List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

Rank Country Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  China 3,051,600 November 2016[1]
2  Japan 1,242,792 October 2016[2]
3   Switzerland 685,559 October 2016[3]
4  Saudi Arabia 535,900 October 2016[4][5]
5  Taiwan 435,263 October 2016[4][6][7]
6  Russia 385,300 2 December 2016[8][9][10][11]
-  Hong Kong (China) 383,145 31 October 2016[12][13]
7  South Korea 375,170 October 2016[14][15]
8  India 365,306 25 November 2016[16][17]
9  Brazil 365,295 1 December 2016[18][19]
10  Singapore 251,364 October 2016[4][20]
11  Germany 200,394 April 2016[21]
12  Thailand 182,668 August 2016[22]
13  Mexico 176,852 October 2016[23][24]
14  United Kingdom 163,503 March 2016[25]
15  France 153,891 March 2016[26]
16  Italy 143,183 March 2016[27]
17  Turkey 123,440 November 2016[28][29]
18  Algeria 121,900 October 2016[4][30]
19  United States 116,184 18 November 2016[31][32]
20  Indonesia 115,037 16 October 2016[33][34]
21  Iran 110,000 31 December 2015[4][35]
22  Poland 100,531 March 2016[36]
23  Malaysia 98,300 15 November 2016[37][38]
24  Israel 94,775 March 2016[4][39][40]
25  United Arab Emirates 93,930 31 December 2015[4]
26  Philippines 85,900 August 2016[41][42]
27  Czech Republic 85,850 October 2016[4][43]
28  Canada 83,756 August 2016[44][45][46]
-  Europe (ECB) 75,150 February 2016[47]
29  Libya 70,990 31 December 2015[4]
30  Denmark 64,016 March 2016[48]
31  Peru 61,459 18 November 2016[49][50][51]
32  Sweden 59,558 February 2016[52]
33  Spain 54,155 March 2016[53]
34  Iraq 54,060 31 December 2015[4]
35  Australia 49,265 March 2016[54]
36  Lebanon 48,600 31 December 2015[4]
37  Colombia 46,798 April 2016[4][55]
38  South Africa 46,770 March 2016[56]
39  Norway 42,965 October 2016[57][58]
40  Netherlands 40,393 April 2016[59]
41  Romania 40,148 April 2016[60]
42  Chile 39,553 March 2016[61]
43  Qatar 34,465 October 2016[4][62]
44  Bangladesh 31,895 October 2016[63]
45  Hungary 31,367 March 2016[64]
46  Kazakhstan 30,500 1 November 2016[4][65][66][67]
47  Argentina 29,572 March 2016[68]
48  Vietnam 28,620 31 December 2015[4]
49  Kuwait 28,370 31 December 2015[4]
50  Belgium 24,861 March 2016[69]
51  Austria 24,758 March 2016[70]
52  Bulgaria 24,318 March 2016[4][71]
53  Angola 24,080 31 December 2015[4]
54  Morocco 23,927 February 2016[4][72][73]
55  Nigeria 23,690 October 2016[4][74]
56  Pakistan 23,615 25 November 2016[75]
57  Portugal 21,328 March 2016[76]
 Macau (China) 19,330 October 2016[77]
58  Egypt 19,040 October 2016[78][79]
59  Oman 17,540 31 December 2015[4]
60  New Zealand 16,770 March 2016[4][80]
61  Jordan 16,387 February 2016[81]
62  Ukraine 15,515 31 October 2016[82][83]
63  Uzbekistan 15,000 31 December 2015[4]
64  Uruguay 14,377 February 2016[84]
65  Croatia 14,307 February 2016[4][85]
66  Turkmenistan 13,620 31 December 2015[4]
67  Bolivia 12,818 January 2016[86]
68  Cuba 12,100 31 December 2015[4]
69  Venezuela 11,900 31 July 2016[87]
