List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

For consistency, forward currency swap contracts are not included in this list until they mature; figures that include them may be higher or lower than those listed here. IMF or other outstanding loans are also not shown here; if they were accounted for, many nations would list lower.

Rank Country Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  China[2] 3,771,347 Jun 2015[1]
2  Japan 1,242,935 Jun 2015[2]
3  Saudi Arabia 672,106 Jun 2015[3]
4   Switzerland 600,180 Jun 2015[4]
5  Republic of China (Taiwan) 426,398 Jun 2015[5]
6  South Korea 374,750 Jun 2015[6][7]
7  Brazil 368,252 Jul 2015[8]
8  Russia 364,600 Aug 21, 2015[9][10][11]
9  India 355,354 Aug 21, 2015[12][13]
-  Hong Kong 340,768 Jun 2015[14]
10  Singapore 253,280 Jun 2015[15]
11  Mexico 188,347 Aug 2015[16]
12  Germany 188,310 Jun 2015[17]
13  Thailand 160,274 Jun 2015[18]
14  Algeria 159,900 Mar 2015[19]
15  United Kingdom 153,894 Jun 2015[20]
16  France 141,692 Jun 2015[21]
17  Italy 139,829 Jun 2015[22]
18  United States 120,820 Jun 2015[23]
19  Turkey 119,608 Jun 2015[24]
20  Iran[3] 110,000 Dec 2014[25]
21  Indonesia 108,030 Jun 2015[26][27]
22  Malaysia 105,478 Jun 2015[28][29]
23  Libya 105,000 Dec 2014[25]
24  Poland 104,061 Jun 2015[30]
25  Denmark 96,495 Jun 2015[31]
26  Israel 88,339 Jun 2015[32]
27  Philippines 80,644 Jun 2015[33][34]
28  Canada 76,395 Jun 2015[35]
29  United Arab Emirates 74,700 Dec 2014[25]
30  Iraq 74,000 Dec 2014[25]
31  Norway 65,437 Jun 2015[36][37]
32  Sweden 60,100 Jun 2015[38]
33  Peru 59,202 Jul 2015[39]
34  Czech Republic 56,160 Jul 2015[40]
35  Spain 55,018 Jun 2015[41]
36  Australia 51,672 Jun 2015[42]
37  Lebanon 49,430 Dec 2014[25]
38  South Africa 46,829 Jun 2015[43]
39  Colombia 46,478 Jun 2015[44]
40  Qatar 41,036 Apr 2015[45]
41  Netherlands 40,453 Jun 2015[46]
42  Hungary 38,894 Jun 2015[47]
43  Kuwait 38,500 Dec 2014[25]
44  Chile 38,179 Jun 2015[48]
45  Romania 37,620 Jun 2015[49]
46  Vietnam 35,700 Dec 2014[25]
47  Argentina 33,851 Jun 2015[50]
48  Angola 33,590 Dec 2014[25]
49  Kazakhstan 28,842 Jun 2015[51]
50  Nigeria 28,335 Jun 2015[52]
51  Turkmenistan 27,040 Dec 2014[25]
52  Bangladesh 25,464 Jul 2015[53]
53  Belgium 24,927 Jun 2015[54]
54  Austria 24,211 Jun 2015[55]
55  Bulgaria 21,510 Jun 2015[56]
56  Morocco 20,970 Dec 2014[25]
57  Venezuela 20,200 Dec 2014[25]
58  Portugal 19,312 Jun 2015[57]
59  Uruguay 18,324 Jun 2015[58]
60  New Zealand 18,063 Jun 2015[59]
-  Macau 18,041 Jun 2015[60]
61  Uzbekistan 18,000 Dec 2014[25]
62  Oman 17,850 Dec 2014[25]
63  Azerbaijan 17,710 Dec 2014[25]
64  Jordan 16,393 Jun 2015[61]
65  Croatia 16,218 Apr 2015[62]
66  Pakistan 15,692 May 2015[63]
67  Bolivia 15,380 Dec 2014[25]
68  Egypt 15,130 Dec 2014[25]
69  Serbia 13,700 Dec 2014[25]
70  Trinidad and Tobago 11,317 Dec 2014[64]
71  Finland 10,577 Jun 2015[65]
72  Cuba 10,400 Dec 2014[25]
73  Ukraine 10,264 Jun 2015[66]
74  Kenya 9,259 Dec 2014[25]
75  Botswana 8,885 Dec 2014[25]
76  Myanmar 8,727 Dec 2014[25]
77  Sri Lanka 8,314 Dec 2014[25]
78  Costa Rica 8,271 Jun 2015[67]
79  Guatemala 7,717 Apr 2015[68]
80  Paraguay 7,241 Dec 2014[25]
