List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

Foreign-Exchange Reserves[edit]

Rank Country Foreign-exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  China 2,998,200 January 2017[1]
2  Japan 1,242,792 October 2016[2]
3   Switzerland 751,011 April 2017[3]
4  Saudi Arabia 492,900 April 2017[4]
5  Taiwan 435,263 October 2016[5][6][7]
6  Russia 400,000 21 April 2017[8][9]
7  Hong Kong 391,500 31 January 2017[10]
8  India 381,955 23 June 2017[11][12]
9  South Korea 378,469 4 June 2017[13][14]
10  Brazil 377,472 13 June 2017[15][16]
11  Singapore 252,743 January 2017[5][17]
12  Germany 200,394 April 2016[18]
13  Thailand 183,002 February 2017[19][20]
14  Mexico 176,852 October 2016[21][22]
15  United Kingdom 163,503 March 2016[23]
16  France 153,891 March 2016[24]
17  Italy 143,183 March 2016[25]
18  Czech Republic 139,040 May 2017[5][26]
19  Iran 135,500 31 December 2016[5]
20  Indonesia 124,959 8 June 2017[27][28]
21  Turkey 123,440 November 2016[29][30]
22  Algeria 121,900 October 2016[5][31]
23  United States 116,184 18 November 2016[32][33]
24  Israel 107,367 May 2017[34]
25  Poland 100,531 March 2016[35]
26  Malaysia 96,104 April 2017[36][37]
27  United Arab Emirates 93,930 31 December 2015[5]
28  Philippines 85,900 August 2016[38][39]
29  Canada 83,130 November 2016[40][41]
-  Europe (ECB) 75,150 February 2016[42]
30  Libya 70,990 31 December 2015[5]
31  Denmark 64,016 March 2016[43]
32  Peru 61,459 18 November 2016[44][45][46]
33  Sweden 59,558 February 2016[47]
34  Spain 54,155 March 2016[48]
35  Iraq 54,060 31 December 2015[5]
36  Argentina 51,950 March 2017[49]
37  Australia 49,265 March 2016[50]
38  Lebanon 48,600 31 December 2015[5]
39  Colombia 46,798 April 2016[5][51]
40  South Africa 46,770 March 2016[52]
41  Norway 42,965 October 2016[53][54]
42  Netherlands 40,393 April 2016[55]
43  Romania 40,148 April 2016[56]
44  Chile 39,553 March 2016[57]
45  Qatar 36,030 December 2016[5]
46  Bangladesh 33,000 June 2017[58]
47  Hungary 31,367 March 2016[59]
48  Kazakhstan 30,500 1 November 2016[5][60][61][62]
49  Vietnam 41,000 5 January 2017[63]
50  Kuwait 28,370 31 December 2015[5]
51  Belgium 24,861 March 2016[64]
52  Austria 24,758 March 2016[65]
53  Bulgaria 24,318 March 2016[5][66]
54  Angola 24,080 31 December 2015[5]
55  Morocco 23,927 February 2016[5][67][68]
56  Nigeria 30,329 2 June 2017[69]
57  Pakistan 16,100 14 Apr 2017[70]
58  Portugal 21,328 March 2016[71]
59  Macau 19,330 October 2016[72]
60  Egypt 19,040 October 2016[73][74]
61  Oman 17,540 31 December 2015[5]
62  Ukraine 17,175 1 May 2017[75]
63  New Zealand 16,770 March 2016[5][76]
64  Jordan 16,387 February 2016[77]
65  Uzbekistan 15,000 31 December 2015[5]
66  Uruguay 14,377 February 2016[78]
67  Croatia 14,307 February 2016[5][79]
68  Turkmenistan 13,620 31 December 2015[5]
69  Bolivia 12,818 January 2016[80]
70  Cuba 12,100 31 December 2015[5]
71  Venezuela 10,500 1 February 2017[81]
72  Serbia 11,350 31 December 2015[5]
73  Finland 10,413 March 2016[82]
74  Trinidad and Tobago 9,880 11 November 2016[5][83]
75  Myanmar 8,463 31 December 2015[5]
76  North Korea 8,000 November 2013[84]
77    Nepal 7,945 31 December 2015[5][85]
78  Costa Rica 7,784 February 2016[86]
79  Guatemala 7,658 March 2016[87]
80  Kenya 7,548 31 December 2015[5]
81  Botswana 7,546 31 December 2015[5]
82  Greece 7,535 March 2016[88]
83  Cambodia 7,376 31 December 2015[5]
84  Tunisia 6,714 February 2016[89]
85  Dominican Republic 6,459 March 2017[90]
86  Afghanistan 6,232 31 December 2015[5][85]
87  Sri Lanka 6,225 March 2016[91]
88  Iceland 6,186 April 2016[92]
89  Paraguay 5,939 31 December 2015[5]
90  Ghana 5,885 31 December 2015[5]
91  Belarus 4,817 1 November 2016[93][94]
92  Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,791 31 December 2015[5]
93  Ivory Coast 4,716 31 December 2015[5]
94  Bahrain 4,657 31 December 2015[5]
95  Mauritius 4,498 March 2016[95]
96  Tanzania 4,073 31 December 2015[5]
