List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available and also arguably more meaningful.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the Central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data, and while most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalents, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

Foreign exchange reserves[edit]

Rank
[a]
Country or region Foreign exchange
reserves
(millions of US$)
Figures as of Change from
previous data
(millions of US$)
weekly/monthly
1 Steady  China[b] 3,356,529 December 2020[1] Increase 46,902
2 Steady  Japan 1,394,680 December 2020[2] Increase 10,065
3 Steady   Switzerland 1,036,531 November 2020[3] Increase 14,792
4 Steady  Russia[c] 597,400 8 January 2021[4] Steady 0
5 Steady  India[d] 586,082 8 January 2021[5] Increase 758
6 Steady  Taiwan[e] 529,910 December 2020[6] Increase 16,510
7 Steady  Hong Kong 491,600 December 2020[7] Increase 5,900
8 Steady  Saudi Arabia[f] 456,869 November 2020[8] Increase10,281
9 Steady  South Korea 436,400 November 2020[9] Increase 9,900
10 Steady  Brazil 355,620 December 2020[10] Decrease 384
11 Steady  Singapore 362,304 December 2020[11] Increase 9,677
12 Steady  Thailand 258,134 December 2020[12] Increase 4,641
13 Steady  Germany[g] 253,278 November 2020[13] Increase 26,128
14 Steady  France[h] 212,415 November 2020[14] Decrease 8,881
15 Increase  Mexico 201,287 November 2020[15] Increase 2,566
16 Increase  Italy[i] 199,469 November 2020[16] Decrease 8,345
17 Steady  United Kingdom 186,656 December 2020[17] Increase 3,651
18 Steady  Israel 173,307 December 2020[18] Increase 6,360
19 Steady  Czech Republic 165,756 December 2020[19] Increase 3,215
20 Steady  Poland 154,246 December 2020[20] Increase 9,834
21 Steady  United States[j] 145,752 31 December 2020[21] Increase 3,002
22 Steady  Indonesia 135,897 December 2020[22] Increase 2,341
23 Steady  Malaysia 105,336 November 2020[23] Increase 743
24 Steady  Philippines 104,508 November 2020[24] Increase 706
25  United Arab Emirates 98,507 October 2020[25] Increase 392
26 Increase  Canada 91,742 November 2020[26] Increase 870
27 Decrease  Vietnam 89,355 September 2020[25] Increase 533
28 Steady  Iran[k] 86,000 February 2020[27]
-  European Union (ECB) [l] [m] 85,473 November 2020[28] Decrease 3,201
29 Steady  Turkey 82,694 November 2020[29] Decrease 1,832
30 Steady  Spain[n] 79,368 November 2020[30] Decrease 331
31 Increase  Denmark 77,723 November 2020[31][32] Increase 3,189
32 Increase  Libya 77,198 May 2020[25] Decrease 2
33 Steady  Peru 76,750 29 December 2020[33] Decrease 300
34 Steady  Norway 74,332 November 2020[32] Increase 647
35 Steady  Iraq 65,386 August 2020[25] Decrease 1,503
36 Steady  Sweden 60,950 7 December 2020[34] Decrease 133
37 Increase  Algeria[o] 60,914 October 2020[25] Decrease 1,454
38 Steady  Colombia 58,500 December 2020[32] Increase 1,785
39 Increase  Qatar[p] 56,130 November 2020[35] Increase 76
40 Decrease  South Africa[q] 53,085 November 2020[36] Decrease 573
41 Steady  Romania 52,173 December 2020[32] Increase 6,114
42 Decrease  Netherlands[r] 51,162 November 2020[37] Decrease 2,365
43 Steady  Kuwait 48,122 October 2020[25][38] Increase 381
44 Decrease  Lebanon 44,224 October 2020[25] Decrease 3,278
45 Steady  Australia 43,419 November 2020[39] Increase 41
46 Steady  Bangladesh 42,973 December 2020[40] Increase 1,895
