List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations apare converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data and includes both sovereign states and non-sovereign territories (such as Hong Kong and Macau, which are under the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China). While most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalence, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

For consistency, forward currency swap contracts are not included in this list until they mature; figures that include them may be higher or lower than those listed here. IMF or other outstanding loans are also not shown here; if they were accounted for, many nations would list lower.

Rank Country Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of US$)
Figures as of
1  China[5] 3,305,445 March 2016[1]
2  Japan 1,262,509 Apr 2016[2]
-  Europe (Eurozone) 761,679 Feb 2016[3]
3   Switzerland 649,190 Mar 2016[4]
4  Saudi Arabia 572,000 May 2016[5][6][7]
5  Taiwan 425,978 Jan 2016[5][8][9]
6  Russia 393,900 June 10, 2016[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]
7  South Korea 369,840 Mar 2016[18]
8  India 363,826 June 24, 2016[19]
9  Brazil 362,200 Apr 2016[20]
-  Hong Kong 359,900 Feb 2016[21]
10  Singapore 244,013 Feb 2016[5][22]
11  Germany 200,394 Apr 2016[23]
12  Mexico 179,708 Mar 2016[24]
13  Thailand 178,668 June 2016[25]
14  United Kingdom 164,003 Mar 2016[26]
15  Algeria 155,700 Dec 31, 2015[5]
16  France 153,890 Mar 2016[27]
17  Italy 143,183 Mar 2016[28]
18  Iran 125,900 Dec 2015[29]
19  United States 121,269. Apr 2016[30]
20  Turkey 112,769 Mar 2016[31]
21  Indonesia 107,542 Mar 2016[32]
22  Poland 100,530 Mar 2016[33]
23  Malaysia 95,631 Feb 2016[34]
24  Israel 94,775 Mar 2016[5][35][36]
25  Iran[6] 93,950 Dec 31, 2015[5]
26  Philippines 85,300 June 2016[37]
27  Canada 83,922 Apr 2016[38]
28  United Arab Emirates 79,920 Dec 31, 2015[5]
29  Czech Republic 74,785 Apr 2016[5][39]
-  Europe (ECB) 75,150 Mar 2016[40]
30  Denmark 64,015 Mar 2016[41]
30  Libya 61,630 Dec 31, 2015[5]
31  Peru 60,445. May 7, 2016[42]
32  Sweden 59,558 Feb 2016[43]
33  Norway 59,423 Feb 2016[44]
34  Iraq 57,070 Dec 31, 2015[5]
35  Spain 54,154 Mar 2016[45]
36  Lebanon 49,610 Dec 31, 2015[5]
37  Australia 49,264 Mar 2016[46]
38  Colombia 46,798 Apr 2016[5][47]
39  South Africa 46,770 Mar 2016[48]
40  Netherlands 40,393 Apr 2016[49]
41  Romania 40,148 Apr 2016[50]
42  Chile 39,552 Mar 2016[51]
43  Vietnam 39,600 Dec 31, 2015[5]
44  Qatar 36,707 Jan 2016[5][52]
45  Kuwait 31,430 Dec 31, 2015[5]
46  Hungary 31,366 Mar 2016[53]
47  Bangladesh 30,137 Jun 2016[54]
48  Argentina 29,571 Mar 2016[55]
49  Kazakhstan 27,800 Mar 1, 2016[5][56][57]
50  Nigeria 26,500 May 2016[5][58]
51  Belgium 24,861 Mar 2016[59]
52  Morocco 23,516 Jan 2016[5][60]
53  Austria 24,757 Mar 2016[61]
54  Turkmenistan 22,600 Dec 31, 2015[5]
55  Pakistan 23,100 July 2016[62]
56  Bulgaria 24,318 Mar 2016[5][63]
57  Portugal 21,328 Mar 2016[64]
-  Macau, China 19,130 Feb 2016[65]
58  Angola 18,460 Dec 31, 2015[5]
59  Egypt 17,050 Dec 31, 2015[5][66]
60  New Zealand 16,769 Mar 2016[5][67]
61  Jordan 16,386 Feb 2016[68]
62  Oman 15,720 Dec 31, 2015[5]
63  Venezuela 12,100 Dec 31, 2015[5] [69]
64  Uzbekistan 15,000 Dec 31, 2015[5]
65  Uruguay 14,377 Feb 2016[70]
66  Croatia 14,306 Feb 2016[5][71]
67  Bolivia 12,818 Jan 2016[72]
