List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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For foreign-exchange reserves excluding gold, see List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold).

Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations apare converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

Rank Country Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  China[7] 3,305,445 March 2016[1]
2  Japan 1,262,509 Apr 2016[2]
-  Europe (Eurozone) 761,679 Feb 2016[3]
3   Switzerland 649,190 Mar 2016[4]
4  Saudi Arabia 562,000 June 2016[5][6][7]
5  Republic of China (Taiwan) 425,978 Jan 2016[5][8][9]
6  Russia 398,200 19 August 2016[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]
7  South Korea 369,840 Mar 2016[19]
8  India[8] 367,169 19 August 2016[20]
-  Hong Kong, China 362,900 Jul 2016[21]
9  Brazil 362,200 Apr 2016[22]
10  Singapore 244,013 Feb 2016[5][23]
11  Germany 200,394 Apr 2016[24]
12  Thailand 182,668 Aug 2016[25]
13  Mexico 179,708 Mar 2016[26]
14  United Kingdom 164,003 Mar 2016[27]
15  Algeria 155,700 31 December 2015[5]
16  France 153,890 Mar 2016[28]
17  Italy 143,183 Mar 2016[29]
18  Iran 125,900 Dec 2015[30]
19  United States 121,269 Apr 2016[31]
20  Turkey 112,769 Mar 2016[32]
21  Indonesia 107,542 Mar 2016[33]
22  Poland 100,530 Mar 2016[34]
23  Malaysia 95,631 Feb 2016[35]
24  Israel 94,775 Mar 2016[5][36][37]
25  Iran[9] 93,950 31 December 2015[5]
26  Philippines 85,491 July 2016[38]
27  Canada 82,904 July 2016[39]
28  United Arab Emirates 79,920 31 December 2015[5]
29  Czech Republic 74,785 Apr 2016[5][40]
-  Europe (ECB) 75,150 Mar 2016[41]
30  Denmark 64,015 Mar 2016[42]
30  Libya 61,630 31 December 2015[5]
31  Peru 60,445. 7 May 2016[43]
32  Sweden 59,558 Feb 2016[44]
33  Norway 59,423 Feb 2016[45]
34  Iraq 57,070 31 December 2015[5]
35  Spain 54,154 Mar 2016[46]
36  Lebanon 49,610 31 December 2015[5]
37  Australia 49,264 Mar 2016[47]
38  Colombia 46,798 Apr 2016[5][48]
39  South Africa 46,770 Mar 2016[49]
40  Netherlands 40,393 Apr 2016[50]
41  Romania 40,148 Apr 2016[51]
42  Chile 39,552 Mar 2016[52]
43  Vietnam 39,600 31 December 2015[5]
44  Qatar 36,707 Jan 2016[5][53]
45  Kuwait 31,430 31 December 2015[5]
46  Hungary 31,366 Mar 2016[54]
47  Bangladesh 30,137 Jun 2016[55]
48  Argentina 29,571 Mar 2016[56]
49  Kazakhstan 27,800 1 March 2016[5][57][58]
50  Nigeria 25,780 Aug 2016[5][59]
51  Belgium 24,861 Mar 2016[60]
52  Morocco 23,516 Jan 2016[5][61]
53  Austria 24,757 Mar 2016[62]
54  Turkmenistan 22,600 31 December 2015[5]
55  Pakistan 23,100 July 2016[63]
56  Bulgaria 24,318 Mar 2016[5][64]
57  Portugal 21,328 Mar 2016[65]
-  Macau, China 19,130 Feb 2016[66]
58  Angola 18,460 31 December 2015[5]
59  Egypt 17,050 31 December 2015[5][67]
60  New Zealand 16,769 Mar 2016[5][68]
61  Jordan 16,386 Feb 2016[69]
62  Oman 15,720 31 December 2015[5]
63  Venezuela 11,900 31 July 2016[70]
64  Uzbekistan 15,000 31 December 2015[5]
65  Uruguay 14,377 Feb 2016[71]
66  Croatia 14,306 Feb 2016[5][72]
67  Bolivia 12,818 Jan 2016[73]
68  Ukraine 12,721 Mar 2016[74]