47 Increase  Hungary 38,990 November 2020[32] Increase 3,635
48 Decrease  Argentina 38,651 November 2020[32] Decrease 1,205
49 Steady  Egypt 38,223 November 2020[41] Decrease 33
50 Decrease  Chile 37,708 November 2020[32] Decrease 551
51 Decrease  Nigeria[s] 35,689 October 2020[42] Decrease 49
52 Decrease  Bulgaria 34,494 November 2020[32] Increase 45
53 Increase  Kazakhstan 33,573 October 2020[32] Decrease 210
54 Increase  Uzbekistan 32 892 12 December 2020[43] Decrease 465
55 Increase  Belgium 32,577 October 2020[32] Increase 357
56 Steady  Morocco 31,841 October 2020[32] Decrease1,284
57 Increase  Portugal 30,803 October 2020[32] Decrease 280
58 Decrease  Austria 29,606 October 2020[32] Increase 1,058
59 Steady  Ukraine 26,137 November 2020[32] Decrease 3
60 Steady  Macau, China 24,199 November 2020[44] Increase 704
61 Steady  Croatia 21,197 October 2020[32] Decrease 214
62 Increase  Cambodia 20,933 October 2020[25] Increase 463
63 Decrease  Turkmenistan 20,600 December 2017[27] N/A
64 Steady  Guatemala 17,606 September 2020[32] Decrease 12
65 Steady  Oman 17,328 August 2020[25] Increase 979
66 Decrease  Jordan 16,798 October 2020[32] Decrease 1,139
67 Steady  Uruguay 16,536 October 2020[45][32] Decrease 175
68 Steady  Angola 15,272 October 2020[25] Decrease 114
69 Decrease  Serbia 15,249 October 2020[25] Decrease 45
70 Steady  New Zealand 13,983 November 2020[32] Increase 669
71 Steady  Pakistan 13,400 8 January 2021[46] Decrease 12
72 Steady  Cuba 12,800 31 December 2017[27]
73 Steady  Finland[t] 11,815 December 2020[47] Increase 195
74 Increase    Nepal 11,443 October 2020[48] Increase 314
75 Steady  Greece 11,339 October 2020[32] Increase 58
76 Steady  Dominican Republic 9,873 October 2020[32] Decrease 673
77 Increase  Afghanistan 9,382 August 2020[25] Increase 21
78 Increase  Slovakia 9,267 November 2020[32] Decrease 173
79 Steady  Paraguay 8,625 November 2020[32] Decrease 109
80 Increase  Tunisia 8,508 30 December 2020[49] Increase 29
81 Steady  North Korea 8,000 November 2013[50]
82 Decrease  Kenya 7,837 18 December 2020[51] Decrease 12
83 Decrease  Costa Rica 7,809 October 2020[52] Decrease 429
84 Steady  Honduras 7,508 September 2020[32] Increase 9
85 Decrease  Belarus 7,376 November 2020[32] Decrease 109
86 Increase  Bosnia and Herzegovina 7,208 2019[53] Increase 1000
87 Increase  Mauritius 7,205 September 2020[32] Increase 20
88 Steady  Azerbaijan 7,127 September 2020[25] Decrease 139
89 Steady  Trinidad and Tobago 7,103 October 2019[54]
90 Increase  Ireland 6,839 September 2020[32] Increase 1200
91 Increase  Bolivia 6,644 August 2020[55] Increase 200
92 Decrease  Iceland 6,603 October 2020[32] Decrease 173
93 Decrease  Venezuela 6,330 May 2020[56] Decrease 2,200
94 Decrease  Botswana 6,170 2019[53] Decrease 1300
95 Increase  Myanmar 5,824 2019[53] Increase 800
96 Decrease  Sri Lanka 5,549 30 November 2020[57] Decrease 306
97 Increase  Lithuania 5,076 October 2020[32] Increase 600
98 Decrease  Ghana 5,060 April 2020[58] Decrease 2.500
99 Increase  Latvia 5,059 September 2020[32] Decrease 600
100 Increase  Tanzania 5,050 2018[53] Increase 500
101 Increase  Albania 4,832 July 2020[32] Increase 1100
102  Ivory Coast 4,688 31 December 2017[27]
103 Increase  Brunei 4,273 2019[53] Increase 900
104 Increase  North Macedonia 4,072 September 2020[32] Increase 600
105 Decrease  El Salvador 4,015 September 2020[32] Decrease 700