70  Serbia 11,350 31 December 2015[4]
71  Finland 10,413 March 2016[88]
72  Trinidad and Tobago 9,880 11 November 2016[4][89]
73  Myanmar 8,463 31 December 2015[4]
74  North Korea 8,000 November 2013[90]
75    Nepal 7,945 31 December 2015[4][91]
76  Costa Rica 7,784 February 2016[92]
77  Guatemala 7,658 March 2016[93]
78  Kenya 7,548 31 December 2015[4]
79  Botswana 7,546 31 December 2015[4]
80  Greece 7,535 March 2016[94]
81  Cambodia 7,376 31 December 2015[4]
82  Tunisia 6,714 February 2016[95]
83  Afghanistan 6,232 31 December 2015[4][91]
84  Sri Lanka 6,225 March 2016[96]
85  Iceland 6,186 April 2016[97]
86  Paraguay 5,939 31 December 2015[4]
87  Ghana 5,885 31 December 2015[4]
88  Dominican Republic 5,183 March 2016[98]
89  Belarus 4,817 1 November 2016[99][100]
90  Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,791 31 December 2015[4]
91  Ivory Coast 4,716 31 December 2015[4]
92  Bahrain 4,657 31 December 2015[4]
93  Mauritius 4,498 March 2016[101]
94  Tanzania 4,073 31 December 2015[4]
95  Azerbaijan 4,011 30 November 2016[4][102]
96  Honduras 3,755 March 2016[103]
97  Latvia 3,520 March 2016[104][105]
98  Panama 3,378 31 December 2015[4]
99  Brunei 3,366 2015[91]
100  Ireland 3,347 March 2016[106][107]
101  Albania 3,188 March 2016[4][108][109]
102  El Salvador 3,172 March 2016[110]
103  Ethiopia 3,113 31 December 2015[4]
104  Zambia 2,968 31 December 2015[4]
105  Uganda 2,909 31 December 2015[4]
106  Slovakia 2,879 January 2016[4][111]
107  Georgia 2,760 October 2016[112][113][114]
108  Jamaica 2,740 February 2016[4][115][116]
109  Cameroon 2,714 31 December 2015[4]
110  Mozambique 2,582 31 December 2015[4]
111  Nicaragua 2,520 April 2016[4][117][118]
112  Ecuador 2,496 31 December 2015[4]
113  Macedonia 2,480 February 2016[4][119][120]
114  Republic of the Congo 2,244 31 December 2015[4]
115  Moldova 2,098 25 November 2016[121][122][123]
116  Senegal 2,012 31 December 2015[4]
117  Yemen 1,978 31 December 2015[4]
118  Kyrgyzstan 1,944 October 2016[4][124][125][126]
119  Haiti 1,919 31 December 2015[4]
120  Gabon 1,878 31 December 2015[4]
121  Armenia 1,839 October 2016[4][127][128][129][130]
-  Curaçao (Netherlands) 1,791 2015[91]
122  Papua New Guinea 1,738 31 December 2015[4]
123  Namibia 1,690 31 December 2015[4]
124  Lithuania 1,227 April 2016[131][132]
125  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,216 31 December 2015[4]
126  Equatorial Guinea 1,205 31 December 2015[4]
127  Bhutan 1,103 2015[91]
128  Luxembourg 1,077 March 2016[4][133][134]
129  Laos 1,058 31 December 2015[4][91]
130  Niger 1,039 2015[91]
131  Mongolia 1,039 October 2016[135]
132  Rwanda 1,030 31 December 2015[4]
133  Mauritania 969 2012[91]
134  Fiji 919 31 December 2015[4]
135  Lesotho 904 31 December 2015[4]
136  Bahamas 896 31 December 2015[4][91]
137  Kosovo 890 30 September 2015[4][91][136]
138  Cyprus 889 March 2016[4][137][138]
139  Slovenia 870 April 2016[139][140]
140  Madagascar 832 31 December 2015[4]
-  Aruba (Netherlands) 816 2015[91]
