List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations apare converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

Rank Country Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  China[6] 3,305,445 March 2016[1]
2  Japan 1,262,509 April 2016[2]
European Union Eurozone 761,679 February 2016[3]
3   Switzerland 649,190 March 2016[4]
4  Saudi Arabia 555,000 July 2016[5][6]
5  Republic of China (Taiwan) 425,978 January 2016[5][7][8]
6  Russia 398,200 19 August 2016[9][10][10][10][11][12][13][14][15]
7  India 371,280 9 September 2016[7][16]
8  South Korea 369,840 March 2016[17]
 Hong Kong, China 362,900 July 2016[18]
9  Brazil 362,200 April 2016[19]
10  Singapore 252,282 August 2016[5][20]
11  Germany 200,394 April 2016[21]
12  Thailand 182,668 August 2016[22]
13  Mexico 179,708 March 2016[23]
14  United Kingdom 164,003 March 2016[24]
15  Algeria 155,700 31 December 2015[5]
16  France 153,890 March 2016[25]
17  Italy 143,183 March 2016[26]
18  Iran 125,900 December 2015[27]
19  United States 121,269 April 2016[28]
20  Turkey 112,769 March 2016[29]
21  Indonesia 107,542 March 2016[30]
22  Poland 100,530 March 2016[31]
23  Malaysia 95,631 February 2016[32]
24  Israel 94,775 March 2016[5][33][34]
25  Iran[8] 93,950 31 December 2015[5]
26  Philippines 85,900 August 2016[35]
27  Canada 83,756 August 2016[36]
28  United Arab Emirates 79,920 31 December 2015[5]
29  Czech Republic 74,785 April 2016[5][37]
-  Europe (ECB) 75,150 March 2016[38]
30  Denmark 64,015 March 2016[39]
30  Libya 61,630 31 December 2015[5]
31  Peru 60,445. 7 May 2016[40]
32  Sweden 59,558 February 2016[41]
33  Norway 59,423 February 2016[42]
34  Iraq 57,070 31 December 2015[5]
35  Spain 54,154 March 2016[43]
36  Lebanon 49,610 31 December 2015[5]
37  Australia 49,264 March 2016[44]
38  Colombia 46,798 April 2016[5][45]
39  South Africa 46,770 March 2016[46]
40  Netherlands 40,393 April 2016[47]
41  Romania 40,148 April 2016[48]
42  Chile 39,552 March 2016[49]
43  Vietnam 39,600 31 December 2015[5]
44  Qatar 36,707 January 2016[5][50]
45  Kuwait 31,430 31 December 2015[5]
46  Hungary 31,366 March 2016[51]
47  Bangladesh 31,165 Sept 2016[52]
48  Argentina 29,571 March 2016[53]
49  Kazakhstan 27,800 1 March 2016[5][54][55]
50  Nigeria 25,780 August 2016[5][56]
51  Belgium 24,861 March 2016[57]
52  Morocco 23,516 January 2016[5][58]
53  Austria 24,757 March 2016[59]
54  Turkmenistan 22,600 31 December 2015[5]
55  Pakistan 23,400 July 2016[60]
56  Bulgaria 24,318 March 2016[5][61]
57  Portugal 21,328 March 2016[62]
 Macau, China 19,130 February 2016[63]
58  Angola 18,460 31 December 2015[5]
59  Egypt 17,050 31 December 2015[5][64]
60  New Zealand 16,769 March 2016[5][65]
61  Jordan 16,386 February 2016[66]
62  Oman 15,720 31 December 2015[5]
63  Venezuela 11,900 31 July 2016[67]
64  Uzbekistan 15,000 31 December 2015[5]
65  Uruguay 14,377 February 2016[68]
66  Croatia 14,306 February 2016[5][69]
67  Bolivia 12,818 January 2016[70]
68  Ukraine 12,721 March 2016[71]
69  Trinidad and Tobago 11,690 31 December 2015[5][72]
70  Serbia 11,680 31 December 2015[5]
71  Cuba 11,600 31 December 2015[5]
72  Finland 10,412 March 2016[73]
73  Myanmar 9,417 31 December 2015[5]
74  North Korea 8,000 November 2013[74]
75  Botswana 7,990 31 December 2015[5]
76  Costa Rica 7,784 February 2016[75]
77  Guatemala 7,658 March 2016[76]
78  Greece 7,535 March 2016[77]
78  Kenya 7,356 31 December 2015[5]
80  Cambodia 7,091 31 December 2015[5]
81  Paraguay 7,028 31 December 2015[5]
82  Tunisia 6,714 February 2016[78]
83  Afghanistan 6,681 31 December 2014[5][79]
84  Sri Lanka 6,225 March 2016[80]
85  Iceland 6,186 April 2016[81]
86    Nepal 6,034 31 December 2014[5][79]
87  Ghana 5,617 31 December 2015[5]
88  Dominican Republic 5,183 March 2016[82]
89  Bahrain 5,051 31 December 2015[5]
90  Ivory Coast 4,882 31 December 2015[5]
91  Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,625 31 December 2015[5]