106 Increase  Jamaica 3,905 June 2020[32] Increase 300
107  Mozambique 3,888 2019[53]
108 Increase  Georgia 3,776 October 2020[32] Increase 400
109 Decrease  Mongolia 3,697 September 2020[32] Decrease 300
110  Cameroon 3,459 2018[53]
111 Increase  Moldova 3,453 September 2020[32] Increase 500
112 Decrease  Panama 3,423 2019[53] Decrease 400
113  Bahrain 3,415 date=May 2020}}
114  Uganda 3,359 2018[53]
115 Decrease  Ecuador 3,228 August 2020[59] Decrease 331
116 Decrease  Ethiopia 2,993 2019[53]
117 Increase  Kyrgyzstan 2,910 September 2020[32] Increase 700
118 Increase  Nicaragua 2,907 September 2020[32] Increase 700
119 Decrease  Armenia 2,449 September 2020[32] Decrease 400
120  Haiti 2,371 2018[53]
121 Increase  Papua New Guinea 2,339 2019[53] Increase 500
122 Increase  Estonia 2,216 October 2020[32] Increase 900
123 Decrease  Namibia 1,924 September 2020[32] Decrease 25
124  Bahamas 1,758 2019[53]
125  Madagascar 1,693 2019[53]
126  Montenegro 1,529 2019[53]
127  Tajikistan 1,466 2019[53]
128  Rwanda 1,465 2019[53]
129  Zambia 1,449 2019[53]
130  Guinea 1,418 2019[53]
131  Gabon 1,321 2019[53]
132 Increase  Cyprus 1,271 August 2020[32] Increase 200
133  Bhutan 1,238 2019[53]
134 Increase  Slovenia 1,217 October 2020[32] Increase 200
135  Luxembourg 1,146 October 2020[32]
136  Laos 1,068 2019[53]
137  Curaçao 1,055 31 October 2019[60][u]
138  Fiji 1,043 2019[53]
139  Niger 1,039 2015[53][failed verification]
140  Mauritania 1.029 2019[53]
141  Aruba 982 2019[53]
142  Kosovo 965 2019[53]
143 Increase  Malta 928 October 2020[32] Increase 30
144  Malawi 824 2019[53]
145  Lesotho 774 2019[53]
146  Barbados 772 2019[53]
147  Maldives 762 2018[53]
148  Cape Verde 737 2019[53]
149 Increase  Palestine 683 August 2019[32][v] Increase 50
150  Democratic Republic of the Congo 665 2018[53]
151  Timor-Leste 656 2019[53]
152 Increase  Suriname 647 2019[53] Increase 65
153  Mali 624 2015[53][failed verification]
154 Increase  Guyana 573 2019[53] Increase 50
155  Solomon Islands 571 2019[53]
156 Increase  Seychelles 566 September 2020[32] Increase 31
157  Sierra Leone 532 2019[53]
158  Vanuatu 511 2019[53]
159  Djibouti 501 2019[53]
160  San Marino 473 2019[53]
161  Eswatini 440 2019[53]
162  Republic of the Congo 423 2018[53]
163  Syria 407 31 December 2017[27]
164  Federated States of Micronesia 397 2019[53]
165  Central African Republic 361 2018[53]
166  Saint Kitts and Nevis 351 2018[53]
167  Liberia 349 2019[53]
168  Guinea-Bissau 332 2015[53][failed verification]
169  Antigua and Barbuda 279 2019[53]
170  Belize 277 2019[53]
171  Saint Lucia 260 2019[53]
172  Yemen 245 31 December 2017[27]
173  Grenada 236 2019[53]
174  Tonga 229 2019[53]
175  Togo 215 31 December 2017[27]
176  Comoros 202 2019[53]
177  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 193 2019[53]
178  Eritrea 191 2019[53]
179  Gambia 191 2018[53]
180  Samoa 185 2019[53]
181  Sudan 177 2017[53]
182  Dominica 166 2019[53]
183  Senegal 152 31 December 2017[27]
184  Chad 147 2018[53]
185  Zimbabwe 151 2019[53]
186  Burundi 111 2019[53]
187  South Sudan 68 2016[53]
188  Benin 60 31 December 2017[27]
189  Montserrat 49 31 December 2017[27]
190  Equatorial Guinea 48 2018[53]
191  Burkina Faso 45 31 December 2017[27]
192  São Tomé and Príncipe 47 2019[53]
193  Somalia 32 30 December 2017[27]
194  Kiribati 7 31 December 2017[27]

