List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

For consistency, forward currency swap contracts are not included in this list until they mature; figures that include them may be higher or lower than those listed here. IMF or other outstanding loans are also not shown here; if they were accounted for, many nations would list lower.

Rank Country Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  China[3] 3,406,111 Jan 7, 2016[1][2]
2  Japan 1,233,214 Dec 2015[3]
-  Europe (Eurozone) 691,071 Nov 2015[4]
3  Saudi Arabia 660,100 Dec 31, 2015[5][6][7]
4   Switzerland 602,494 Dec 2015[8]
5  Republic of China (Taiwan) 425,300 Dec 31, 2015[5][9]
6  Russia 371,559 Feb 1, 2016[10][11][12]
7  South Korea 367,290 Jan 2016[5][13][14]
-  Hong Kong 358,823 Dec 31, 2015[15]
8  Brazil 358,799 Feb 3, 2016[16][17]
9  India 350,742 Feb 5, 2016[18]
10  Singapore 262,000 Dec 31, 2015[5][19]
11  Mexico 177,597 Dec 31, 2015[5][20][21]
12  Germany 173,683 Dec 2015[22]
13  United Kingdom 155,879 Dec 2015[23]
14  Algeria 155,700 Dec 31, 2015[5]
15  Thailand 156,513 Dec 31, 2015[5][24][25]
16  France 138,169 Dec 2015[26]
17  Italy 130,770 Dec 2015[27]
18  Turkey 118,300 Dec 31, 2015[5][28][29]
19  United States 117,560 Jan 22, 2016[30]
20  Indonesia 103,400 Dec 31, 2015[5][31][32]
21  Denmark 102,500 Dec 31, 2015[5][33]
22  Malaysia 95,290 Dec 31, 2015[5][34][35]
23  Poland 94,750 Dec 31, 2015[5][36]
24  Iran[4] 93,950 Dec 31, 2015[5]
25  Israel 91,610 Dec 31, 2015[5][37]
26  Philippines 80,667 Dec 31, 2015[5][38][39]
27  United Arab Emirates 79,920 Dec 31, 2015[5]
28  Canada 79,753 Dec 2015[40]
29  Czech Republic 73,500 Dec 31, 2015[5][41]
-  Europe (ECB) 71,039 Nov, 2015[42]
30  Libya 61,630 Dec 31, 2015[5]
31  Peru 60,962 Dec 31, 2015[43][44][45]
32  Sweden 58,164 Dec 2015[46]
33  Norway 57,453 Dec 2015[47][48]
34  Iraq 57,070 Dec 31, 2015[5]
35  Australia 55,000 Dec 31, 2015[5][49]
36  Spain 53,961 Nov 2015[50]
37  Lebanon 49,610 Dec 31, 2015[5]
38  Colombia 45,020 Dec 31, 2015[5][51]
39  South Africa 44,280 Dec 31, 2015[5][52]
40  Qatar 42,770 Dec 31, 2015[5][53]
41  Vietnam 39,600 Dec 31, 2015[5]
42  Hungary 39,390 Dec 31, 2015[5][54]
43  Chile 38,910 Dec 31, 2015[5][55]
44  Netherlands 38,259 Dec 2015[56]
45  Romania 37,330 Dec 31, 2015[5][57]
46  Kuwait 31,430 Dec 31, 2015[5]
47  Nigeria 28,760 Dec 31, 2015[5][58]
48  Argentina 28,220 Dec 31, 2015[5][59]
49  Kazakhstan 28,100 Jan 1, 2016[5][60][61]
50  Bangladesh 27,493 Dec 31, 2015[62]
51  Belgium 23,768 Nov 2015[63]
52  Bulgaria 22,750 Dec 31, 2015[5][64]
53  Turkmenistan 22,640 Dec 31, 2015[5]
54  Austria 22,236 Dec 2015[65]
55  Morocco 21,350 Dec 31, 2015[5][66]
56  Pakistan 20,276 Jan 29, 2016[67]
57  Portugal 19,396 Dec 2015[68]