69  Trinidad and Tobago 11,690 31 December 2015[5][75]
70  Serbia 11,680 31 December 2015[5]
71  Cuba 11,600 31 December 2015[5]
72  Finland 10,412 Mar 2016[76]
73  Myanmar 9,417 31 December 2015[5]
74  North Korea 8,000 Nov 2013[77]
75  Botswana 7,990 31 December 2015[5]
76  Costa Rica 7,784 Feb 2016[78]
77  Guatemala 7,658 Mar 2016[79]
78  Greece 7,535 Mar 2016[80]
78  Kenya 7,356 31 December 2015[5]
80  Cambodia 7,091 31 December 2015[5]
81  Paraguay 7,028 31 December 2015[5]
82  Tunisia 6,714 Feb 2016[81]
83  Afghanistan 6,681 31 December 2014[5][82]
84  Sri Lanka 6,225 Mar 2016[83]
85  Iceland 6,186 Apr 2016[84]
86    Nepal 6,034 31 December 2014[5][85]
87  Ghana 5,617 31 December 2015[5]
88  Dominican Republic 5,183 Mar 2016[86]
89  Bahrain 5,051 31 December 2015[5]
90  Ivory Coast 4,882 31 December 2015[5]
91  Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,625 31 December 2015[5]
92  Mauritius 4,497 Mar 2016[87]
93  Republic of the Congo 4,407 31 December 2015[5]
94  Azerbaijan 4,399 29 January 2016[5][88]
95  Panama 4,182 31 December 2015[5]
96  Belarus 4,111 1 March 2016[89][90]
97  Tanzania 4,021 31 December 2015[5]
98  Honduras 3,755 Mar 2016[91]
99  Uganda 3,681 31 December 2015[5]
100  Brunei 3,649 2014[92]
101  Ethiopia 3,589 31 December 2015[5]
102  Latvia 3,519 Feb 2016[93]
103  El Salvador 3,171 Mar 2016[94]
104  Ecuador 3,128 31 December 2015[5]
105  Papua New Guinea 2,966 31 December 2015[5]
106  Slovakia 2,879 Jan 2016[5][95]
107  Albania 2,852 31 December 2015[5][96]
108  Zambia 2,716 31 December 2015[5]
109  Jamaica 2,670 Jan 2016[5][97]
110  Mozambique 2,528 31 December 2015[5]
111  Cameroon 2,510 31 December 2015[5]
112  Macedonia 2,454 Jan 2016[5][98]
113  Nicaragua 2,441 Jan 2016[5][99]
114  Georgia 2,426 29 February 2016[100][101]
115  Yemen 2,309 31 December 2015[5]
116  Ireland 2,191 Jan 2016[102]
117  Senegal 2,099 31 December 2015[5]
118  Equatorial Guinea 1,903 31 December 2015[5]
119  Gabon 1,825 31 December 2015[5]
120  Haiti 1,803 31 December 2015[5]
121  Kyrgyzstan 1,794 Feb 2016[5][103][104]
122  Armenia 1,740 Jan 2016[5][105][106][107]
123  Moldova 1,717 4 March 2016[108][109][110]
124  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,443 31 December 2015[5]
125  Mongolia 1,324 Jan 2016[111]
126  Niger 1,282 2014[112]
127  Lithuania 1,268 Feb 2016[113]
128  Bhutan 1,245 2014[114]
129  Namibia 1,135 31 December 2015[5]
130  Chad 1,111 31 December 2015[5]
131  Rwanda 1,028 31 December 2015[5]
132  Kosovo 990 30 September 2015[5][115]
133  Lesotho 981 31 December 2015[5]
134  Laos 976 31 December 2015[5][116]
135  Mauritania 969 2012[117]
136  Syria 968 31 December 2015[5]
137  Madagascar 963 31 December 2015[5]
138  Bahamas 950 31 December 2015[5][118]
139  Slovenia 939 Feb 2016[5][119]
140  Fiji 903 31 December 2015[5]
141  Mali 861 2014[120]
142  Cyprus 809 Jan 2016[5][121]
143  Benin 809 31 December 2015[5][122]
144  Luxembourg 774 Jan 2016[5][123]
145  Malawi 743 31 December 2015[5][124]
-  Aruba 680 2014[125]
146  Barbados 663 31 December 2015[5]
147  Malta 658 Feb 2016[5][126]
148  Belize 634 31 December 2015[5][127]