Timeline of the top 5 countries[edit]

The five countries with the largest foreign exchange reserves almost all have reserves of at least 500 billion USD and higher and have maintained such an amount for at least a week. At present there are only six countries whose reserves are at such a figure; this includes China, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, India and Taiwan. Saudi Arabia formerly included on the list until March 2020; its reserves were severely depleted by the low oil price during the economic fallout of from the global outbreak of coronavirus disease, its ongoing oil price war with Russia and competition from US shale oil.[62]

The images below shows the timeline of their reserves since the earliest available forex data. The list is in accordance to their respective positions.

China

Foreign Exchange Reserves of China

The foreign-exchange reserves of China are the greatest of all countries and been so for more than 14 years.[63][64] The main composition of Chinese forex reserves is approximately two-thirds USD and one-fifth Euros with the rest made up of Japanese Yen and the British Pound. China is also the only country that has ever had net reserves greater than $4 trillion.

Japan

Foreign Exchange Reserves of Japan

Japanese foreign exchange reserves are the second biggest reserves in the world. Japan was the first country to reach $500 billion in reserves and had the highest forex reserves in the world until they were surpassed by China in 2006. Since 2006 they have remained in second place with over $1 trillion, being only the second country to surpass such an amount.[65]

Switzerland

Foreign Exchange Reserves of Switzerland in CHF

Swiss forex reserves are the third biggest reserves in the world and reached $500 Billion in 2014 becoming fifth country to do so after Saudi Arabia. Swiss reserves are compiled in Swiss franc. The high reserves are mainly because of their historic high net trade surplus.

Russia

Foreign Exchange Reserves of Russia

Russian reserves are the world's fourth biggest; they were the third country to reach $500 billion.[66] The first fall in reserves was because of the 2008 financial crisis, the second fall in 2015 was due to sanctions imposed by the European Union following the Russian annexation of the Crimea.

India

Foreign Exchange Reserves of India

The Foreign-exchange reserves of India became the fifth largest on 5th June 2020 after the Reserve Bank of India released its weekly bulletin. On 1st January 2021 reserves exceeded $585.324 billion for the first time and they became the sixth country after Switzerland to do so.[67] During the 1991 Indian economic crisis country only had $5 billion of reserves left which led to subsequent economic liberalisation. Since then the reserves had seen a 10,000% increase in under 30 years.[68]

Currency composition of foreign exchange reserves[edit]

IMF releases the quarterly data on the currency composition of official foreign exchange reserves. The data are reported to the IMF on a voluntary and confidential basis. As of Q4 2016, there are 146 reporters, consisting of IMF member countries, a number of non-member countries/economies, and other entities holding foreign exchange reserves. From Q4 2016, the data was expanded to include renminbi (RMB).[69] Monetary gold is not covered in COFER but included in reserved assets, a broader scope than that of COFER.[70]

Currency Composition of Foreign Exchange Reserves (COFER)
(US Dollars, billions)[69]
No. Currency Q4 2016 Q1 2017 Q2 2017 Q3 2017 Q4 2017 Q1 2018 Q2 2018 Q3 2018 Q4 2018 Q1 2019 Q2 2019 Q3 2019 Q4 2019 Q1 2020
1 United StatesUSD 5,501.98 5,713.35 5,909.13 6,124.73 6,280.61 6,530.87 6,560.78 6,632.15 6,617.84 6,727.09 6,752.28 6,728.85 6,674.83 6,794.91
2 European UnionEUR 1,610.87 1,703.13 1,847.19 1,933.68 2,019.25 2,117.57 2,129.41 2,192.43 2,219.34 2,208.79 2,264.88 2,212.74 2,279.30 2,197.30
3 JapanJPY 332.93 399.85 427.79 435.67 491.01 477.28 511.52 532.94 558.36 584.63 611.87 612.75 631.00 624.97
4 United KingdomGBP 365.85 377.89 409.48 434.08 454.12 486.13 469.86 481.10 475.45 495.70 497.41 492.22 511.51 486.08
5 ChinaRMB 90.78 95.42 100.00 108.37 123.47 145.67 192.75 192.38 202.79 212.26 212.80 213.83 215.81 221.48
6 CanadaCAD 163.14 167.49 178.77 192.85 202.80 193.29 200.22 208.74 197.76 208.64 209.85 205.44 206.71 195.13
7 AustraliaAUD 142.30 156.28 162.31 171.22 180.01 176.96 178.61 180.91 174.21 181.95 186.71 182.48 187.18 170.16
8 SwitzerlandCHF 13.69 14.45 15.60 16.31 18.09 17.93 17.18 17.18 15.86 15.27 15.53 16.20 17.36 16.05
Other currencies 199.51 208.28 209.55 228.81 244.69 256.46 254.62 269.60 266.07 263.50 270.56 262.92 281.50 255.53
Unallocated Reserves 2,293.61 2,063.28 1,859.04 1,650.32 1,430.36 1,201.40 951.69 692.22 690.55 712.93 715.88 729.40 749.55 770.32
Total 10,714.68 10,899.42 11,118.86 11,296.05 11,444.41 11,603.57 11,466.63 11,399.66 11,418.24 11,610.77 11,737.76 11,656.82 11,824.74 11,731.94

