List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions

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Global map of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions, including agriculture and land use change, measured in carbon dioxide-equivalents over a 100-year timescale.[1]
Annual GHG emissions by region, including agriculture and land use change, measured in carbon dioxide-equivalents over a 100-year timescale.[2]
Per capita annual GHG emissions, including agriculture and land use change, measured in carbon dioxide-equivalents over a 100-year timescale.[3]

This is a list of sovereign states and territories by greenhouse gas emissions due to certain forms of human activity, based on the EDGAR database created by European Commission. The following table lists the 1970, 1990, 2005, 2017 and 2022 annual GHG[n 1] emissions estimates (in kilotons of CO2 equivalent per year) along with a list of calculated emissions per capita (in metric tons of CO2 equivalent per year). The data include carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide from all sources, including agriculture and land use change. They are measured in carbon dioxide-equivalents over a 100-year timescale.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 6th assessment report finds that the "Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU)" sector on average, accounted for 13–21% of global total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the period 2010–2019.[4] Land use change drivers net AFOLU CO2 emission fluxes, with deforestation being responsible for 45% of total AFOLU emissions. In addition to being a net carbon sink and source of GHG emissions, land plays an important role in climate through albedo effects, evapotranspiration, and aerosol loading through emissions of volatile organic compounds.[4] The IPCC report finds that the LULUCF sector offers significant near-term mitigation potential while providing food, wood and other renewable resources as well as biodiversity conservation. Mitigation measures in forests and other natural ecosystems provide the largest share of the LULUCF mitigation potential between 2020 and 2050. Among various LULUCF activities, reducing deforestation has the largest potential to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions, followed by carbon sequestration in agriculture and ecosystem restoration including afforestation and reforestation.[4] Land use change emissions can be negative.[n 2][6]

In 2022, GHG emissions from the top 10 countries with the highest emissions accounted for almost two thirds of the global total. Since 2006, China has been emitting more CO2 than any other country.[7][8][9]

However, the main disadvantage of measuring total national emissions is that it does not take population size into account. China has the largest CO2 and GHG emissions in the world, but also the largest population. For a fair comparison, emissions should be analyzed in terms of the amount of CO2 and GHG per capita.[10]

Considering GHG per capita emissions in 2022, China's levels (10.95) are almost 60 percent those of the United States (17.90) and less than a sixth of those of Qatar (67.38 – the country with the highest emissions of GHG per capita in 2022).[11][12]

China, the United States, India, the EU27, Russia and Brazil were the six world largest GHG emitters in 2022. Together they account for 50.1% of global population, 61.2% of global Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 63.4% of global fossil fuel consumption and 61.6% of global GHG emissions.[12] Even in 2022, global GHG emissions primarily consisted of CO2, resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels (71.6%). CH4 contributed 21% to the total, while the remaining share of emissions comprised N2O (4.8%) and F-gases (2.6%).[12]

Measures of territorial-based emissions, also known as production-based emissions, do not account for emissions embedded in global trade, where emissions may be imported or exported in the form of traded goods, as it only reports emissions emitted within geographical boundaries. Accordingly, a proportion of the CO2 produced and reported in Asia and Africa is for the production of goods consumed in Europe and North America.[13]

According to the review of the scientific literature conducted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), carbon dioxide is the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas by warming contribution.[14] The European Union is at the forefront of international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and thus safeguard the planet's climate. Greenhouse gases (GHG) – primarily carbon dioxide but also others, including methane and chlorofluorocarbons – trap heat in the atmosphere, leading to global warming. Higher temperatures then act on the climate, with varying effects. For example, dry regions might become drier while, at the poles, the ice caps are melting, causing higher sea levels. In 2016, the global average temperature was already 1.1 °C above pre-industrial levels.[15]

Per capita GHG emissions[edit]

GHG emissions by country/territory[edit]

The data in the following table is extracted from EDGAR - Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research.[12]


  1. ^ Greenhouse gases (GHG) constitute a group of gases contributing to global warming and climate change.
    The Kyoto Protocol, an environmental agreement adopted by many of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1997 to curb global warming, nowadays covers seven greenhouse gases:
    • the non-fluorinated gases:
      • carbon dioxide (CO2),
      • methane (CH4),
      • nitrous oxide (N2O),
    • the fluorinated gases:
      • hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs),
      • perfluorocarbons (PFCs),
      • sulphur hexafluoride (SF6),
      • nitrogen trifluoride (NF3).
    Converting them to carbon dioxide (or CO2) equivalents makes it possible to compare them and to determine their individual and total contributions to global warming.
  2. ^
    Global Carbon Project (2022)[5]
    The rate of build-up of GHG in the atmosphere can be reduced by taking advantage of the fact that atmospheric CO2 can accumulate as carbon in vegetation and soils in terrestrial ecosystems. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas (GHG) from the atmosphere is referred to as a "sink". Human activities impact terrestrial sinks, through land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF), consequently, the exchange of CO2 (carbon cycle) between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is altered.[4]


  1. ^ "Greenhouse gas emissions". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2023-11-01.
  2. ^ "Annual greenhouse gas emissions by world region, 1850 to 2021". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2023-11-01.
  3. ^ "Total greenhouse gas emissions per capita". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2023-11-01.
  4. ^ a b c d United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. "Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)". Retrieved 2023-11-01.
  5. ^ Global Carbon Project (2022) Supplemental data of Global Carbon Budget 2022 (Version 1.0) [Data set]. Global Carbon Project.
  6. ^ "Per capita greenhouse gas emissions". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2023-11-01.
  7. ^ "China's Emissions: More Than U.S. Plus Europe, and Still Rising". The New York Times. 2018-01-25.
  8. ^ "Chinese coal fuels rise in global carbon emissions". The Times. 2017-11-14. Retrieved 2023-09-22.
  9. ^ PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. "China now no. 1 in CO2 emissions; USA in second position". Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving , nl. Archived from the original on 2014-08-15.
  10. ^ Roser, Max; Ritchie, Hannah (11 May 2017). "CO2 and other Greenhouse Gas Emissions". Our World in Data. Archived from the original on 4 July 2019.
  11. ^ Ritchie, Hannah; Roser, Max. "Per capita CO2 emissions". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2023-11-01.
  12. ^ a b c d Joint Research Centre (2023). "GHG emissions of all world countries". EDGAR – Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research. Retrieved 2023-11-01.
  13. ^ Ritchie, Hannah; Roser, Max. "Consumption-based (trade-adjusted) emissions". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2023-11-01.
  14. ^ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2021). Climate Change 2021 The Physical Science Basis | Summary for Policymakers (PDF). p. 40. ISBN 978-92-9169-158-6.
  15. ^ Klugman, Cornelia. "The EU, a world leader in fighting climate change". European Parliament Think Tank. Retrieved 2023-11-01.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]