92  Mauritius 4,497 March 2016[83]
93  Republic of the Congo 4,407 31 December 2015[5]
94  Azerbaijan 4,399 29 January 2016[5][84]
95  Panama 4,182 31 December 2015[5]
96  Belarus 4,111 1 March 2016[85][86]
97  Tanzania 4,021 31 December 2015[5]
98  Honduras 3,755 March 2016[87]
99  Uganda 3,681 31 December 2015[5]
100  Brunei 3,649 2014[79]
101  Ethiopia 3,589 31 December 2015[5]
102  Latvia 3,519 February 2016[88]
103  El Salvador 3,171 March 2016[89]
104  Ecuador 3,128 31 December 2015[5]
105  Papua New Guinea 2,966 31 December 2015[5]
106  Slovakia 2,879 January 2016[5][90]
107  Albania 2,852 31 December 2015[5][91]
108  Zambia 2,716 31 December 2015[5]
109  Jamaica 2,670 January 2016[5][92]
110  Mozambique 2,528 31 December 2015[5]
111  Cameroon 2,510 31 December 2015[5]
112  Macedonia 2,454 January 2016[5][93]
113  Nicaragua 2,441 January 2016[5][94]
114  Georgia 2,426 29 February 2016[95][96]
115  Yemen 2,309 31 December 2015[5]
116  Ireland 2,191 January 2016[97]
117  Senegal 2,099 31 December 2015[5]
118  Equatorial Guinea 1,903 31 December 2015[5]
119  Gabon 1,825 31 December 2015[5]
120  Haiti 1,803 31 December 2015[5]
121  Kyrgyzstan 1,794 February 2016[5][98][99]
122  Armenia 1,740 January 2016[5][100][101][102]
123  Moldova 1,717 4 March 2016[103][104][105]
124  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,443 31 December 2015[5]
125  Mongolia 1,324 January 2016[106]
126  Niger 1,282 2014[79]
127  Lithuania 1,268 February 2016[107]
128  Bhutan 1,245 2014[79]
129  Namibia 1,135 31 December 2015[5]
130  Chad 1,111 31 December 2015[5]
131  Rwanda 1,028 31 December 2015[5]
132  Kosovo 990 30 September 2015[5][108]
133  Lesotho 981 31 December 2015[5]
134  Laos 976 31 December 2015[5][79]
135  Mauritania 969 2012[79]
136  Syria 968 31 December 2015[5]
137  Madagascar 963 31 December 2015[5]
138  Bahamas 950 31 December 2015[5][79]
139  Slovenia 939 February 2016[5][109]
140  Fiji 903 31 December 2015[5]
141  Mali 861 2014[79]
142  Cyprus 809 January 2016[5][110]
143  Benin 809 31 December 2015[5][79]
144  Luxembourg 774 January 2016[5][111]
145  Malawi 743 31 December 2015[5][79]
-  Aruba 680 2014[79]
146  Barbados 663 31 December 2015[5]
147  Malta 658 February 2016[5][112]
148  Belize 634 31 December 2015[5][79]
149  Maldives 627 2014[79]
150  Suriname 625 2014[79]
151  Guyana 614 31 December 2015[5]
152  Sierra Leone 601 2014[79]
153  Montenegro 600 31 December 2014[5][79]
154  Palestine 581 December 2015[113]
155  Swaziland 572 31 December 2015[5][79]
156  Seychelles 537 January 2016[5][114]
157  Solomon Islands 496 2014[79]
158  Togo 494 31 December 2015[5][79]
159  Liberia 493 December 2013[79]
160  Cape Verde 492 31 December 2015[5][79]
161  Estonia 471 February 2016[5][115]
162  Zimbabwe 457 31 December 2015[5][79]
163  Tajikistan 430 31 December 2015[5]
164  Djibouti 393 2014[79]
165  San Marino 392 2014[79]
166  Burkina Faso 363 31 December 2015[5]
167  Saint Kitts and Nevis 327 2014[79]
168  Burundi 316 31 December 2015[5][79]
169  Timor-Leste 312 2014[79]
170  Guinea 303 31 December 2015[5][79]
171  Antigua and Barbuda 297 2014[79]
172  Guinea-Bissau 287 2014[79]
173  Central African Republic 260 2014[79]
174  Saint Lucia 258 2014[79]
175  Eritrea 248 31 December 2015[5]
176  Vanuatu 213 31 December 2015[5][79]
177  Sudan 172 31 December 2015[5][79]
178  Comoros 171 2014[79]
179  Grenada 170 2014[79]
180  Tonga 167 31 December 2015[5][79]
181  Samoa 141 31 December 2014[5][79]
182  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 135 31 December 2015[5][79]
183  Federated States of Micronesia 114 2014[79]
184  Dominica 100 31 December 2015[5][79]
185  Gambia 83 31 December 2015[5][79]
186  São Tomé and Príncipe 64 31 December 2015[5][79]
-  Montserrat 32 31 December 2012[5]
187  Somalia 31 2015[5]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ Indian reports are released on a weekly basis with the figures being of the previous week.