141  Syria 773 31 December 2015[4]
142  Montenegro 734 2015[4][91]
143  Benin 732 31 December 2015[4][91]
144  Malawi 693 31 December 2015[4][91]
145  Malta 671 March 2016[4][141][142]
146  Barbados 658 31 December 2015[4]
147  Mali 624 2015[91]
148  Sierra Leone 621 2015[91]
149  Guyana 601 31 December 2015[4]
150  Maldives 576 2015[4][91]
151  Togo 574 31 December 2015[4][91]
152  Seychelles 555 March 2016[4][143][144]
153  Swaziland 548 31 December 2015[4][91]
154  Liberia 523 2015[91]
155  Solomon Islands 520 2015[91]
156  Cape Verde 495 31 December 2015[4][91]
157  Estonia 494 March 2016[4][145][146]
158  Tajikistan 494 31 December 2015[4]
159  Palestine 464 March 2016[147][148]
160  Timor-Leste 438 2015[91]
161  Belize 437 31 December 2015[4][91]
162  San Marino 392 2014[91]
163  Chad 383 31 December 2015[4]
164  Djibouti 365 2015[91]
165  Antigua and Barbuda 356 2015[91]
166  Zimbabwe 339 31 December 2015[4][91]
167  Guinea-Bissau 332 2015[91]
168  Suriname 330 31 December 2015[4][91]
169  Saint Lucia 318 2015[91]
170  Saint Kitts and Nevis 288 2015[91]
171  Vanuatu 269 31 December 2015[4][91]
172  Burkina Faso 260 31 December 2015[4]
173  Guinea 234 31 December 2015[4][91]
174  South Sudan 230 2015[91]
175  Central African Republic 214 2015[91]
176  Eritrea 210 31 December 2015[4]
177  Comoros 201 2015[91]
178  Grenada 198 2015[91]
179  Sudan 174 31 December 2015[4][91]
180  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 166 31 December 2015[4][91]
181  Tonga 156 31 December 2015[4][91]
182  Samoa 139 31 December 2015[4][91]
183  Burundi 136 31 December 2015[4][91]
184  Federated States of Micronesia 135 2015[4][91]
185  Dominica 126 31 December 2015[4][91]
186  Gambia 84 31 December 2015[4][91]
187  São Tomé and Príncipe 73 31 December 2015[4][91]
-  Montserrat (UK) 52 31 December 2012[4]
188  Somalia 31 2014[4]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ Indian reports are released on a weekly basis with the figures being of the previous week.
  3. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ China’s Foreign Reserves Drop Most in 10 Months as Yuan Slumps
  2. ^ CORRECTED-Japan October foreign reserves fall to $1.243 trln
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  5. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/saudi-cenbank-assets-idUSL8N1DT2YV.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)" (PDF). 
  7. ^ SDDS (Special Data Dissemination Standard). Access to the Republic of China's statistics
  8. ^ http://www.cbr.ru/eng/hd_base/?PrtId=mrrf_7d
  9. ^ IMF - Russia
  10. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Monthly values | Bank of Russia
  11. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Weekly values | Bank of Russia
  12. ^ Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Press Release
  13. ^ "Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Hong Kong's Latest Foreign Currency Reserve Assets Figures Released". www.hkma.gov.hk. Retrieved 2016-08-25. 
