List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available and also arguably more meaningful.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data, and while most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalents, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

Foreign exchange reserves[edit]

Rank Country or region Foreign exchange
reserves
(millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  China[a] 3,219,125 October 2019[1][2]
2  Japan 1,324,468 October 2019[3]
 Europe (ECB - Eurosystem) 921,279 September 2019[3][4]
3   Switzerland 835,187 September 2019[3]
4  Russia 541,100 8 November 2019[5]
5  Saudi Arabia 500,588 September 2019[3]
6  Taiwan[6] 472,480 October 2019[7]
7  India 447,808 8 November 2019[8][b]
8  Hong Kong 438,685 September 2019[9]
9  South Korea 406,320 October 2019[10]
10  Brazil 376,434 September 2019[11]
11  Singapore 276,795 October 2019[12]
12  Thailand 220,531 September 2019 [13]
13  Germany 199,858 October 2019[14]
14  Mexico 182,915 September 2019[15]
15  United Kingdom 179,385 October 2019[16]
16  France 169,005 October 2019[17]
17  Italy 164,992 June 2019[18]
18  Czech Republic 147,099 October 2019[19]
19  Iran[c] 132,600 31 December 2017[20]
20  United States[d] 128,883 25 October 2019[21]
21  Indonesia 126,694 October 2019[22]
22  Poland 121,901 October 2019[23]
23  Israel 119,811 August 2019[24]
24  United Arab Emirates 101,191 September 2019[25]
25  Malaysia 97,154 30 September 2019[26]
26  Algeria 87,383 2018[27]
27  Philippines 85,582 30 September 2019[3][28]
28  Canada 85,238 30 September 2019[29]
 Europe (ECB) 81,857 September 2019[3][30]
29  Spain 74,232 September 2019[3]
30  Turkey 73,772 September 2019[31]
31  Libya 69,350 31 December 2017[20]
32  Norway 68,375 September 2019[3][32]
33  Vietnam 68,000 25 July 2019[33]
34  Denmark 66,810 September 2019[3][34]
35  Peru 66,714 June 2019[citation needed]
36  Sweden 57,497 September 2019[3]
37  South Africa 54,855 September 2019[3]
38  Lebanon 53,100 31 December 2017[20]
39  Colombia 52,570 October 2019[3]
40  Argentina 48,703 September 2019[3]
41  Azerbaijan 47,500 April 2019[35]
42  Australia 47,034 October 2019[36]
43  Iraq 47,020 31 December 2017[20]
44  Egypt 44,392 October 2019[37]
45  Romania 43,947 October 2019[3]
46  Netherlands 43,552 October 2019[3]
47  Nigeria 40,255 5 November 2019[38][e]
48  Kuwait 39,200 May 2019[39]
49  Chile 38,933 September 2019[3]
50  Qatar 38,850 August 2019[40][f]
51  Bangladesh 32,438 October 2019[41]
52  Hungary 30,889 September 2019[3]
53  Kazakhstan 28,796 September 2019[3]
54  Bulgaria 27,508 September 2019[3]
55  Belgium 28,568 September 2019[3]
56  Portugal 25,945 September 2019[3]
57  Austria 24,819 September 2019[3]
58  Morocco 24,644 September 2019[3]
59  Croatia 22,318 September 2019[3]
60  Ukraine 21,438 September 2019[3]
61  Macau, China 21,183 September 2019[42][43]
62  Turkmenistan 20,600 31 December 2017[20]
63  New Zealand 18,406 September 2019[3]
64  Oman 17,388 2018[27]
65  Angola 17,012 June 2019[44][45][g]
66  Uzbekistan 16,000 31 December 2017[20]
67  Jordan 15,181 September 2019[3]
68  Guatemala 14,511 September 2019[3]
69  Serbia 14,515 September 2019[46][h]
70  Uruguay 14,285 September 2019[3]
71  Cambodia 13,886 2018[27]
72  Cuba 12,800 31 December 2017[20]
73  Finland 11,365 October 2019[3]
74    Nepal 9,440 15 September 2019[47]
75  Belarus 9,194 October 2019[3]
76  Venezuela 8,527 May 2019[48]
77  Bolivia 8,409 April 2019[3]
78  Pakistan 8,397 08 Nov 2019[49]
79  Greece 8,207 September 2019[3]
80  Kenya 8,196 2018[27]
81  North Korea 8,000 November 2013[50]
82  Afghanistan 7,800 30 March 2019[51]
83  Paraguay 7,739 2018[27]
84  Sri Lanka 7,635 30 November 2019[52]
85  Dominican Republic 7,591 September 2019[3]
86  Ghana 7,555 31 December 2017[20]
87  Costa Rica 7,482 September 2019[3]
