List of countries by income equality

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Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient (CIA, 2013)

This is a list of countries or dependencies by income inequality metrics, including Gini coefficients, according to the United Nations (UN), the World Bank, the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Because the underlying household surveys differ in method and in the type of data collected, the distribution data are not strictly comparable across countries.

The Gini coefficient is a number between 0 and 1, where 0 corresponds with perfect equality (where everyone has the same income) and 1 corresponds with perfect inequality (where one person has all the income—and everyone else has zero income). Income distribution can vary greatly from wealth distribution in a country (see List of countries by distribution of wealth). Income from black market economic activity is not included and is the subject of current economic research.[1][2]

List[edit]

Note: The table is sortable in various ways. Click the sort button Sort both.svg cell at the top of the column you wish to sort. Click again to reverse the order of sorting. Reload the page to reset everything to its original format.

Key:
R/P 10%: The ratio of the average income of the richest 10% to the poorest 10%
R/P 20%: The ratio of average income of the richest 20% to the poorest 20%
Gini: Gini index, a quantified representation of a nation's Lorenz curve

UN: Data from the United Nations Development Programme.
CIA: Data from the Central Intelligence Agency's The World Factbook.
GPI: Data from the Global Peace Index.











Country UN R/P
10%[3]
UN R/P
20%[4]
World Bank
Gini (%)[5]
WB Gini
(year)
CIA R/P
10%[6]
Year CIA Gini
(%)[7]
CIA Gini
(year)
GPI Gini
(%)[8]
 Afghanistan 27.8 2008 29.4 2008 60.0
 Albania 7.2 4.8 34.5 2008 7.2 2004 34.5 2008
 Algeria 9.6 6.1 35.3 1995 9.6 1995 35.3 1995
 Angola 58.6 2000 62.0
 Argentina 31.6 17.8 44.5 2010 35.0 2007
Jan.-Mar.
45.8 2009
 Armenia 8.0 5.0 30.9 2008 25.8 2004 30.9 2008
 Australia 12.5 7.0 30.5 2006 12.7 1994 30.3 2008
 Austria 6.9 4.4 26.0 2007 6.8 2004 26.0 2007
 Azerbaijan 9.7 6.0 33.7 2008 9.5 2001 33.7 2008
 Bahrain 36.0
 Bangladesh 7.5 4.9 32.1 2010 7.5 2000 est. 33.2 2005
 Belarus 6.9 4.5 26.5 2011 6.9 2002 27.2 2008
 Belgium 8.2 4.9 33.0 2000 8.3 2000 28.0 2005
 Belize 53.1 1999 49.2
 Benin 9.4 6.0 38.6 2003 9.4 2003 36.5 2003
 Bhutan 38.1 2007 32
 Bolivia 93.9 42.3 56.3 2008 157.3 2002 53 2010
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5.4 3.8 36.2 2007 5.5 2001 36.2 2007
 Botswana 43.0 20.4 61.0 1994 63 1993
 Brazil 40.6 21.8 54.7 2009 53.6 2009 50.8 2012
 Bulgaria 7.0 4.4 28.2 2007 8.8 2005 45.3 2007
 Burkina Faso 11.6 6.9 39.8 2009 11.5 2003 39.5 2007
 Burundi 19.3 9.5 33.3 2006 19.3 1998 42.4 1998
 Cambodia 12.2 7.3 37.9 2008 12.0 2004 37.9 2008 est.
 Cameroon 15.7 9.1 38.9 2007 15.4 2001 44.6 2001