68  Ukraine 12,721 Mar 2016[73]
69  Trinidad and Tobago 11,690 Dec 31, 2015[5][74]
70  Serbia 11,680 Dec 31, 2015[5]
71  Cuba 11,600 Dec 31, 2015[5]
72  Finland 10,412 Mar 2016[75]
73  Myanmar 9,417 Dec 31, 2015[5]
74  North Korea 8,000 Nov 2013[76]
75  Botswana 7,990 Dec 31, 2015[5]
76  Costa Rica 7,784 Feb 2016[77]
77  Guatemala 7,658 Mar 2016[78]
78  Greece 7,535 Mar 2016[79]
78  Kenya 7,356 Dec 31, 2015[5]
80  Cambodia 7,091 Dec 31, 2015[5]
81  Paraguay 7,028 Dec 31, 2015[5]
82  Tunisia 6,714 Feb 2016[80]
83  Afghanistan 6,681 Dec 31, 2014[5][81]
84  Sri Lanka 6,225 Mar 2016[82]
85  Iceland 6,186 Apr 2016[83]
86    Nepal 6,034 Dec 31, 2014[5][84]
87  Ghana 5,617 Dec 31, 2015[5]
88  Dominican Republic 5,183 Mar 2016[85]
89  Bahrain 5,051 Dec 31, 2015[5]
90  Ivory Coast 4,882 Dec 31, 2015[5]
91  Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,625 Dec 31, 2015[5]
92  Mauritius 4,497 Mar 2016[86]
93  Republic of the Congo 4,407 Dec 31, 2015[5]
94  Azerbaijan 4,399 Jan 29, 2016[5][87]
95  Panama 4,182 Dec 31, 2015[5]
96  Belarus 4,111 Mar 1, 2016[88][89]
97  Tanzania 4,021 Dec 31, 2015[5]
98  Honduras 3,755 Mar 2016[90]
99  Uganda 3,681 Dec 31, 2015[5]
100  Brunei 3,649 2014[91]
101  Ethiopia 3,589 Dec 31, 2015[5]
102  Latvia 3,519 Feb 2016[92]
103  El Salvador 3,171 Mar 2016[93]
104  Ecuador 3,128 Dec 31, 2015[5]
105  Papua New Guinea 2,966 Dec 31, 2015[5]
106  Slovakia 2,879 Jan 2016[5][94]
107  Albania 2,852 Dec 31, 2015[5][95]
108  Zambia 2,716 Dec 31, 2015[5]
109  Jamaica 2,670 Jan 2016[5][96]
110  Mozambique 2,528 Dec 31, 2015[5]
111  Cameroon 2,510 Dec 31, 2015[5]
112  Macedonia 2,454 Jan 2016[5][97]
113  Nicaragua 2,441 Jan 2016[5][98]
114  Georgia 2,426 Feb 29, 2016[99][100]
115  Yemen 2,309 Dec 31, 2015[5]
116  Ireland 2,191 Jan 2016[101]
117  Senegal 2,099 Dec 31, 2015[5]
118  Equatorial Guinea 1,903 Dec 31, 2015[5]
119  Gabon 1,825 Dec 31, 2015[5]
120  Haiti 1,803 Dec 31, 2015[5]
121  Kyrgyzstan 1,794 Feb 2016[5][102][103]
122  Armenia 1,740 Jan 2016[5][104][105][106]
123  Moldova 1,717 Mar 4, 2016[107][108][109]
124  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,443 Dec 31, 2015[5]
125  Mongolia 1,324 Jan 2016[110]
126  Niger 1,282 2014[111]
127  Lithuania 1,268 Feb 2016[112]
128  Bhutan 1,245 2014[113]
129  Namibia 1,135 Dec 31, 2015[5]
130  Chad 1,111 Dec 31, 2015[5]
131  Rwanda 1,028 Dec 31, 2015[5]
132  Kosovo 990 Sep 30, 2015[5][114]
133  Lesotho 981 Dec 31, 2015[5]
134  Laos 976 Dec 31, 2015[5][115]
135  Mauritania 969 2012[116]
136  Syria 968 Dec 31, 2015[5]
137  Madagascar 963 Dec 31, 2015[5]
138  Bahamas 950 Dec 31, 2015[5][117]
139  Slovenia 939 Feb 2016[5][118]
140  Fiji 903 Dec 31, 2015[5]
141  Mali 861 2014[119]
142  Cyprus 809 Jan 2016[5][120]
143  Benin 809 Dec 31, 2015[5][121]
144  Luxembourg 774 Jan 2016[5][122]
145  Malawi 743 Dec 31, 2015[5][123]
-  Aruba 680 2014[124]
146  Barbados 663 Dec 31, 2015[5]
147  Malta 658 Feb 2016[5][125]
148  Belize 634 Dec 31, 2015[5][126]
149  Maldives 627 2014[127]
150  Suriname 625 2014[128]
151  Guyana 614 Dec 31, 2015[5]
152  Sierra Leone 601 2014[129]
153  Montenegro 600 Dec 31, 2014[5][130]
154  Palestine 581 Dec 2015[131]
155  Swaziland 572 Dec 31, 2015[5][132]
156  Seychelles 537 Jan 2016[5][133]
157  Solomon Islands 496 2014[134]
158  Togo 494 Dec 31, 2015[5][135]
159  Liberia 493 Dec 2013[136]