-  Macau, China 18,893 Dec 2015[69]
58  Angola 18,460 Dec 31, 2015[5]
59  New Zealand 17,840 Dec 31, 2015[5][70]
60  Uruguay 17,480 Dec 31, 2015[5][71]
61  Jordan 17,220 Dec 31, 2015[5][72]
62  Egypt 17,050 Dec 31, 2015[5][73]
63  Oman 15,720 Dec 31, 2015[5]
64  Venezuela 15,410 Dec 31, 2015[5]
65  Uzbekistan 15,000 Dec 31, 2015[5]
66  Bolivia 14,680 Dec 31, 2015[5][74]
67  Croatia 13,940 Dec 31, 2015[5][75]
68  Ukraine 13,442 Feb 1, 2016[5][76][77][78][79]
69  Trinidad and Tobago 11,690 Dec 31, 2015[5][80]
70  Serbia 11,680 Dec 31, 2015[5]
71  Cuba 11,600 Dec 31, 2015[5]
72  Finland 11,100 Dec 31, 2015[5][81]
73  Myanmar 9,417 Dec 31, 2015[5]
74  Azerbaijan 8,513 Dec 31, 2015[5]
75  North Korea 8,000 Nov 2013[82]
76  Botswana 7,990 Dec 31, 2015[5]
77  Costa Rica 7,578 Dec 31, 2015[5][83]
78  Guatemala 7,473 Dec 31, 2015[5][84]
79  Kenya 7,356 Dec 31, 2015[5]
80  Tunisia 7,225 Dec 31, 2015[5][85]
81  Cambodia 7,091 Dec 31, 2015[5]
82  Sri Lanka 7,065 Dec 31, 2015[5][86]
83  Paraguay 7,028 Dec 31, 2015[5]
84  Afghanistan 6,681 Dec 31, 2014[5][87]
85    Nepal 6,034 Dec 31, 2014[5][88]
86  Ghana 5,617 Dec 31, 2015[5]
87  Greece 5,548 Nov 2015[89]
88  Iceland 5,289 Dec 31, 2015[5][90]
89  Bahrain 5,051 Dec 31, 2015[5]
90  Dominican Republic 4,962 Dec 31, 2015[5][91][5]
91  Ivory Coast 4,882 Dec 31, 2015[5]
92  Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,625 Dec 31, 2015[5]
93  Republic of the Congo 4,407 Dec 31, 2015[5]
94  Panama 4,182 Dec 31, 2015[5]
95  Belarus 4,176 Jan 1, 2016[92][93]
96  Tanzania 4,021 Dec 31, 2015[5]
97  Mauritius 3,732 Dec 31, 2015[5][94]
98  Uganda 3,681 Dec 31, 2015[5]
99  Brunei 3,649 2014[95]
100  Ethiopia 3,589 Dec 31, 2015[5]
101  Honduras 3,543 Dec 31, 2015[5][96]
102  Latvia 3,446 Dec 2015[97]
103  Ecuador 3,128 Dec 31, 2015[5]
104  Papua New Guinea 2,966 Dec 31, 2015[5]
105  Albania 2,852 Dec 31, 2015[5][98]
106  Slovakia 2,798 Dec 31, 2015[5][99]
107  Zambia 2,716 Dec 31, 2015[5]
108  Jamaica 2,700 Dec 31, 2015[5][100]
109  El Salvador 2,660 Dec 31, 2015[5][101]
110  Macedonia 2,615 Dec 31, 2015[5][102]
111  Mozambique 2,528 Dec 31, 2015[5]
112  Georgia 2,521 Dec 31, 2015[103][104]
113  Cameroon 2,510 Dec 31, 2015[5]
114  Nicaragua 2,320 Dec 31, 2015[5][105]
115  Yemen 2,309 Dec 31, 2015[5]
116  Senegal 2,099 Dec 31, 2015[5]
117  Ireland 2,011 Nov 2015[106]
118  Kyrgyzstan 1,916 Dec 31, 2015[5][107][108]
119  Equatorial Guinea 1,903 Dec 31, 2015[5]
120  Gabon 1,825 Dec 31, 2015[5]
121  Haiti 1,803 Dec 31, 2015[5]
122  Moldova 1,757 Dec 31, 2015[109][110]
123  Lithuania 1,697 Dec 2015[111]
124  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,443 Dec 31, 2015[5][5]
125  Mongolia 1,323 Dec 2015[112]
126  Niger 1,282 2014[113]