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ increment & decrement icon of countries resets at end of month or till specific country releases its forex reserve data.
  2. ^ Excluding figures for Hong Kong and Macau.
  3. ^ Russian Federation release weekly data of its reserves instead of monthly data.
  4. ^ Indian reports are released on a weekly basis rather than the traditional monthly basis with the figures being of the previous week.
  5. ^ Formally known as the Republic of China
  6. ^ Amount calculated on 30 November 2020 when 1sar : 0.266613 usd.
  7. ^ Amount calculated on 30 November 2020 when 1 Euro : 1.193090 USD
  8. ^ Amount calculated on 30 November 2020 when 1 Euro : 1.193090 USD
  9. ^ Amount calculated on 30 November 2020 when 1 Euro : 1.193090 USD
  10. ^ Includes 261.499 million fine troy ounces of gold valued at a fixed price of $42.2222 per fine troy ounce
  11. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.
  12. ^ Not to be confused over 'Eurozone' ECB is the common bank of European countries that have opted for Euro as their common currency but eurozone includes the total amount of foreign reserves held by the different European countries central bank and provides collective data of all European members.
  13. ^ Amount calculated on 30 November 2020 when 1 Euro : 1.193090 USD
  14. ^ Amount calculated on 30 November 2020 when 1 Euro: 1.193090 USD.
  15. ^ Including gold reserves valued @ $1,878.67 per fine troy ounce calculated on 30 October 2020
  16. ^ Amount calculated on 30 November 2020 when 1 Qatari Riyal: 0.274592 USD
  17. ^ Amount calculated on 30 November 2020 when 1 Rand: 0.065190 USD.
  18. ^ Amount calculated on 30 November 2020 when 1 Euro : 1.193090 USD
  19. ^ Nigeria's number is of 30-day moving average.
  20. ^ Amount calculated on 31 December 2020 when 1 Euro : 1.1987 USD
  21. ^ Figure reported in NAf (ANG), and derived using currency peg of 1USD to 1.79ANG[61].
  22. ^ Name in IMF data is "West Bank and Gaza".