97  Azerbaijan 4,011 30 November 2016[5][96]
98  Honduras 3,755 March 2016[97]
99  Latvia 3,520 March 2016[67][98]
100  Panama 3,378 31 December 2015[5]
101  Brunei 3,366 2015[85]
102  Ireland 3,347 March 2016[67][99]
103  Albania 3,188 March 2016[5][67][100]
104  El Salvador 3,172 March 2016[101]
105  Ethiopia 3,113 31 December 2015[5]
106  Zambia 2,968 31 December 2015[5]
107  Uganda 2,909 31 December 2015[5]
108  Slovakia 2,879 January 2016[5][102]
109  Georgia 2,760 October 2016[67][103][104]
110  Jamaica 2,740 February 2016[5][67][105]
111  Cameroon 2,714 31 December 2015[5]
112  Mozambique 2,582 31 December 2015[5]
113  Nicaragua 2,520 April 2016[5][67][106]
114  Ecuador 2,496 31 December 2015[5]
115  Macedonia 2,480 February 2016[5][67][107]
116  Republic of the Congo 2,244 31 December 2015[5]
117  Moldova 2,098 25 November 2016[108][109][110]
118  Senegal 2,012 31 December 2015[5]
119  Yemen 1,978 31 December 2015[5]
120  Kyrgyzstan 1,944 October 2016[5][67][111][112]
121  Haiti 1,919 31 December 2015[5]
122  Gabon 1,878 31 December 2015[5]
123  Armenia 1,839 October 2016[5][67][113][114][115]
124  Curaçao 1,791 2015[85]
125  Papua New Guinea 1,738 31 December 2015[5]
126  Namibia 1,690 31 December 2015[5]
127  Lithuania 1,227 April 2016[67][116]
128  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,216 31 December 2015[5]
129  Equatorial Guinea 1,205 31 December 2015[5]
130  Bhutan 1,103 2015[85]
131  Luxembourg 1,077 March 2016[5][67][117]
132  Laos 1,058 31 December 2015[5][85]
133  Niger 1,039 2015[85]
134  Mongolia 1,039 October 2016[118]
135  Rwanda 1,030 31 December 2015[5]
136  Mauritania 969 2012[85]
137  Fiji 919 31 December 2015[5]
138  Lesotho 904 31 December 2015[5]
139  Bahamas 896 31 December 2015[5][85]
140  Kosovo 890 30 September 2015[5][85][119]
141  Cyprus 889 March 2016[5][67][120]
142  Slovenia 870 April 2016[67][121]
143  Madagascar 832 31 December 2015[5]
144  Aruba 816 2015[85]
145  Syria 773 31 December 2015[5]
146  Montenegro 734 2015[5][85]
147  Benin 732 31 December 2015[5][85]
148  Malawi 693 31 December 2015[5][85]
149  Malta 671 March 2016[5][67][122]
150  Barbados 658 31 December 2015[5]
151  Mali 624 2015[85]
152  Sierra Leone 621 2015[85]
153  Guyana 601 31 December 2015[5]
154  Maldives 576 2015[5][85]
155  Togo 574 31 December 2015[5][85]
156  Seychelles 555 March 2016[5][67][123]
157  Swaziland 548 31 December 2015[5][85]
158  Liberia 523 2015[85]
159  Solomon Islands 520 2015[85]
160  Cape Verde 495 31 December 2015[5][85]
161  Estonia 494 March 2016[5][67][124]
162  Tajikistan 494 31 December 2015[5]
163  Palestine 464 March 2016[67][125]
164  Timor-Leste 438 2015[85]
165  Belize 437 31 December 2015[5][85]
166  San Marino 392 2014[85]
167  Chad 383 31 December 2015[5]
168  Djibouti 365 2015[85]
169  Antigua and Barbuda 356 2015[85]
170  Zimbabwe 339 31 December 2015[5][85]
171  Burkina Faso 333 31 December 2016[5]
172  Guinea-Bissau 332 2015[85]
173  Suriname 330 31 December 2015[5][85]
174  Saint Lucia 318 2015[85]
175  Saint Kitts and Nevis 288 2015[85]
176  Vanuatu 251 31 December 2016[5][85]
177  Guinea 244 31 December 2016[5][85]
178  South Sudan 230 2015[85]
179  Central African Republic 214 2015[85]
180  Eritrea 213 31 December 2016[5]
181  Comoros 201 2015[85]
182  Grenada 198 2015[85]
183  Tonga 181 31 December 2016[5][85]
184  Sudan 167 31 December 2016[5][85]
185  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 165 31 December 2016[5][85]
186  Samoa 139 31 December 2015[5][85]
187  Federated States of Micronesia 135 2015[85]
188  Burundi 100 31 December 2016[5]
189  Dominica 100 31 December 2016[5]
190  Gambia 92 31 December 2016[5]
191  São Tomé and Príncipe 68 31 December 2016[5]
192  Montserrat 51 31 December 2015[5]
193  Somalia 30 2014[5]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ Indian reports are released on a weekly basis with the figures being of the previous week.
  3. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