149  Maldives 627 2014[128]
150  Suriname 625 2014[129]
151  Guyana 614 31 December 2015[5]
152  Sierra Leone 601 2014[130]
153  Montenegro 600 31 December 2014[5][131]
154  Palestine 581 Dec 2015[132]
155  Swaziland 572 31 December 2015[5][133]
156  Seychelles 537 Jan 2016[5][134]
157  Solomon Islands 496 2014[135]
158  Togo 494 31 December 2015[5][136]
159  Liberia 493 Dec 2013[137]
160  Cape Verde 492 31 December 2015[5][138]
161  Estonia 471 Feb 2016[5][139]
162  Zimbabwe 457 31 December 2015[5][140]
163  Tajikistan 430 31 December 2015[5]
164  Djibouti 393 2014[141]
165  San Marino 392 2014[142]
166  Burkina Faso 363 31 December 2015[5]
167  Saint Kitts and Nevis 327 2014[143]
168  Burundi 316 31 December 2015[5][144]
169  Timor-Leste 312 2014[145]
170  Guinea 303 31 December 2015[5][146]
171  Antigua and Barbuda 297 2014[147]
172  Guinea-Bissau 287 2014[148]
173  Central African Republic 260 2014[149]
174  Saint Lucia 258 2014[150]
175  Eritrea 248 31 December 2015[5]
176  Vanuatu 213 31 December 2015[5][151]
177  Sudan 172 31 December 2015[5][152]
178  Comoros 171 2014[153]
179  Grenada 170 2014[154]
180  Tonga 167 31 December 2015[5][155]
181  Samoa 141 31 December 2014[5][156]
182  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 135 31 December 2015[5][157]
183  Federated States of Micronesia 114 2014[158]
184  Dominica 100 31 December 2015[5][159]
185  Gambia 83 31 December 2015[5][160]
186  São Tomé and Príncipe 64 31 December 2015[5][161]
-  Montserrat 32 31 December 2012[5]
187  Somalia 31 2015[5]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ Indian reports are released on a weekly basis with the figures being of the previous week.
  3. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ IMF - China
  2. ^ IMF - Japan
  3. ^ IMF - Euro Area
  4. ^ IMF - Switzerland
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  6. ^ "Table(9): RESERVE ASSETS (on page 18 of the pdf file; US$1 = 3.75 Saudi riyal)" (PDF). Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. 
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)" (PDF). 
  9. ^ SDDS (Special Data Dissemination Standard). Access to the Republic of China's statistics
  10. ^ https://www.rt.com/business/357279-russia-reserves/?utm_source=browser&utm_medium=aplication_chrome&utm_campaign=chrome
  11. ^ http://www.cbr.ru/eng/hd_base/?PrtId=mrrf_7d
  12. ^ http://www.cbr.ru/eng/hd_base/?PrtId=mrrf_7d
  13. ^ http://rg.ru/2016/05/12/mezhdunarodnye-rezervy-rossii-vyrosli-pochti-do-392-mlrd-dollarov.html
  14. ^ http://sputniknews.com/russia/20160511/1039455114/russia-bank-april-reserves.html
  15. ^ http://www.cbr.ru/eng/hd_base/?PrtId=mrrf_7d
  16. ^ IMF - Russia
  17. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Monthly values | Bank of Russia
  18. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Weekly values | Bank of Russia
  19. ^ IMF - Korea, Republic of
  20. ^ [2]
  21. ^ "Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Hong Kong's Latest Foreign Currency Reserve Assets Figures Released". www.hkma.gov.hk. Retrieved 2016-08-25. 