  3. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ IMF - China
  2. ^ IMF - Japan
  3. ^ IMF - Euro Area
  4. ^ IMF - Switzerland
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  6. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/us-saudi-cenbank-assets-idUSKCN1130JJ?il=0.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)" (PDF). 
  8. ^ SDDS (Special Data Dissemination Standard). Access to the Republic of China's statistics
  9. ^ https://www.rt.com/business/357279-russia-reserves/?utm_source=browser&utm_medium=aplication_chrome&utm_campaign=chrome
  10. ^ a b c http://www.cbr.ru/eng/hd_base/?PrtId=mrrf_7d
  11. ^ http://rg.ru/2016/05/12/mezhdunarodnye-rezervy-rossii-vyrosli-pochti-do-392-mlrd-dollarov.html
  12. ^ http://sputniknews.com/russia/20160511/1039455114/russia-bank-april-reserves.html
  13. ^ IMF - Russia
  14. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Monthly values | Bank of Russia
  15. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Weekly values | Bank of Russia
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ IMF - Korea, Republic of
  18. ^ "Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Hong Kong's Latest Foreign Currency Reserve Assets Figures Released". www.hkma.gov.hk. Retrieved 2016-08-25. 
  19. ^ IMF - Brazil
  20. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  21. ^ IMF - Germany
  22. ^ IMF - Thailand
  23. ^ IMF - Mexico
  24. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  25. ^ IMF - France
  26. ^ IMF - Italy
  27. ^ [2]
  28. ^ IMF - United States
  29. ^ IMF - Turkey
  30. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  31. ^ IMF - Poland
  32. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  33. ^ IMF - Israel
  34. ^ [3]
  35. ^ [4]
  36. ^ [5]
  37. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  38. ^ IMF - European Central Bank
  39. ^ IMF - Denmark
  40. ^ IMF- Peru
  41. ^ IMF - Sweden
  42. ^ IMF - Norway
  43. ^ IMF - Spain
  44. ^ IMF - Australia
  45. ^ IMF - Colombia
  46. ^ IMF - South Africa
  47. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  48. ^ IMF - Romania
  49. ^ IMF - Chile
  50. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  51. ^ IMF - Hungary
  52. ^ Bangladesh Bank (Central Bank of Bangladesh)
  53. ^ IMF - Argentina
  54. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  55. ^ International Reserves and Assets of the National Oil Fund of Republic of Kazakhstan
  56. ^ CBN - Statistics Database
  57. ^ IMF - Belgium
  58. ^ IMF - Morocco
  59. ^ IMF - Austria
  60. ^ State Bank of Pakistan. Economic Data
  61. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  62. ^ IMF - Portugal
  63. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  64. ^ IMF - Egypt
  65. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  66. ^ IMF - Jordan
  67. ^ http://money.cnn.com/2016/08/03/news/economy/venezuela-running-out-of-cash/
  68. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  69. ^ IMF - Croatia
  70. ^ IMF - Bolivia
  71. ^ IMF - Ukraine
  72. ^ Foreign Reserves Monthly | Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago
  73. ^ IMF - Finland
  74. ^ Северная Корея распродает золотой запас
  75. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  76. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  77. ^ IMF - Greece
  78. ^ IMF - Tunisia
  79. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  80. ^ IMF - Sri Lanka
  81. ^ IMF - Iceland
  82. ^ IMF - Dominican Republic
  83. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  84. ^ http://en.cbar.az/infoblocks/money_reserve_usd
  85. ^ IMF - Belarus
  86. ^ International reserve assets of the Republic of Belarus
  87. ^ IMF - Honduras
  88. ^ IMF - Latvia
  89. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  90. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  91. ^ IMF - Albania
  92. ^ IMF - Jamaica
  93. ^ IMF - Macedonia
  94. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  95. ^ IMF - Georgia
  96. ^ National Bank Of Georgia. Statistical Data
  97. ^ IMF - Ireland
  98. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  99. ^ Кыргыз Республикасынын Улуттук банкы. Gross international reserves
  100. ^ IMF - Armenia, Republic of
  101. ^ Central Bank of Armenia. Databank
  102. ^ Central Bank of Armenia. Data template on International reserves and foreign currency liquidity
  103. ^ IMF - Moldova
  104. ^ Информация об изменении официальных резервных активов
  105. ^ BNM. Official reserve assets and other foreign currency assets
  106. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  107. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  108. ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Kosovo. Monthly Statistics Bulletin. December 2015, No. 127
  109. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  110. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  111. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  112. ^ IMF - Malta
  113. ^ IMF - Palestine
  114. ^ IMF - Seychelles
  115. ^ IMF - Estonia

External links[edit]