88  Botswana 7,476 31 December 2017[20]
89  Mauritius 7,217 September 2019[3]
90  Slovakia 7,141 September 2019[3]
91  Trinidad and Tobago 7,103 October 2019[53]
92  Iceland 6,776 October 2019[3]
93  Ireland 5,644 October 2019[3]
94  Tunisia 5,540 October 2019[3]
95  Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,370 31 December 2017[20]
96  Myanmar 5,032 31 December 2017[20][i]
97  Honduras 5,005 July 2019[3]
98  El Salvador 4,735 September 2019[3]
99  Ivory Coast 4,688 31 December 2017[20]
100  Latvia 4,498 September 2019[3]
101  Ecuador 4,489 September 2019[3]
102  Lithuania 4,481 October 2019[3]
103  Tanzania 4,174 31 December 2017[20]
104  Mongolia 3,986 September 2019[3]
105  Panama 3,888 31 December 2017[20]
106  Albania 3,724 October 2019[3]
107  Jamaica 3,605 March 2019[3]
108  North Macedonia 3,420 September 2019[3]
109  Brunei 3,407 2018[27]
110  Georgia 3,387 October 2019[3]
111  Ethiopia 3,147 31 December 2017[20]
112  Uganda 3,045 31 December 2017[20]
113  Moldova 2,942 September 2019[3]
114  Zambia 2,426 31 December 2017[20]
115  Armenia 2,407 October 2019[3]
116  Cameroon 2,357 31 December 2017[20]
117  Kyrgyzstan 2,203 September 2019[3]
118  Nicaragua 2,201 August 2019[3]
119  Mozambique 2,193 31 December 2017[20]
120  Bahrain 2,166 331 December 2017[20]
121  Haiti 2,044 31 December 2017[20]
122  Namibia 1,949 31 December 2017[20]
123  Papua New Guinea 1,800 31 December 2017[20]
124  Madagascar 1,740 2018[27]
125  Bahamas 1,414 2017[27]
126  Estonia 1,352 October 2019[3]
127  Tajikistan 1,284 2018[27]
128  Montenegro 1,261 2018[27]
129  Guinea 1,225 2018[27]
130  Luxembourg 1,070 October 2019[3]
131  Curaçao 1,055 31 October 2019[54][j]
132  Niger 1,039 2015[27][failed verification]
133  Cyprus 1,034 October 2019[3]
134  Rwanda 1,026 31 December 2017[20]
135  Slovenia 1,022 Ocotober 2019[3]
136  Laos 990 31 December 2017[20]
137  Aruba 980 2018[27]
138  Bhutan 987 2018[27]
139  Lesotho 983 31 December 2017[20]
140  Fiji 967 31 December 2017[20]
141  Mauritania 934 2018[27]
142  Malta 890 October 2019[3]
143  Kosovo 881 2018[27]
144  Gabon 835 31 December 2017[20]
145  Republic of the Congo 813 31 December 2017[20]
146  Malawi 760 2018[27]
147  Maldives 722 2018[27]
148  Timor-Leste 674 2018[27]
149  Palestine 632 August 2019[3][k]
150  Mali 624 2015[27][failed verification]
151  Solomon Islands 617 2018[27]
152  Cape Verde 606 2018[27]
153  Seychelles 535 September 2019[3]
154  Guyana 518 2018[27]
155  Sierra Leone 503 2018[27]
156  Suriname 581 2018[27]
157  Liberia 475 2017[27]
158  Djibouti 454 2018[27]
159  Democratic Republic of the Congo 445 31 December 2017[20]
160  Eswatini 441 2018[27]
161  Vanuatu 421 2018[27]
162  Equatorial Guinea 416 31 December 2017[20]
163  Syria 407 31 December 2017[20]
164  Antigua and Barbuda 389 2018[27]
165  Saint Kitts and Nevis 363 2018[27]
166  Central African Republic 362 2018[27]
167  San Marino 339 2018[27]
168  Guinea-Bissau 332 2015[27][failed verification]
169  Belize 294 2018[27]
170  Saint Lucia 286 2018[27]
171  Tonga 277 2018[27]
172  Eritrea 237 31 December 2017[20]
173  Grenada 234 2018[27]
174  Togo 215 31 December 2017[20]
175  Barbados 205 31 December 2017[20]
176  Yemen 245 31 December 2017[20]
177  Sudan 178 2017[27]
178  Federated States of Micronesia 204 2017[27]
179  Comoros 199 2018[27]
180  Gambia 192 2018[27]
181  Dominica 191 2018[27]
182  Samoa 170 2018[27]
183  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 170 2018[27]
184  Senegal 152 31 December 2017[20]
185  Chad 148 2018[27]
186  Zimbabwe 87 2018[27]
187  South Sudan 68 2016[27]
188  Burundi 68 2018[27]
189  Benin 60 31 December 2017[20]
190  Montserrat 49 31 December 2017[20]
191  Burkina Faso 45 31 December 2017[20]
192  São Tomé and Príncipe 47 2018[27]
193  Somalia 31 31 December 2017[20]
194  Kiribati 7 31 December 2017[20]

