List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Foreign-exchange reserves, also called Forex reserves, are, in a strict sense, only foreign-currency deposits held by nationals and monetary authorities. However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available and also arguably more meaningful.[citation needed]

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. Dollar, the Euro, the Japanese Yen, the Chinese Yuan, the Russian Ruble, the Indian rupee, the Swiss Franc and the Pound Sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the Central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.[citation needed]

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data, and while most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros and some others report in their respective currencies. And since all the figures below are in U.S dollar equivalents, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

Foreign exchange reserves[edit]

Rank
[a]
Country or region Foreign
exchange
reserves
(Millions US$)
Figures as of Change from
previous data
(millions US$)
weekly/monthly
Sources
1 Steady  People's Republic of China 3,306,530 December 2022 Increase 16,598 [1]
2 Steady  Japan 1,227,576 31 December 2022 Increase 1,244 [2]
3 Steady  Switzerland 885,057 30 November 2022 Decrease 1,723 [3]
4 Steady  Russia 594,600 20 January 2023 Increase 2,600 [4][b]
5 Steady  India 573,727 20 January 2023 Increase 1,727 [5][c]
6 Steady  Taiwan 554,930 December 2022 Increase 2,730 [6][d]
7 Increase  Saudi Arabia 470,727 November 2022 Increase 8,000 [7][e]
8 Increase  Hong Kong 423,200 30 November 2022 Increase 4,000 [8]
9 Decrease  South Korea 414,006 October 2022 Decrease 2,764 [9]
10 Steady  Brazil 324,703 December 2022 Decrease 6,802 [10]
11 Steady  Singapore 289,484 December 2022 Decrease 1,790 [11]
12 Steady  Germany 277,458 November 2022 Increase 3,037 [12][13][f]
13 Steady  United States 242,699 30 December 2022 Increase 0,229 [14][g]
14 Steady  France 238,277 October 2022 Increase 0,948 [15]
15 Steady  Italy 211,308 November 2022 Increase 1,932 [16][12][17] [h]
16 Steady  Thailand 210,696 November 2022 Increase 8,790 [18]
17 Steady  Mexico 198,240 November 2022 Increase 1,393 [19]
18 Steady  Israel 194,414 November 2022 Increase 5,572 [20]
19 Steady  United Kingdom 182,790 November 2022 Increase 6,686 [21][22][i]
20 Increase  Poland 148,954 June 2022 Increase 5,321 [23]
21 Decrease  Czech Republic 147,512 July 2022 Decrease 7,121 [24]
22 Steady  Indonesia 130,782 September 2022 Decrease 1,420 [12][25]
23 Increase  United Arab Emirates 129,320 March 2022 Decrease 4,195 [26][j]
24 Increase  Malaysia 114,900 January 2023 Increase 0,500 [27]
25 Increase  Turkey 107,000 August 2022 Increase 10,295 [28][k]
26 Increase  Canada 106,462 November 2022 Increase 2,686 [29]
