Dec 2013[18]
139  Bahamas 830 Dec 2013[18]
140  Luxembourg 804 Apr 2015[85]
141  Benin 801 Dec 2013[18]
142  Swaziland 801 Dec 2013[18]
143  Barbados 713 Dec 2013[18]
144  Malta 619 Dec 2014[86]
145  Togo 531 Dec 2013[18]
146  Estonia 437 Dec 2014[87]
147  Zimbabwe 437 Dec 2013[18]
148  Cape Verde 426 Dec 2013[18]
149  Montenegro 400 Dec 2013[18]
150  Malawi 364 Dec 2013[18]
151  Seychelles 362 Dec 2013[18]
152  Maldives 356 Dec 2013[18]
153  Burundi 314 Dec 2013[18]
154  San Marino 309 Dec 2013[18]
155  Belize 273 Dec 2013[18]
156  Gambia 251 Dec 2013[18]
157  Sudan 202 Dec 2013[18]
158  Eritrea 193 Dec 2013[18]
159  Guinea 183 Dec 2013[18]
160  Vanuatu 174 Dec 2013[18]
161  Samoa 169 Dec 2013[18]
162  Tonga 147 Dec 2013[18]
163  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 115 Dec 2013[18]
164  Dominica 90 Dec 2013[18]
165  Federated States of Micronesia 75 Dec 2013[18]
166  São Tomé and Príncipe 47 Dec 2013[18]
167  Montserrat 32 Dec 2013[18]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The time-series data of International Investment Position of China, Quarterly". State Administration of Foreign Exchange. 
  2. ^ IMF - Japan
  3. ^ "Table(9): RESERVE ASSETS (on page 18 of the pdf file; US$1 = 3.75 Saudi riyal)" (PDF). Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. 
  4. ^ IMF - Switzerland
  5. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)" (PDF). 
  6. ^ IMF - Korea, Republic of
  7. ^ Bank of Korea - Official Foreign Reserves
  8. ^ IMF - Brazil
  9. ^ IMF - Russia
  10. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Monthly values | Bank of Russia
  11. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Weekly values | Bank of Russia
  12. ^ IMF - India
  13. ^ Reserve Bank of India
  14. ^ Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Press Release
  15. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  16. ^ IMF - Mexico
  17. ^ Banco de Mexico - Information structure details
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  19. ^ IMF - Germany
  20. ^ Bank of Thailand - International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  21. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  22. ^ IMF - France
  23. ^ IMF - Italy
  24. ^ IMF - Turkey
  25. ^ IMF - United States
  26. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  27. ^ IMF - Denmark
  28. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  29. ^ Bank Negara Malaysia - International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  30. ^ IMF - Poland
  31. ^ IMF - Israel
  32. ^ IMF - Philippines
  33. ^ Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas - INTERNATIONAL RESERVES AND FOREIGN CURRENCY LIQUIDITY
  34. ^ IMF - Canada
  35. ^ IMF - Norway
  36. ^ IMF - Sweden
  37. ^ IMF- Peru
  38. ^ IMF - Spain
  39. ^ IMF - Australia
  40. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  41. ^ IMF - Colombia
  42. ^ IMF - South Africa
  43. ^ IMF - Hungary
  44. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  45. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  46. ^ IMF - Chile
  47. ^ IMF - Romania
  48. ^ IMF - Argentina
  49. ^ Central Bank of Nigeria - Statistics Database
  50. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  51. ^ IMF - Belgium
  52. ^ IMF - Austria
  53. ^ Bangladesh Bank - Central Bank of Bangladesh
  54. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  55. ^ IMF - Portugal
  56. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  57. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  58. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  59. ^ IMF - Jordan
  60. ^ IMF - Croatia
  61. ^ State Bank of Pakistan - The Central Bank: New template for the reserve assets
  62. ^ Foreign Reserves Monthly | Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago
  63. ^ IMF - Finland
  64. ^ IMF - Ukraine
  65. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  66. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  67. ^ IMF - Greece
  68. ^ IMF - Belarus
  69. ^ IMF - Iceland
  70. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  71. ^ IMF - Honduras
  72. ^ IMF - Latvia
  73. ^ IMF - Georgia
  74. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  75. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  76. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  77. ^ IMF - Moldova
  78. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  79. ^ IMF - Ireland
  80. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  81. ^ IMF - Armenia, Republic of
  82. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  83. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  84. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  85. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  86. ^ IMF - Malta
  87. ^ IMF - Estonia

External links[edit]