160  Cape Verde 492 Dec 31, 2015[5][137]
161  Estonia 471 Feb 2016[5][138]
162  Zimbabwe 457 Dec 31, 2015[5][139]
163  Tajikistan 430 Dec 31, 2015[5]
164  Djibouti 393 2014[140]
165  San Marino 392 2014[141]
166  Burkina Faso 363 Dec 31, 2015[5]
167  Saint Kitts and Nevis 327 2014[142]
168  Burundi 316 Dec 31, 2015[5][143]
169  Timor-Leste 312 2014[144]
170  Guinea 303 Dec 31, 2015[5][145]
171  Antigua and Barbuda 297 2014[146]
172  Guinea-Bissau 287 2014[147]
173  Central African Republic 260 2014[148]
174  Saint Lucia 258 2014[149]
175  Eritrea 248 Dec 31, 2015[5]
176  Vanuatu 213 Dec 31, 2015[5][150]
177  Sudan 172 Dec 31, 2015[5][151]
178  Comoros 171 2014[152]
179  Grenada 170 2014[153]
180  Tonga 167 Dec 31, 2015[5][154]
181  Samoa 141 Dec 31, 2014[5][155]
182  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 135 Dec 31, 2015[5][156]
183  Federated States of Micronesia 114 2014[157]
184  Dominica 100 Dec 31, 2015[5][158]
185  Gambia 83 Dec 31, 2015[5][159]
186  São Tomé and Príncipe 64 Dec 31, 2015[5][160]
-  Montserrat 32 Dec 31, 2012[5]
187  Somalia 31 2015[5]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ IMF - China
  2. ^ IMF - Japan
  3. ^ IMF - Euro Area
  4. ^ IMF - Switzerland
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db "The World Factbook: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  6. ^ "Table(9): RESERVE ASSETS (on page 18 of the pdf file; US$1 = 3.75 Saudi riyal)" (PDF). Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. 
  7. ^ IMF - Saudi Arabia
  8. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) — Foreign Exchange Reserves (including gold)" (PDF). 
  9. ^ SDDS (Special Data Dissemination Standard). Access to the Republic of China's statistics
  10. ^ http://www.cbr.ru/eng/hd_base/?PrtId=mrrf_7d
  11. ^ http://www.cbr.ru/eng/hd_base/?PrtId=mrrf_7d
  12. ^ http://rg.ru/2016/05/12/mezhdunarodnye-rezervy-rossii-vyrosli-pochti-do-392-mlrd-dollarov.html
  13. ^ http://sputniknews.com/russia/20160511/1039455114/russia-bank-april-reserves.html
  14. ^ http://www.cbr.ru/eng/hd_base/?PrtId=mrrf_7d
  15. ^ IMF - Russia
  16. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Monthly values | Bank of Russia
  17. ^ International Reserves of the Russian Federation, Weekly values | Bank of Russia
  18. ^ IMF - Korea, Republic of
  19. ^ [1]
  20. ^ IMF - Brazil
  21. ^ Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Press Release
  22. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore ─ International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity
  23. ^ IMF - Germany
  24. ^ IMF - Mexico
  25. ^ IMF - Thailand
  26. ^ IMF - United Kingdom
  27. ^ IMF - France
  28. ^ IMF - Italy
  29. ^ [2]
  30. ^ IMF - United States
  31. ^ IMF - Turkey
  32. ^ IMF - Indonesia
  33. ^ IMF - Poland
  34. ^ IMF - Malaysia
  35. ^ IMF - Israel
  36. ^ [3]
  37. ^ [4]
  38. ^ IMF - Canada
  39. ^ IMF - Czech Republic
  40. ^ IMF - European Central Bank
  41. ^ IMF - Denmark
  42. ^ IMF- Peru
  43. ^ IMF - Sweden
  44. ^ IMF - Norway
  45. ^ IMF - Spain
  46. ^ IMF - Australia
  47. ^ IMF - Colombia
  48. ^ IMF - South Africa
  49. ^ IMF - Netherlands
  50. ^ IMF - Romania
  51. ^ IMF - Chile
  52. ^ "Qatar Central Bank - Monthly Monetary Bulletin (in Table 11, "QCB's International Reserves", of the Excel file; US$1 = 3.64 Qatari riyal)". Qatar Central Bank. 