127  Bhutan 1,245 2014[114]
128  Armenia 1,209 Dec 31, 2015[5][115][116]
129  Namibia 1,135 Dec 31, 2015[5]
130  Chad 1,111 Dec 31, 2015[5]
131  Kosovo 1,103 Dec 2013[5]
132  Rwanda 1,028 Dec 31, 2015[5]
133  Luxembourg 1,000 Dec 31, 2015[5][117]
134  Lesotho 981 Dec 31, 2015[5]
135  Laos 976 Dec 31, 2015[5][118]
136  Mauritania 969 2012[119]
137  Syria 968 Dec 31, 2015[5]
138  Madagascar 963 Dec 31, 2015[5]
139  Slovenia 962 Dec 31, 2015[5][120]
140  Bahamas 950 Dec 31, 2015[5][121]
141  Fiji 903 Dec 31, 2015[5]
142  Cyprus 864 Dec 31, 2015[5][122]
143  Mali 861 2014[123]
144  Benin 809 Dec 31, 2015[5][124]
145  Malawi 743 Dec 31, 2015[5][125]
-  Aruba 680 2014[126]
146  Barbados 663 Dec 31, 2015[5]
147  Belize 634 Dec 31, 2015[5][127]
148  Maldives 627 2014[128]
149  Suriname 625 2014[129]
150  Guyana 614 Dec 31, 2015[5]
151  Sierra Leone 601 2014[130]
152  Montenegro 600 Dec 31, 2014[5][131]
153  Palestine 581 Dec 2015[132]
154  Swaziland 572 Dec 31, 2015[5][133]
155  Malta 556 Dec 31, 2015[5][134]
156  Seychelles 550 Dec 31, 2015[5][135]
157  Estonia 510 Dec 31, 2015[5][136]
158  Solomon Islands 496 2014[137]
159  Togo 494 Dec 31, 2015[5][138]
160  Liberia 493 Dec 2013[139]
161  Cape Verde 492 Dec 31, 2015[5][140]
162  Zimbabwe 457 Dec 31, 2015[5][141]
163  Tajikistan 430 Dec 31, 2015[5]
164  Djibouti 393 2014[142]
165  San Marino 392 2014[143]
166  Burkina Faso 363 Dec 31, 2015[5]
167  Saint Kitts and Nevis 327 2014[144]
168  Burundi 316 Dec 31, 2015[5][145]
169  Timor-Leste 312 2014[146]
170  Guinea 303 Dec 31, 2015[5][147]
171  Antigua and Barbuda 297 2014[148]
172  Guinea-Bissau 287 2014[149]
173  Central African Republic 260 2014[150]
174  Saint Lucia 258 2014[151]
175  Eritrea 248 Dec 31, 2015[5]
176  Vanuatu 213 Dec 31, 2015[5][152]
177  Sudan 172 Dec 31, 2015[5][153]
178  Comoros 171 2014[154]
179  Grenada 170 2014[155]
180  Tonga 167 Dec 31, 2015[5][156]
181  Samoa 141 Dec 31, 2014[5][157]
182  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 135 Dec 31, 2015[5][158]
183  Federated States of Micronesia 114 2014[159]
184  Dominica 100 Dec 31, 2015[5][160]
185  Gambia 83 Dec 31, 2015[5][161]
186  São Tomé and Príncipe 64 Dec 31, 2015[5][162]
-  Montserrat 32 Dec 31, 2012[5]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  2. ^ http://www.safe.gov.cn/wps/portal/english/Data/Forex
  3. ^ IMF - Japan
  4. ^ IMF - Euro Area
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  6. ^ "Table(9): RESERVE ASSETS (on page 18 of the pdf file; US$1 = 3.75 Saudi riyal)" (PDF). Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. 
  7. ^ IMF - Saudi Arabia
  8. ^ IMF - Switzerland
  9. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)" (PDF). 