  22. ^ IMF - Brazil
  23. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  24. ^ IMF - Germany
  25. ^ IMF - Thailand
  26. ^ IMF - Mexico
  27. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  28. ^ IMF - France
  29. ^ IMF - Italy
  30. ^ [3]
  31. ^ IMF - United States
  32. ^ IMF - Turkey
  33. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  34. ^ IMF - Poland
  35. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  36. ^ IMF - Israel
  37. ^ [4]
  38. ^ [5]
  39. ^ [6]
  40. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  41. ^ IMF - European Central Bank
  42. ^ IMF - Denmark
  43. ^ IMF- Peru
  44. ^ IMF - Sweden
  45. ^ IMF - Norway
  46. ^ IMF - Spain
  47. ^ IMF - Australia
  48. ^ IMF - Colombia
  49. ^ IMF - South Africa
  50. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  51. ^ IMF - Romania
  52. ^ IMF - Chile
  53. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  54. ^ IMF - Hungary
  55. ^ Bangladesh Bank (Central Bank of Bangladesh)
  56. ^ IMF - Argentina
  57. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  58. ^ International Reserves and Assets of the National Oil Fund of Republic of Kazakhstan
  59. ^ CBN - Statistics Database
  60. ^ IMF - Belgium
  61. ^ IMF - Morocco
  62. ^ IMF - Austria
  63. ^ State Bank of Pakistan. Economic Data
  64. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  65. ^ IMF - Portugal
  66. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  67. ^ IMF - Egypt
  68. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  69. ^ IMF - Jordan
  70. ^ http://money.cnn.com/2016/08/03/news/economy/venezuela-running-out-of-cash/
  71. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  72. ^ IMF - Croatia
  73. ^ IMF - Bolivia
  74. ^ IMF - Ukraine
  75. ^ Foreign Reserves Monthly | Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago
  76. ^ IMF - Finland
  77. ^ Северная Корея распродает золотой запас
  78. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  79. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  80. ^ IMF - Greece
  81. ^ IMF - Tunisia
  82. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  83. ^ IMF - Sri Lanka
  84. ^ IMF - Iceland
  85. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  86. ^ IMF - Dominican Republic
  87. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  88. ^ http://en.cbar.az/infoblocks/money_reserve_usd
  89. ^ IMF - Belarus
  90. ^ International reserve assets of the Republic of Belarus
  91. ^ IMF - Honduras
  92. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  93. ^ IMF - Latvia
  94. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  95. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  96. ^ IMF - Albania
  97. ^ IMF - Jamaica
  98. ^ IMF - Macedonia
  99. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  100. ^ IMF - Georgia
  101. ^ National Bank Of Georgia. Statistical Data
  102. ^ IMF - Ireland
  103. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  104. ^ Кыргыз Республикасынын Улуттук банкы. Gross international reserves
  105. ^ IMF - Armenia, Republic of
  106. ^ Central Bank of Armenia. Databank
  107. ^ Central Bank of Armenia. Data template on International reserves and foreign currency liquidity
  108. ^ IMF - Moldova
  109. ^ Информация об изменении официальных резервных активов
  110. ^ BNM. Official reserve assets and other foreign currency assets
  111. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  112. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  113. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  114. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  115. ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Kosovo. Monthly Statistics Bulletin. December 2015, No. 127
  116. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  117. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  118. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  119. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  120. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  121. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  122. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  123. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  124. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  125. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  126. ^ IMF - Malta
  127. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  128. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  129. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  130. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  131. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  132. ^ IMF - Palestine
  133. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  134. ^ IMF - Seychelles
  135. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  136. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  137. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  138. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  139. ^ IMF - Estonia
  140. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  141. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  142. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  143. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  144. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  145. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  146. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  147. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  148. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  149. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  150. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  151. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  152. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  153. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  154. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  155. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  156. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  157. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  158. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  159. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  160. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  161. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)

External links[edit]