Currency composition of foreign exchange reserves[edit]

IMF releases the quarterly data on the currency composition of official foreign exchange reserves. The data are reported to the IMF on a voluntary and confidential basis. As of Q4 2016, there are 146 reporters, consisting of IMF member countries, a number of non-member countries/economies, and other entities holding foreign exchange reserves. From Q4 2016, the data was expanded to include renminbi (RMB).[56]

Currency Composition of Foreign Exchange Reserves (COFER)
(US Dollars, billions)[56]
No. Currency Q4 2016 Q1 2017 Q2 2017 Q3 2017 Q4 2017 Q1 2018 Q2 2018 Q3 2018 Q4 2018
1 United StatesUSD 5,501.98 5,713.35 5,909.13 6,124.73 6,280.61 6,530.87 6,560.78 6,632.15 6,617.84
2 European UnionEUR 1,610.87 1,703.13 1,847.19 1,933.68 2,019.25 2,117.57 2,129.41 2,192.43 2,219.34
3 JapanJPY 332.93 399.85 427.79 435.67 491.01 477.28 511.52 532.94 558.36
4 United KingdomGBP 365.85 377.89 409.48 434.08 454.12 486.13 469.86 481.10 475.45
5 CanadaCAD 163.14 167.49 178.77 192.85 202.80 193.29 200.22 208.74 197.76
6 AustraliaAUD 142.30 156.28 162.31 171.22 180.01 176.96 178.61 180.91 174.21
7 ChinaRMB 90.78 95.42 100.00 108.37 123.47 145.67 192.75 192.38 202.79
8 SwitzerlandCHF 13.69 14.45 15.60 16.31 18.09 17.93 17.18 17.18 15.86
Other currencies 199.51 208.28 209.55 228.81 244.69 256.46 254.62 269.60 266.07
Unallocated Reserves 2,293.61 2,063.28 1,859.04 1,650.32 1,430.36 1,201.40 951.69 692.22 690.55
Total 10,714.68 10,899.42 11,118.86 11,296.05 11,444.41 11,603.57 11,466.63 11,399.66 11,418.24

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ Indian reports are released on a weekly basis with the figures being of the previous week.
  3. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.
  4. ^ US reports are released on a weekly basis with the figures being of two weeks back.
  5. ^ Nigeria's number is of 30-day moving average.
  6. ^ Data is taken from "QCB's International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity" table (table 11) in the excel file and converted into USD. Current exchange rate is pegged at QR 3.64 per USD.
  7. ^ Figure in June 2019 is a derivation of the original figure in the June 2019 report, KZ 5761114 million, and the average reference rate of KZ338.65/USD (also in the June report).
  8. ^ September 2019 number is based on EUR reported and EUR/USD average rate of 1.0917 as reported here.
  9. ^ Indicated as Burma in CIA report.
  10. ^ Figure reported in NAf (ANG), and derived using currency peg of 1USD to 1.79ANG[55].
  11. ^ Name in IMF data is "West Bank and Gaza".

References[edit]

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  5. ^ "International Reserves of the Russian Federation (End of period)". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  6. ^ Formally known as the Republic of China
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  56. ^ a b "IMF Data - Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves (COFER)". International Monetary Fund. 30 March 2018.

External links[edit]