81  Tunisia 7,198 Dec 2014[25]
82  Ecuador 6,811 Dec 2014[25]
83  Afghanistan 6,442 Dec 2013[25]
84  Bahrain 6,011 Dec 2014[25]
85  Cambodia 5,801 Dec 2014[25]
86  Greece 5,723 Jun 2015[69]
87  Ghana 5,482 Dec 2014[25]
88    Nepal 5,439 Dec 2013[25]
89  Republic of the Congo 5,200 Dec 2014[25]
90  Tanzania 4,758 Dec 2014[25]
91  Ivory Coast 4,752 Dec 2014[25]
92  Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,750 Dec 2014[25]
93  Yemen 4,688 Dec 2014[25]
94  Belarus 4,679 Jul 2015[70]
95  Iceland 4,616 Jul 2015[71]
96  Dominican Republic 4,503 Dec 2014[25]
97  Mauritius 3,919 Dec 2014[72]
98  Ethiopia 3,785 Dec 2014[25]
99  Uganda 3,711 Dec 2014[25]
100  Papua New Guinea 3,647 Dec 2014[25]
101  Honduras 3,587 Apr 2015[73]
102  Cameroon 3,503 Dec 2014[25]
103  Latvia 3,364 Jun 2015[74]
104  Mozambique 3,334 Dec 2014[25]
105  Panama 3,048 Dec 2014[25]
106  Zambia 3,000 Dec 2014[25]
107  Macedonia 2,869 Dec 2014[25]
108  Albania 2,825 Dec 2014[25]
109  Equatorial Guinea 2,763 Dec 2014[25]
110  Georgia 2,699 Dec 2014[75]
111  El Salvador 2,693 Dec 2014[76]
112  Slovakia 2,634 Dec 2014[77]
113  Gabon 2,397 Dec 2014[25]
114  Lithuania 2,356 Jun 2015[78]
115  Nicaragua 2,346 Jun 2015[79]
116  Moldova 2,157 Dec 2014[80]
117  Jamaica 2,100 Dec 2014[25]
118  Senegal 1,950 Dec 2014[25]
119  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,872 Dec 2014[25]
120  Kyrgyzstan 1,855 Dec 2014[81]
121  Ireland 1,792 Dec 2014[82]
122  Syria 1,725 Dec 2014[25]
123  Namibia 1,651 Dec 2014[25]
124  Mongolia 1,650 Dec 2014[83]
125  Armenia 1,489 Dec 2014[84]
126  Chad 1,389 Dec 2014[25]
127  Haiti 1,355 Dec 2014[25]
128  Rwanda 1,128 Dec 2014[25]
129  Lesotho 1,101 Dec 2014[25]
130  Slovenia 1,017 Dec 2014[85]
131  Suriname 1,008 Dec 2013[25]
132  Madagascar 1,005 Dec 2014[25]
133  Fiji 981 Dec 2014[25]
134  Cyprus 859 Jun 2015[86]
135  Laos 846 Dec 2013[25]
136  Bahamas 830 Dec 2013[25]
138  Benin 801 Dec 2013[25]
139  Swaziland 801 Dec 2013[25]
137  Luxembourg 797 Jun 2015[87]
140  Guyana 779 Dec 2014[25]
141  Barbados 668 Dec 2014[25]
142  Tajikistan 652 Dec 2014[25]
143  Malta 619 Dec 2014[88]
144  Togo 531 Dec 2013[25]
145  Burkina Faso 494 Dec 2014[25]
146  Estonia 437 Dec 2014[89]
147  Zimbabwe 437 Dec 2013[25]
148  Cape Verde 426 Dec 2013[25]
149  Montenegro 400 Dec 2013[25]
150  Malawi 364 Dec 2013[25]
151  Seychelles 362 Dec 2013[25]
152  Maldives 356 Dec 2013[25]
153  Burundi 314 Dec 2013[25]
154  San Marino 309 Dec 2013[25]
155  Belize 273 Dec 2013[25]
156  Gambia 251 Dec 2013[25]
157  Sudan 202 Dec 2013[25]
158  Eritrea 193 Dec 2013[25]
159  Guinea 183 Dec 2013[25]
160  Vanuatu 174 Dec 2013[25]
161  Samoa 169 Dec 2013[25]
162  Tonga 147 Dec 2013[25]
163  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 115 Dec 2013[25]
164  Dominica 90 Dec 2013[25]
165  Federated States of Micronesia 75 Dec 2013[25]
166  São Tomé and Príncipe 47 Dec 2013[25]
167  Montserrat 32 Dec 2013[25]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.safe.gov.cn/wps/portal/english/Data/Forex
  2. ^ IMF - Japan
  3. ^ "Table(9): RESERVE ASSETS (on page 18 of the pdf file; US$1 = 3.75 Saudi riyal)" (PDF). Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. 