  14. ^ Bank of Korea - Official Foreign Reserves
  15. ^ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity - KOREA, REPUBLIC OF
  16. ^ Reserve Bank of India. WEEKLY STATISTICAL SUPPLEMENT
  17. ^ [2]
  18. ^ Banco Central do Brasil
  19. ^ IMF - Brazil
  20. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  21. ^ IMF - Germany
  22. ^ IMF - Thailand
  23. ^ Banco de México. Data Template on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  24. ^ IMF - Mexico
  25. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  26. ^ IMF - France
  27. ^ IMF - Italy
  28. ^ IMF - Turkey
  29. ^ http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/central-bank-gross-fx-reserves-at-20-month-high--.aspx?pageID=238&nID=106258&NewsCatID=345
  30. ^ Algerian foreign reserves drop to $121.9 bln
  31. ^ U.S. International Reserve Position
  32. ^ IMF - United States
  33. ^ Bank Indonesia
  34. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  35. ^ [3]
  36. ^ IMF - Poland
  37. ^ Central Bank of Malaysia. International Reserves
  38. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  39. ^ IMF - Israel
  40. ^ [4]
  41. ^ [5]
  42. ^ IMF - Philippines
  43. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  44. ^ [6]
  45. ^ [7]
  46. ^ IMF - Canada
  47. ^ IMF - European Central Bank
  48. ^ IMF - Denmark
  49. ^ CENTRAL RESERVE BANK OF PERU. RESERVE MANAGEMENT STATISTICS
  50. ^ CENTRAL RESERVE BANK OF PERU. RESERVES MANAGEMENT REPORTS
  51. ^ IMF- Peru
  52. ^ IMF - Sweden
  53. ^ IMF - Spain
  54. ^ IMF - Australia
  55. ^ IMF - Colombia
  56. ^ IMF - South Africa
  57. ^ Statistick Norway. International reserves and foreign liquidity
  58. ^ IMF - Norway
  59. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  60. ^ IMF - Romania
  61. ^ IMF - Chile
  62. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  63. ^ Bangladesh Bank (Central Bank of Bangladesh)
  64. ^ IMF - Hungary
  65. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  66. ^ National Bank of Kazakhstan
  67. ^ International Reserves and Assets of the National Oil Fund of Republic of Kazakhstan
  68. ^ IMF - Argentina
  69. ^ IMF - Belgium
  70. ^ IMF - Austria
  71. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  72. ^ Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  73. ^ IMF - Morocco
  74. ^ CBN - Statistics Database
  75. ^ State Bank of Pakistan. Economic Data
  76. ^ IMF - Portugal
  77. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  78. ^ Egypt's foreign reserves fall to $19 bln in October: Central bank
  79. ^ IMF - Egypt
  80. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  81. ^ IMF - Jordan
  82. ^ Золотовалютные резервы (ЗВР) Украины
  83. ^ IMF - Ukraine
  84. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  85. ^ IMF - Croatia
  86. ^ IMF - Bolivia
  87. ^ http://money.cnn.com/2016/08/03/news/economy/venezuela-running-out-of-cash/
  88. ^ IMF - Finland
  89. ^ Foreign Reserves Monthly | Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago
  90. ^ Северная Корея распродает золотой запас
  91. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  92. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  93. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  94. ^ IMF - Greece
  95. ^ IMF - Tunisia
  96. ^ IMF - Sri Lanka
  97. ^ IMF - Iceland
  98. ^ IMF - Dominican Republic
  99. ^ IMF - Belarus
  100. ^ International reserve assets of the Republic of Belarus
  101. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  102. ^ http://en.cbar.az/infoblocks/money_reserve_usd
  103. ^ IMF - Honduras
  104. ^ Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  105. ^ IMF - Latvia
  106. ^ Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  107. ^ IMF - Ireland
  108. ^ Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  109. ^ IMF - Albania
  110. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  111. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  112. ^ Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  113. ^ IMF - Georgia
  114. ^ National Bank Of Georgia. Statistical Data. Official Reserve Assets
  115. ^ Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  116. ^ IMF - Jamaica
  117. ^ Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  118. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  119. ^ Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  120. ^ IMF - Macedonia
  121. ^ IMF - Moldova
  122. ^ Информация об изменении официальных резервных активов
  123. ^ BNM. Официальные резервные активы и другие активы в иностранной валюте
  124. ^ Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  125. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  126. ^ Кыргыз Республикасынын Улуттук банкы. Gross international reserves
  127. ^ Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  128. ^ IMF - Armenia, Republic of
  129. ^ Central Bank of Armenia. Databank
  130. ^ Central Bank of Armenia. Data template on International reserves and foreign currency liquidity
  131. ^ Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  132. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  133. ^ Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  134. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  135. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  136. ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Kosovo. Monthly Statistics Bulletin. December 2015, No. 127
  137. ^ Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  138. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  139. ^ Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  140. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  141. ^ Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  142. ^ IMF - Malta
  143. ^ Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  144. ^ IMF - Seychelles
  145. ^ Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  146. ^ IMF - Estonia
  147. ^ Time Series Data on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity. Official Reserve Assets
  148. ^ IMF - Palestine

External links[edit]