27 Increase  Iraq 96,000 19 December 2022 Increase 6,092 [30]
28 Decrease  Philippines 93,954 November 2022 Decrease 0,074 [31]
29 Decrease  Vietnam 92,101 August 2022 Decrease 6,504 [32]
30 Decrease  Spain 87,222 30 June 2022 [33][12]
31 Steady  Iran 86,000 February 2020 [34][l]
 European Union (ECB) 85,602 August 2021 Increase 0,801 [35][m]
32 Increase  Denmark 73,922 May 2022 Decrease 0,315 [12][36]
33 Decrease  Peru 73,416 30 June 2022 Increase 3,000 [37][38]
34 Decrease  Norway 70,287 June 2022 Decrease 2,843 [39][12]
35 Steady  Libya 69,114 March 2022 Decrease 0,665 [40][32]
36 Steady  Algeria 60,914 October 2020 Decrease 1,454 [32][n]
37 Steady  Colombia 58,161 September 2021 Increase 0,124 [12]
38 Increase  Romania 55,789 31 December 2022 Increase 4,635 [41][42]
39 Increase  Australia 57,889 December 2022 Increase 2,226 [43]
40 Steady  South Africa 54,473 June 2021 Increase 0,334 [12]
41 Steady  Sweden 54,020 6 March 2021 Decrease 1,345 [44][o]
42 Steady  Netherlands 54,016 May 2021 Increase 2,677 [12][45]
43 Steady  Kuwait 48,895 May 2022 Increase 2,040 [46][p]
44 Steady  Chile 42,593 April 2021 Increase 2,373 [12]
45 Increase  Qatar 42,341 May 2022 Increase 1,305 [47]
46Increase  Nigeria 40,660 22 December 2021 Increase 4,652 [48]
47Steady  Argentina 39,139 22 December 2021 Decrease 1,956 [49]
48Steady  Egypt 37,909 7 April 2022 Decrease 3,910 [50]
49 Decrease  Hungary 36,593 April 2021 Decrease 0,933 [12][51]
50 Increase  Morocco 27,800 October 2021 Increase 0,380 [12]
51 Decrease  Kazakhstan 35,438 November 2021 Decrease 0,382 [12]
52 Steady  Uzbekistan 35,139 1 January 2022 Increase 0,390 [52]
53 Steady  Bangladesh 33,747 December 2022 Decrease 42 [53]
54 Decrease  Bulgaria 32,881 April 2021 Decrease 0,748 [12]
55 Steady  Belgium 31,762 April 2021 Increase 0,860 [12]
56 Increase  Ukraine 31,614 September 2021 Increase 2,656 [12]
57 Increase  Portugal 29,050 April 2021 Increase 2,391 [12]
58 Steady  Austria 28,513 April 2021 Increase 0,842 [12]
59 Increase  Croatia 28,416 3 January 2022 Increase 0,996 [54][55]
60 Steady  Macau 25,849 April 2021 Increase 0,819 [56]
61 Increase  Turkmenistan 20,600 February 2017 [34]
62 Decrease  Cambodia 19,500 23 July 2021 Decrease 1,410 [57]
63 Increase  Jordan 19,044 December 2021 Increase 0,987 [12]
64 Steady  Guatemala 18,807 April 2021 Increase 0,112 [12]
65 Increase  Serbia 18,560 14 December 2021 Increase 0,175 [58]
66 Increase  Oman 18,000 28 December 2021 Increase 0,778 [59]
67 Increase  Uruguay 16,952 December 2021 Decrease 0,176 [60]
68 Increase  Finland 16,552 January 2022 Decrease 0,228 [12][61]
69 Steady  Angola 15,400 2 January 2022 Increase 0,391 [62]
70 Steady  New Zealand 14,544 December 2021 Decrease 1,559 [12]
71 Increase  Dominican Republic 12,611 June 2021 Increase 0,200 [63]
72 Decrease  Lebanon 12,500 21 December 2021 Decrease 30,877 [64]