  4. ^ IMF - Switzerland
  5. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)" (PDF). 
  6. ^ IMF - Korea, Republic of
  7. ^ Bank of Korea - Official Foreign Reserves
  8. ^ IMF - Brazil
  9. ^ IMF - Russia
  10. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Monthly values | Bank of Russia
  11. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Weekly values | Bank of Russia
  12. ^ IMF - India
  13. ^ Reserve Bank of India
  14. ^ Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Press Release
  15. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ IMF - Germany
  18. ^ Bank of Thailand - International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  19. ^ Algeria's central bank says foreign reserves fall $19 bln in first qtr | Reuters
  20. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  21. ^ IMF - France
  22. ^ IMF - Italy
  23. ^ IMF - United States
  24. ^ IMF - Turkey
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  26. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  27. ^ Economic and Financial Data for Indonesia - INTERNATIONAL RESERVES AND FOREIGN CURRENCY LIQUIDITY
  28. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  29. ^ Bank Negara Malaysia - International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  30. ^ IMF - Poland
  31. ^ IMF - Denmark
  32. ^ IMF - Israel
  33. ^ IMF - Philippines
  34. ^ Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas - INTERNATIONAL RESERVES AND FOREIGN CURRENCY LIQUIDITY
  35. ^ IMF - Canada
  36. ^ IMF - Norway
  37. ^ International reserves and foreign currency liquidity - monthly, preliminary figures - Tables - SSB (Statistics Norway)
  38. ^ IMF - Sweden
  39. ^ IMF- Peru
  40. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  41. ^ IMF - Spain
  42. ^ IMF - Australia
  43. ^ IMF - South Africa
  44. ^ IMF - Colombia
  45. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  46. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  47. ^ IMF - Hungary
  48. ^ IMF - Chile
  49. ^ IMF - Romania
  50. ^ IMF - Argentina
  51. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  52. ^ Central Bank of Nigeria - Statistics Database
  53. ^ Bangladesh Bank - Central Bank of Bangladesh
  54. ^ IMF - Belgium
  55. ^ IMF - Austria
  56. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  57. ^ IMF - Portugal
  58. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  59. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  60. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  61. ^ IMF - Jordan
  62. ^ IMF - Croatia
  63. ^ State Bank of Pakistan - The Central Bank: New template for the reserve assets
  64. ^ Foreign Reserves Monthly | Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago
  65. ^ IMF - Finland
  66. ^ IMF - Ukraine
  67. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  68. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  69. ^ IMF - Greece
  70. ^ IMF - Belarus
  71. ^ IMF - Iceland
  72. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  73. ^ IMF - Honduras
  74. ^ IMF - Latvia
  75. ^ IMF - Georgia
  76. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  77. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  78. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  79. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  80. ^ IMF - Moldova
  81. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  82. ^ IMF - Ireland
  83. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  84. ^ IMF - Armenia, Republic of
  85. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  86. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  87. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  88. ^ IMF - Malta
  89. ^ IMF - Estonia

External links[edit]