  53. ^ IMF - Hungary
  54. ^ Bangladesh Bank (Central Bank of Bangladesh)
  55. ^ IMF - Argentina
  56. ^ IMF - Kazakhstan
  57. ^ International Reserves and Assets of the National Oil Fund of Republic of Kazakhstan
  58. ^ CBN - Statistics Database
  59. ^ IMF - Belgium
  60. ^ IMF - Morocco
  61. ^ IMF - Austria
  62. ^ State Bank of Pakistan. Economic Data
  63. ^ IMF - Bulgaria
  64. ^ IMF - Portugal
  65. ^ MONETARY AUTHORITY OF MACAO
  66. ^ IMF - Egypt
  67. ^ IMF - New Zealand
  68. ^ IMF - Jordan
  69. ^ http://www.forbes.com/sites/kenrapoza/2016/06/21/not-even-50-oil-can-save-venezuela-from-itself/#51ba30fe79ab
  70. ^ IMF - Uruguay
  71. ^ IMF - Croatia
  72. ^ IMF - Bolivia
  73. ^ IMF - Ukraine
  74. ^ Foreign Reserves Monthly | Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago
  75. ^ IMF - Finland
  76. ^ Северная Корея распродает золотой запас
  77. ^ IMF - Costa Rica
  78. ^ IMF - Guatemala
  79. ^ IMF - Greece
  80. ^ IMF - Tunisia
  81. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  82. ^ IMF - Sri Lanka
  83. ^ IMF - Iceland
  84. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  85. ^ IMF - Dominican Republic
  86. ^ IMF - Mauritius
  87. ^ http://en.cbar.az/infoblocks/money_reserve_usd
  88. ^ IMF - Belarus
  89. ^ International reserve assets of the Republic of Belarus
  90. ^ IMF - Honduras
  91. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  92. ^ IMF - Latvia
  93. ^ IMF - El Salvador
  94. ^ IMF - Slovak Republic
  95. ^ IMF - Albania
  96. ^ IMF - Jamaica
  97. ^ IMF - Macedonia
  98. ^ IMF - Nicaragua
  99. ^ IMF - Georgia
  100. ^ National Bank Of Georgia. Statistical Data
  101. ^ IMF - Ireland
  102. ^ IMF - Kyrgyz Republic
  103. ^ Кыргыз Республикасынын Улуттук банкы. Gross international reserves
  104. ^ IMF - Armenia, Republic of
  105. ^ Central Bank of Armenia. Databank
  106. ^ Central Bank of Armenia. Data template on International reserves and foreign currency liquidity
  107. ^ IMF - Moldova
  108. ^ Информация об изменении официальных резервных активов
  109. ^ BNM. Official reserve assets and other foreign currency assets
  110. ^ "Bank of Mongolia statistics"
  111. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  112. ^ IMF - Lithuania
  113. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  114. ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Kosovo. Monthly Statistics Bulletin. December 2015, No. 127
  115. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  116. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  117. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  118. ^ IMF - Slovenia
  119. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  120. ^ IMF - Cyprus
  121. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  122. ^ IMF - Luxembourg
  123. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  124. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  125. ^ IMF - Malta
  126. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  127. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  128. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  129. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  130. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  131. ^ IMF - Palestine
  132. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  133. ^ IMF - Seychelles
  134. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  135. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  136. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  137. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  138. ^ IMF - Estonia
  139. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  140. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  141. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  142. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  143. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  144. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  145. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  146. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  147. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  148. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  149. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  150. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  151. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  152. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  153. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  154. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  155. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  156. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  157. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  158. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  159. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
  160. ^ Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)

External links[edit]