73 Increase  Ghana 11,403 29 September 2021 Increase 2,445 [65]
74 Decrease  Greece 10,895 February 2021 Increase 0,277 [12]
75 Increase  Paraguay 9,880 April 2021 Increase 0,199 [12]
76 Increase  Panama 9,613 2020 Increase 5,400 [63]
77 Increase  Afghanistan 9,446 February 2021 Decrease 0,060 [32]
78 Decrease    Nepal 9,350 June 2022 Decrease 1,500 [66]
79 Increase  Bosnia and Herzegovina 9,300 29 November 2021 Increase 0,916 [67]
80 Steady  Tunisia 8,840 March 2021 Decrease 0,290 [32]
81 Steady  Honduras 8,462 24 December 2021 Increase 0,320 [68]
82 Increase  Ecuador 8,130 23 November 2021 Increase 4,931 [69]
83 Decrease  Slovakia 8,100 May 2021 Increase 0,096 [12]
84 Steady  North Korea 8,000 October 2013 [70]
85 Increase  Ireland 7,717 April 2021 Decrease 0,003 [71]
86 Increase  Azerbaijan 7,689 March 2021 Increase 0,142 [32]
87 Increase  Mauritius 7,461 April 2021 Increase 0,133 [12]
88 Decrease  Belarus 7,277 April 2021 Increase 0,337 [12]
89 Increase  Trinidad and Tobago 7,000 August 2021 Increase 0,644 [72][73]
90 Steady  Iceland 6,860 April 2021 Increase 0,074 [12]
91 Decrease  Costa Rica 6,814 29 November 2021 Decrease 0,320 [74]
92 Increase  Tanzania 6,714 19 November 2021 Increase 1,600 [75]
93 Steady  Myanmar 6,700 2019 Increase 0,800 [76]
94 Steady  Venezuela 5,908 16 November 2021 Decrease 0,776 [77]
95 Increase  Latvia 5,404 April 2021 Increase 0,080 [12]
96 Steady  Botswana 5,080 February 2021 Decrease 0,267 [32]
107 Increase  Georgia 4,900 January 2023 Increase 0,900 [12]
97 Steady  Lithuania 4,848 December 2020 Decrease 0,440 [12]
98 Decrease  Cuba 4,847 March 2020 Decrease 8,391 [63]
99 Increase  Ivory Coast 4,688 November 2017 [34]
100 Increase  Albania 4,345 26 November 2021 Decrease 0,400 [78]
101 Increase  Uganda 4,300 1 December 2021 Increase 0,950 [79]
102 Increase  Armenia 4,100 December 2022 Increase 0,600 [80]
103 Increase  Nicaragua 4,000 17 December 2021 Increase 1,100 [81]
104 Increase  Bolivia 3,868 January 2023 Decrease 0,639 [82]
105 Increase  Jamaica 3,905 June 2021 Increase 0,300 [12]
106 Increase  Mozambique 3,888 2019 [76]
108 Increase  Mongolia 3,697 September 2020 Decrease 0,300 [12]
109 Decrease  Andorra 3,678 20 January 2023 Decrease 923 [83]
110 Steady  Brunei 3,664 February 2021 Increase 0,098 [32]
111 Increase  Cameroon 3,459 2018 [76]
112 Increase  Moldova 3,453 September 2020 Increase 0,500 [12]
113 Steady  Bahrain 3,415 February 2020 [citation needed]
114 Decrease  Pakistan 3,400 27 January 2023 Decrease 1,500 [84]
115 Decrease  Ethiopia 2,993 2019 [76]
116 Increase  Kyrgyzstan 2,910 September 2021 Increase 0,700 [12]
117 Increase  El Salvador 2,510 April 2021 Increase 0,062 [12]
118 Increase  Papua New Guinea 2,339 2019 Increase 0,500 [76]
119 Decrease  Haiti 2,296 2019 Decrease 0,100 [63]
120 Increase  Estonia 2,216 October 2020 Increase 0,900 [12]