Currency Composition of Foreign Exchange Reserves[edit]

IMF releases the quarterly data on the currency composition of official foreign exchange reserves. The data are reported to the IMF on a voluntary and confidential basis. As of Q4 2016, there are 146 reporters, consisting of IMF member countries, a number of non-member countries/economies, and other entities holding foreign exchange reserves. From Q4 2016, the data was expanded to include renminbi (RMB).[126]

Currency Composition of Foreign Exchange Reserves
(US Dollars, Billions)[126]
No. Currency Q4 2015 Q1 2016 Q2 2016 Q3 2016 Q4 2016
1 United StatesUSD 4,374.07 4,604.17 4,792.23 4,939.78 5,052.94
2 European UnionEUR 1,345.06 1,449.19 1,493.88 1,577.68 1,559.26
3 United KingdomGBP 331.38 343.3 348.84 350.75 349.33
4 JapanJPY 274.77 280.74 325.99 346.77 332.77
5 CanadaCAD 127.65 136.29 143.52 155.8 160.83
6 AustraliaAUD 131 133.67 136.97 150.22 146.12
7 ChinaRMB N/A N/A N/A N/A 84.51
8 SwitzerlandCHF 19.77 14.81 14.28 14.82 13.73
Other currencies 213.32 231.76 245.95 265.15 201.15
Unallocated Reserves 4,104.39 3,815.22 3,536.29 3,258.41 2,892.77
Total 10,921.40 11,009.16 11,037.96 11,059.38 10,793.40