  10. ^ IMF - Russia
  11. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Monthly values | Bank of Russia
  12. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Weekly values | Bank of Russia
  13. ^ IMF - Korea, Republic of
  14. ^ Bank of Korea - Official Foreign Reserves
  15. ^ Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Press Release
  16. ^ IMF - Brazil
  17. ^ BANCO CENTRAL DO BRASIL - SDDS. Special Data. Dissemination Standard
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  20. ^ IMF - Mexico
  21. ^ Banco de Mexico - Information structure details
  22. ^ IMF - Germany
  23. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  24. ^ IMF - Thailand
  25. ^ Bank of Thailand - International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  26. ^ IMF - France
  27. ^ IMF - Italy
  28. ^ IMF - Turkey
  29. ^ TCMB. International Reserves And Foreign Currency Liquidity Table
  30. ^ IMF - United States
  31. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  32. ^ Economic and Financial Data for Indonesia - INTERNATIONAL RESERVES AND FOREIGN CURRENCY LIQUIDITY
  33. ^ IMF - Denmark
  34. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  35. ^ Bank Negara Malaysia - International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  36. ^ IMF - Poland
  37. ^ Port2Port - Israel
  38. ^ IMF - Philippines
  39. ^ Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas - INTERNATIONAL RESERVES AND FOREIGN CURRENCY LIQUIDITY
  40. ^ IMF - Canada
  41. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  42. ^ IMF - European Central Bank
  43. ^ IMF- Peru
  44. ^ Central Reserve Bank of Peru - Reserves Management Reports
  45. ^ Central Reserve Bank of Peru - Statistics
  46. ^ IMF - Sweden
  47. ^ IMF - Norway
  48. ^ International reserves and foreign currency liquidity - monthly, preliminary figures - Tables - SSB (Statistics Norway)
  49. ^ IMF - Australia
  50. ^ IMF - Spain
  51. ^ IMF - Colombia
  52. ^ IMF - South Africa
  53. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  54. ^ IMF - Hungary
  55. ^ IMF - Chile
  56. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  57. ^ IMF - Romania
  58. ^ Central Bank of Nigeria - Statistics Database
  59. ^ IMF - Argentina
  60. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  61. ^ International Reserves and Assets of the National Oil Fund of Republic of Kazakhstan
  62. ^ Bangladesh Bank (Central Bank of Bangladesh)
  63. ^ IMF - Belgium
  64. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  65. ^ IMF - Austria
  66. ^ IMF - Morocco
  67. ^ [2]
  68. ^ IMF - Portugal
  69. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  70. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  71. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  72. ^ IMF - Jordan
  73. ^ IMF - Egypt
  74. ^ IMF - Bolivia
  75. ^ IMF - Croatia
  76. ^ IMF - Ukraine
  77. ^ Золотовалютные резервы Украины
  78. ^ Золотовалютные резервы (ЗВР) Украины
  79. ^ Динаміка міжнародних резервів у січні 2016 року
  80. ^ Foreign Reserves Monthly | Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago
  81. ^ IMF - Finland
  82. ^ Северная Корея распродает золотой запас
  83. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  84. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  85. ^ IMF - Tunisia
  86. ^ IMF - Sri Lanka
  87. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  88. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  89. ^ IMF - Greece
  90. ^ IMF - Iceland
  91. ^ IMF - Dominican Republic
  92. ^ IMF - Belarus
  93. ^ Международные резервные активы Республики Беларусь
  94. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  95. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  96. ^ IMF - Honduras
  97. ^ IMF - Latvia
  98. ^ IMF - Albania
  99. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  100. ^ IMF - Jamaica
  101. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  102. ^ IMF - Macedonia
  103. ^ IMF - Georgia
  104. ^ National Bank Of Georgia. Statistical Data
  105. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  106. ^ IMF - Ireland
  107. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  108. ^ Кыргыз Республикасынын Улуттук банкы. Gross international reserves
  109. ^ IMF - Moldova
  110. ^ Информация об изменении официальных резервных активов в декабре 2015 года
  111. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  112. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  113. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  114. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  115. ^ IMF - Armenia, Republic of
  116. ^ Central Bank of Armenia. Databank
  117. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  118. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  119. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  120. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  121. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  122. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  123. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  124. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  125. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  126. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  127. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  128. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  129. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  130. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  131. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  132. ^ IMF - Palestine
  133. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  134. ^ IMF - Malta
  135. ^ IMF - Seychelles
  136. ^ IMF - Estonia
  137. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  138. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  139. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  140. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  141. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  142. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  143. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  144. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  145. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  146. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  147. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  148. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  149. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  150. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  151. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  152. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  153. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  154. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  155. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  156. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  157. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  158. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  159. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  160. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  161. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  162. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)

External links[edit]