121 Decrease  Namibia 1,924 September 2020 Decrease 0,025 [12]
122 Decrease  Sri Lanka 1,896 December 2022 Increase 90 [85]
123 Steady  Bahamas 1,758 2019 [76]
124 Decrease  Kenya 1,704 20 October 2022 Decrease 0,073 "Weekly Economic Indicators". Retrieved 3 August 2019.
125 Steady  Madagascar 1,693 2019 [76]
126 Steady  Montenegro 1,529 2019 [76]
127  Mauritania 1,493 2020 [76]
128 Steady  Tajikistan 1,466 2019 [76]
129 Steady  Rwanda 1,465 2019 [76]
130 Steady  Zambia 1,449 2019 [76]
131 Steady  Guinea 1,418 2019 [76]
132  Gabon 1,321 2019 [76]
133 Increase  Cyprus 1,271 August 2020 Increase 0,200 [12]
134  Bhutan 1,238 2019 [76]
134 Increase  Slovenia 1,217 October 2020 Increase 0,200 [12]
134  Luxembourg 1,191 December 2020 Decrease 0,034 [12]
135  Laos 1,068 2019 [76]
136  Curaçao 1,055 31 October 2019 [86][q]
137  Fiji 1,043 2019 [76]
138  Niger 1,039 2015 [76][failed verification]
139  Aruba 982 2019 [76]
140  Kosovo 965 2019 [76]
141 Increase  Malta 928 October 2020 Increase 0,030 [12]
142  Lesotho 774 2019 [76]
143  Barbados 772 2019 [76]
144  Maldives 762 2018 [76]
145  Cape Verde 737 2019 [76]
146  Gambia 692 2018 [76]
147 Increase  Palestine 683 August 2019 Increase 0,050 [12][r]
148  Democratic Republic of the Congo 665 2018 [76]
149  Timor-Leste 656 2019 [76]
150 Increase  Suriname 647 2019 Increase 0,065 [76]
151  Mali 624 2015 [76][failed verification]
152 Increase  Guyana 573 2019 Increase 0,050 [76]
153  Solomon Islands 571 2019 [76]
154 Increase  Seychelles 566 September 2020 Increase 0,031 [12]
155  Sierra Leone 532 2019 [76]
156  Vanuatu 511 2019 [76]
157  Djibouti 501 2019 [76]
158  San Marino 473 2019 [76]
159 Decrease  Malawi 471 13 October 2021 Decrease 0,350 [88]
160  Eswatini 440 2019 [76]
161  Republic of the Congo 423 2018 [76]
162  Syria 407 31 December 2017 [34]
163  Federated States of Micronesia 397 2019 [76]
164  Central African Republic 361 2018 [76]
165  Saint Kitts and Nevis 351 2018 [76]
166  Liberia 349 2019 [76]
167  Guinea-Bissau 332 2015 [76][failed verification]
168  Antigua and Barbuda 279 2019 [76]
169  Belize 277 2019 [76]
170  Saint Lucia 260 2019 [76]
171  Yemen 245 31 December 2017 [34]
172  Grenada 236 2019 [76]
173  Tonga 229 2019 [76]
174  Togo 215 31 December 2017 [34]
175  Comoros 202 2019 [76]
176  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 193 2019 [76]
177  Eritrea 191 2019 [76]
178  Samoa 185 2019 [76]
179  South Sudan 183 2020 [76]
180  Sudan 177 2017 [76]
181  Dominica 166 2019 [76]
182  Senegal 152 31 December 2017 [34]
183  Zimbabwe 151 2019 [76]
184  Chad 147 2018 [76]
185  Burundi 111 2019 [76]
186  São Tomé and Príncipe 75 2020 [76]
187  Benin 60 31 December 2017 [34]
188  Montserrat 49 31 December 2017 [34]
189  Equatorial Guinea 48 2018 [76]
190  Burkina Faso 45 31 December 2017 [34]
191  Somalia 32 31 December 2017 [34]
192  Kiribati 6 2020 [32]