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Homepage >> Data and Statistics >> Forex Reserves >> Foreign Exchange Reserves". State Administration of Foreign Exchange, China. 
  2. ^ "HOME > International Policy > Statistics > International Reserves/Foreign Currency Liquidity". Ministry of Finance Japan. 
  3. ^ Swiss National Bank
  4. ^ "Saudi foreign assets keep falling in April amid heavy overseas borrowing". Reuters. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  6. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)" (PDF). 
  7. ^ SDDS (Special Data Dissemination Standard). Access to the Republic of China's statistics
  8. ^ http://www.cbr.ru/eng/hd_base/?PrtId=mrrf_7d
  9. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Weekly values | Bank of Russia
  10. ^ "Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Hong Kong's Latest Foreign Currency Reserve Assets Figures Released". www.hkma.gov.hk. Retrieved 2017-03-06. 
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ [2]
  13. ^ Bank of Korea - Official Foreign Reserves
  14. ^ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity - KOREA, REPUBLIC OF
  15. ^ Banco Central do Brasil
  16. ^ IMF - Brazil
  17. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  18. ^ IMF - Germany Archived 1 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  19. ^ IMF - Thailand
  20. ^ [3]
  21. ^ Banco de México. Data Template on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  22. ^ IMF - Mexico
  23. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  24. ^ IMF - France
  25. ^ IMF - Italy Archived 14 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  26. ^ Czech Nat. Bank Reserves
  27. ^ Bank Indonesia
  28. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  29. ^ IMF - Turkey
  30. ^ http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/central-bank-gross-fx-reserves-at-20-month-high--.aspx?pageID=238&nID=106258&NewsCatID=345
  31. ^ Algerian foreign reserves drop to $121.9 bln
  32. ^ U.S. International Reserve Position
  33. ^ IMF - United States
  34. ^ Foreign Exchange Reserves in the Bank of Israel, May 2017, Boi, 7 June 2017
  35. ^ IMF - Poland
  36. ^ Central Bank of Malaysia. International Reserves
  37. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  38. ^ [4]
  39. ^ IMF - Philippines
  40. ^ [5]
  41. ^ IMF - Canada
  42. ^ IMF - European Central Bank
  43. ^ IMF - Denmark
  44. ^ CENTRAL RESERVE BANK OF PERU. RESERVE MANAGEMENT STATISTICS
  45. ^ CENTRAL RESERVE BANK OF PERU. RESERVES MANAGEMENT REPORTS
  46. ^ IMF- Peru
  47. ^ IMF - Sweden
  48. ^ IMF - Spain
  49. ^ IMF - Argentina
  50. ^ IMF - Australia
  51. ^ IMF - Colombia
  52. ^ IMF - South Africa
  53. ^ Statistick Norway. International reserves and foreign liquidity
  54. ^ IMF - Norway
  55. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  56. ^ IMF - Romania
  57. ^ IMF - Chile
  58. ^ Bangladesh Bank (Central Bank of Bangladesh)
  59. ^ IMF - Hungary
  60. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  61. ^ National Bank of Kazakhstan
  62. ^ International Reserves and Assets of the National Oil Fund of Republic of Kazakhstan
  63. ^ [6]
  64. ^ IMF - Belgium
  65. ^ IMF - Austria
  66. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  67. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  68. ^ IMF - Morocco
  69. ^ Gross reserves value from 30 day moving Average page on Central Bank of Nigeria's Website
  70. ^ State Bank of Pakistan. Economic Data
  71. ^ IMF - Portugal
  72. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  73. ^ Egypt's foreign reserves fall to $19 bln in October: Central bank
  74. ^ IMF - Egypt
  75. ^ Резервы НБУ выросли до $17,175 млрд
  76. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  77. ^ IMF - Jordan
  78. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  79. ^ IMF - Croatia
  80. ^ IMF - Bolivia
  81. ^ http://money.cnn.com/2017/03/01/news/economy/venezuela-cash/
  82. ^ IMF - Finland
  83. ^ Foreign Reserves Monthly | Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago
  84. ^ Северная Корея распродает золотой запас
  85. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  86. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  87. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  88. ^ IMF - Greece
  89. ^ IMF - Tunisia
  90. ^ Central Bank of the Dominican Republic
  91. ^ IMF - Sri Lanka
  92. ^ IMF - Iceland
  93. ^ IMF - Belarus
  94. ^ International reserve assets of the Republic of Belarus
  95. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  96. ^ http://en.cbar.az/infoblocks/money_reserve_usd
  97. ^ IMF - Honduras
  98. ^ IMF - Latvia
  99. ^ IMF - Ireland
  100. ^ IMF - Albania
  101. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  102. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  103. ^ IMF - Georgia
  104. ^ National Bank Of Georgia. Statistical Data. Official Reserve Assets
  105. ^ IMF - Jamaica
  106. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  107. ^ IMF - Macedonia
  108. ^ IMF - Moldova
  109. ^ Информация об изменении официальных резервных активов
  110. ^ BNM. Официальные резервные активы и другие активы в иностранной валюте
  111. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  112. ^ Кыргыз Республикасынын Улуттук банкы. Gross international reserves
  113. ^ IMF - Armenia, Republic of
  114. ^ Central Bank of Armenia. Databank
  115. ^ Central Bank of Armenia. Data template on International reserves and foreign currency liquidity
  116. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  117. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  118. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  119. ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Kosovo. Monthly Statistics Bulletin. December 2015, No. 127
  120. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  121. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  122. ^ IMF - Malta
  123. ^ IMF - Seychelles
  124. ^ IMF - Estonia
  125. ^ IMF - Palestine
  126. ^ a b "IMF Releases Data on the Currency Composition of Foreign Exchange Reserves Including Holdings in Renminbi". International Monetary Fund. March 31, 2017. 

External links[edit]