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Official reserve assets (2020)". China State Administration of Foreign Exchange.
  2. ^ "International Reserves / Foreign Currency Liquidity". Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  3. ^ "OFFICIAL RESERVE ASSETS AND OTHER FOREIGN CURRENCY ASSETS". Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  4. ^ "International Reserves of the Russian Federation (End of period)". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  5. ^ "Reserve Bank of India – Weekly Statistical Supplement". Reserve Bank of India. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  6. ^ "Foreign Exchange Reserves". Cbc.gov.tw. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  7. ^ "Foreign Exchange Reserves". Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  8. ^ "Monthly Statistics".
  9. ^ "Press Releases". The Bank of Korea. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  10. ^ "BANCO CENTRAL DO BRASIL - SDDS". Bcb.gov.br. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  11. ^ "Official Foreign Reserves". Monetary Authority of Singapore. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  12. ^ "International Reserves". Bank of Thailand. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  13. ^ "Official reserve assets and other foreign currency assets". Deutsche Bundesbank. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  14. ^ "International reserves". Webstat Banque de France. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  15. ^ "Information structure details (SIE, Banco de México)". www.banxico.org.mxt. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  16. ^ d'Italia, Banca. "Bank of Italy - Official reserves". www.bancaditalia.it. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  17. ^ "Statistical releases". Bank of England. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  18. ^ "Press Releases". Bank of Israel. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  19. ^ "ČNB". Czech National Bank. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  20. ^ "Narodowy Bank Polski - Internet Information Service". www.nbp.pl. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  21. ^ "U.S. International Reserve Position". home.treasury.gov. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  22. ^ Indonesia, Bank. "Indikator Moneter". Bank of Indonesia. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  23. ^ "INTERNATIONAL RESERVES AND FOREIGN CURRENCY LIQUIDITY". Bank Negara of Malaysia. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  24. ^ "Statistics - External Accounts". Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "International Liquidity selected indicators". International Monetary Fund.
  26. ^ "Official International Reserves - November 5, 2019". Department of Finance, Canada. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency.
  28. ^ "European Central Bank". European Central Bank. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  29. ^ "Info". www.tcmb.gov.tr. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  30. ^ "Spain International Reserves & Foreign Liquidity" (PDF). Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  31. ^ "INTERNATIONAL RESERVES AND FOREIGN CURRENCY LIQUIDITY - IMF COMPILATION". www.nationalbanken.dk. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av "International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity". data.imf.org.
  33. ^ "Reports". www.bcrp.gob.pe.
  34. ^ "Sweden International Reserves".
  35. ^ "Monthly Monetary Bulletin". Qatar Central Bank. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  36. ^ "STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES". www.resbank.co.za. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  37. ^ Bank, European Central. "Selected euro area statistics and national breakdowns". European Central Bank. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  38. ^ "Central Bank of Kuwait: Monthly". www.cbk.gov.kw.
  39. ^ "Official Reserve Assets". Reserve Bank of Australia. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  40. ^ https://www.bb.org.bd/econdata/intreserve.php
  41. ^ "I_Officialreserveassets.xlsx". Retrieved 27 December 2020.
  42. ^ "Central Bank of Nigeria | Movement in Reserves". Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  43. ^ "International Reserves of the Republic of Uzbekistan". Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  44. ^ "Official Statistics Summary Page | Monetary Authority of Macao". www.amcm.gov.mo.
  45. ^ "Central Bank of Uruguay". Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  46. ^ "Data" (PDF). State Bank of Pakistan. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  47. ^ https://www.ecb.europa.eu/stats/ecb_statistics/escb/html/table.en.html?id=JDF_RA6_RESERVE_ASSETS
  48. ^ "Nepal Rastra Bank - Central Bank of Nepal". nrb.org.np. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  49. ^ "MAIN INDICATORS". Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  50. ^ "Северная Корея распродает золотой запас". Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  51. ^ https://www.centralbank.go.ke/releases/weekly-bulletin/
  52. ^ "Reservas netas del Banco Central".
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo "Total reserves (includes gold, current US$) - Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  54. ^ "Foreign Reserves Monthly". Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  55. ^ "El oro cobra relevancia en las reservas internacionales bolivianas". EFE. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  56. ^ "Iran Is Hauling Gold Bars Out of Venezuela's Almost-Empty Vaults". 29 April 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  57. ^ "Weekly Economic Indicators". Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  58. ^ "Ghana's international reserves decline by approximately GHS169m".
  59. ^ "Banco Central del Ecuador" – via Facebook.
  60. ^ "Weekly International Reserve Statement". centralbank.cw. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  61. ^ "Netherlands Antillian Guilder". onada.com. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  62. ^ "Saudi reserves fastest fall in two decades".
  63. ^ Bradsher, Keith (18 February 2016). "China's Foreign Exchange Reserves Dwindling Rapidly" – via NYTimes.com.
  64. ^ Babones, Salvatore. "China Is Sitting On $3 Trillion In Currency Reserves, But Is That Enough?". Forbes.
  65. ^ Terada, Shinichi (8 March 2008). "Forex reserves pass $1 trillion milestone". The Japan Times.
  66. ^ "Russian Reserves March Toward $600 Billion As Sanction Threats Loom, Fitch Says". www.rferl.org.
  67. ^ "India's forex reserves crosses half trillion for the first time".
  68. ^ "From 5 To 500: India's Forex Reserves Journey Since 1991". BloombergQuint. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  69. ^ a b "IMF Data - Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves (COFER)". International Monetary Fund. 30 March 2018.
  70. ^ " ". data.imf.org. Retrieved 22 August 2020.

External links[edit]