Timeline of the top 5 countries[edit]

The five countries with the largest foreign exchange reserves almost all have reserves of at least 500 billion USD and higher and have maintained such an amount for at least a week. At present there are only six countries whose reserves are at such a figure; this includes China, Japan, Switzerland, India, Russia and Taiwan. Saudi Arabia formerly included on the list until March 2020; its reserves were severely depleted by the low oil price during the economic fallout of from the global outbreak of coronavirus disease, its ongoing oil price war with Russia and competition from US shale oil.[89]

The images below shows the timeline of their reserves since the earliest available forex data. The list is in accordance to their respective positions.

China

Foreign Exchange Reserves of China

The foreign-exchange reserves of China are the greatest of all countries and have been so for more than 14 years.[90][91] The main composition of Chinese forex reserves is approximately two-thirds USD and one-fifth Euros with the rest made up of Japanese Yen and the British Pound. China was the second country to reach $500 billion and the first to reach $1 trillion in reserves. China is also the only country that reached net reserves of $2 trillion and $3 trillion Chinese forex reserve reached over $3.993 trillion and possibly reached $4 trillion before July 2014 but there was no official figures to confirm it.

China began reducing its forex reserves in July 2014 over concerns that the forex reserve level was too high. The practice lasted one and a half years. In January 2017, Chinese forex reserves dipped below $3 trillion briefly and have since remained above that level.

Japan

Foreign Exchange Reserves of Japan

Japanese forex reserves are the second largest in the world. Japan was the first country to reach $500 billion in reserves and had the highest forex reserves in the world until they were surpassed by China in 2006. They have remained in second place since 2006 and above $1 trillion since 2008, being the second country to surpass $1 trillion.[92]

Switzerland

Foreign Exchange Reserves of Switzerland in CHF

Swiss forex reserves are the third largest in the world. Switzerland became the fifth country to reach $500 Billion in 2014 after Saudi Arabia and the third country to reach $1 trillion at the end of 2020. Swiss reserves are compiled in Swiss francs. Since the Financial crisis of 2007-2008, the Swiss franc has significantly appreciated against other currencies due to Switzerland's traditional perceived safety which has attracted speculative foreign capital; due to the inflows of investment income by Swiss firms, and due to the large surplus in the trade of goods. In order to protect the real economy from the sudden speculative appreciation of the currency, the Swiss National Bank began intervening in the currency markets, first with an explicit target of a maximum exchange rate against the euro of 1.20CHF/EUR until 2015,[93] and then through implicit interventions. However, the resilience of the export sector and the continued inflows of capital, has meant that the Swiss Franc has kept appreciating.[94] As a result of this, the SNB has been unable to dispose of its large accumulated foreign exchange reserves since their sale would lead to an even greater appreciation of the currency.

Russia

Foreign Exchange Reserves of Russia

Russian reserves are the world's fifth largest; They have reached a level of $600 billion on 21 May 2021. They were the third country to reach $500 billion.[95] The first fall in reserves was due to the Great Recession, the second fall in 2015 was due to falling oil prices.

India

Foreign Exchange Reserves of India

The Foreign-exchange reserves of India are the fourth largest. On 4 June 2021 reserves exceeded $600 billion for the first time and they became the fifth country after Switzerland to do so.[96] During the 1991 Indian economic crisis country only had $5 billion of reserves left which led to subsequent economic liberalisation. Since then the reserves have seen a 127 times increase over 30 years.

Currency composition of foreign exchange reserves[edit]

IMF releases the quarterly data on the currency composition of official foreign exchange reserves. The data are reported to the IMF on a voluntary and confidential basis. As of Q4 2016, there are 146 reporters, consisting of IMF member countries, a number of non-member countries/economies, and other entities holding foreign exchange reserves. From Q4 2016, the data was expanded to include renminbi (RMB).[97] Monetary gold is not covered in COFER but included in reserved assets, a broader scope than that of COFER.[98]

Currency Composition of Foreign Exchange Reserves (COFER)
(US Dollars, billions)[97]
No. Currency Q1 2017 Q2 2017 Q3 2017 Q4 2017 Q1 2018 Q2 2018 Q3 2018 Q4 2018 Q1 2019 Q2 2019 Q3 2019 Q4 2019 Q1 2020 Q2 2020 Q3 2020 Q4 2020 Q1 2021 Q2 2021 Q3 2021 Q4 2021
1 United StatesUSD 5,713.35 5,909.13 6,124.73 6,280.61 6,530.87 6,560.78 6,632.15 6,617.84 6,727.09 6,752.28 6,728.85 6,674.83 6,794.91 - - 6,990.97 6,971.79 7,070.33 7,087.77 7,087.14
2 European UnionEUR 1,703.13 1,847.19 1,933.68 2,019.25 2,117.57 2,129.41 2,192.43 2,219.34 2,208.79 2,264.88 2,212.74 2,279.30 2,197.30 - - 2,526.41 2,404.80 2,458.88 2,462.44 2,486.88
3 JapanJPY 399.85 427.79 435.67 491.01 477.28 511.52 532.94 558.36 584.63 611.87 612.75 631.00 624.97 - - 715.35 686.30 672.20 681.42 671.77
4 United KingdomGBP 377.89 409.48 434.08 454.12 486.13 469.86 481.10 475.45 495.70 497.41 492.22 511.51 486.08 - - 561.39 554.28 560.90 561.66 576.22
5 ChinaRMB 95.42 100.00 108.37 123.47 145.67 192.75 192.38 202.79 212.26 212.80 213.83 215.81 221.48 - - 271.60 293.32 314.81 320.15 336.10
6 CanadaCAD 167.49 178.77 192.85 202.80 193.29 200.22 208.74 197.76 208.64 209.85 205.44 206.71 195.13 - - 246.57 250.01 270.01 264.29 286.93
7 AustraliaAUD 156.28 162.31 171.22 180.01 176.96 178.61 180.91 174.21 181.95 186.71 182.48 187.18 170.16 - - 216.87 214.89 218.44 214.26 218.02
8 SwitzerlandCHF 14.45 15.60 16.31 18.09 17.93 17.18 17.18 15.86 15.27 15.53 16.20 17.36 16.05 - - 20.74 19.44 23.13 23.77 24.51
Other currencies 208.28 209.55 228.81 244.69 256.46 254.62 269.60 266.07 263.50 270.56 262.92 281.50 255.53 - - 314.63 335.82 357.57 354.77 362.96
Unallocated Reserves 2,063.28 1,859.04 1,650.32 1,430.36 1,201.40 951.69 692.22 690.55 712.93 715.88 729.40 749.55 770.32 - - 841.14 851.50 865.83 860.67 886.73
Total 10,899.42 11,118.86 11,296.05 11,444.41 11,603.57 11,466.63 11,399.66 11,418.24 11,610.77 11,737.76 11,656.82 11,824.74 11,731.94 - - 12,705.67 12,582.14 12,812.12 12,831.20 12,937.27

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ increment & decrement icon of countries resets at end of month or till specific country releases its forex reserve data.
  2. ^ Russian Federation releases both weekly and monthly data of its reserves.
  3. ^ Indian reports are released on a weekly basis rather than the traditional monthly basis with the figures being of the previous week, by Reserve Bank of India.
  4. ^ Known as the Republic of China
  5. ^ Amount calculated on 24th September, 2022 when 1 SAR: 0.27 USD
  6. ^ Amount calculated on 21th July, 2022 when 1 EUR : 1.02 USD
  7. ^ Includes 261.499 million fine troy ounces of gold valued at a fixed price of $42.2222 per fine troy ounce. The US releases data on a weekly basis.
  8. ^ Amount calculated on 8th Oct, 2022 when 1 Euro: 0.97 USD
  9. ^ Reserves held by the UK Government and Bank of England.
  10. ^ Amount calculated on 23 July 2022 when 1 AED : 0.27 USD; It is almost non-volatile for the last period of 1 yr. and the value is not fluctuated on large scale
  11. ^ Turkey releases both weekly and monthly data
  12. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.
  13. ^ Not to be confused over 'Eurozone' ECB is the common bank of European countries that have opted for Euro as their common currency but eurozone includes the total amount of foreign reserves held by the different European countries central bank and provides collective data of all European members.
  14. ^ Including gold reserves valued @ $1,878.67 per fine troy ounce calculated on 30 October 2020
  15. ^ Sweden releases both weekly and monthly data
  16. ^ Amount calculated on 20 July 2022 when 1 Kuwaiti Dinar: 3.25 USD
  17. ^ Figure reported in NAf (ANG), and derived using currency peg of 1USD to 1.79ANG.[87]
  18. ^ Name in IMF data is "West Bank and Gaza".

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