 Canada 9.4 5.5 32.6 2000 9.5 2000 32.1 2005
 Cape Verde 50.5 2002
 Central African Republic 69.2 32.7 56.3 2008 68.1 1993 61.3 1993
 Chad 39.8 2003 52.3
 Chile 26.2 15.7 52.1 2009 32.1 2003 52.1 2009
 China 21.6 12.2 47.0 2007 21.8 2004 47.4 2012 46.9[9]
 Colombia 60.4 25.3 55.9 2010 56.3 2008 58.5 2011
 Comoros 64.3 2004
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg Democratic Republic
of the Congo
44.4 2006 55
 Congo 47.3 2005 56.2
 Costa Rica 23.4 15.6 50.7 2009 37.4 2003 50.3 2009
 Côte d'Ivoire 16.6 9.7 41.5 2008 17.0 2002 41.5 2008
 Croatia 7.3 4.8 33.7 2008 7.2 2003 est. 32 2010
 Cuba 30.0
 Cyprus 29.0 2005
 Czech Republic 5.2 3.5 26.0 2005 5.2 1996 31.0 2009
 Denmark 8.1 4.3 24.0 2005 12.0 2000 est. 24.8 2011 est.
 Djibouti 40.0 2002
 Dominican Republic 25.3 14.3 47.2 2010 29.4 2005 47.2 2010 est.
 Ecuador 35.2 17.3 49.3 2010 17.5 2006
Oct.[10]
47.7 2012
Dec.[11]
 Egypt 8.0 5.1 30.8 2008 8.0 2000 34.4 2001
 El Salvador 38.6 20.9 48.3 2009 55.4 2002 46.9 2007
 Equatorial Guinea 65
 Estonia 10.8 6.4 36.0 2004 11.0 2003 31.3 2010
 Ethiopia 6.6 4.3 29.8 2005 6.5 2000 30.0 2000
 European Union 30.4 2009 est.
 Fiji 42.8 2009
 Finland 5.6 3.8 26.9 2000 5.7 2000 26.8 2008
 France 9.1 5.6 32.7 2008 8.3 2004 32.7 2008
 Gabon 41.5 2005 60
 The Gambia 20.2 11.2 47.3 2003 20.6 1998 50.2 1998
 Georgia 15.4 8.3 41.3 2008 15.2 2003 46 2011
 Germany 6.9 4.3 28.3 2000 6.9 2000 27.0 2006
 Ghana 14.1 8.4 42.8 2006 13.7 1999 39.4 2005–2006
 Greece 10.2 6.2 34.3 2000 10.4 2000 est. 33.0 2005
 Guatemala 33.9 20.3 55.9 2006 48.2 2002 55.1 2007
 Guinea 10.5 6.6 39.4 2007 21.6 2006 39.4 2007
 Guinea-Bissau 19.0 10.3 35.5 2002 84.8 1991
 Guyana 44.5 1998 26.0 1999 44.6 2007
 Haiti 54.4 26.6 59.2 2001 68.1 2001 59.2 2001
 Honduras 59.4 17.2 57.0 2009 35.2 2003 57.7 2007
 Hong Kong 17.8 9.7 53.3 2007 53.7 2011
 Hungary 5.5 3.8 31.2 2007 5.6 2002 24.7 2009
 Iceland 28.0 2006
 India 8.6 5.6 33.4 2005 8.6 2004 36.8 2004
 Indonesia 7.8 5.2 34.0 2005 7.9 2002 36.8 2009
 Iran 17.2 9.7 38.3 2005 16.9 1998 44.5 2006 38.3[12]
 Iraq 30.9 2007 42
 Ireland 9.4 5.6 34.3 2000 9.4 2000 33.9 2010
 Israel 13.4 7.9 39.2 2001 11.8 2005 39.2 2008
 Italy 11.6 6.5 36.0 2000 11.7 2000 31.9 2011
 Jamaica 17.3 9.8 45.5 2004 17.0 2004 45.5 2004
 Japan 4.5 3.4 38.1 2002 4.5 1993 37.6 2008
 Jordan 11.3 6.9 35.4 2010 11.3 2003 39.7 2007
 Kazakhstan 8.5 5.6 29.0 2009 8.0 2004 est. 28.9 2011
 Kenya 13.6 8.2 47.7 2005 18.6 2000 42.5 2008 est.
 North Korea 31.0
 South Korea 7.8 4.7 31.3 2007 5.9 2011 31.1 2011
 Kuwait 30
 Kyrgyzstan 6.4 4.4 36.2 2009 6.4 2003 33.4 2007
 Laos 8.3 5.4 36.7 2008 8.4 2002 36.7 2008
 Latvia 11.6 6.8 36.6 2008 11.6 2003 35.2 2010
 Lebanon 45
 Lesotho 39.8 44.2 52.5 2003 48.2 2002 est. 63.2 1995
 Liberia 12.8 38.2 2007 38.2 2007
 Libya 36.0
 Lithuania 10.4 6.3 37.6 2008 10.3 2003 35.5 2009
 Luxembourg 30.8 2000 6.8 2000 26.0 2005
 Macedonia 12.5 7.5 43.2 2009 12.3 2003 43.2 2009
 Madagascar 19.2 11.0 44.1 2010 19.3 2001 47.5 2001
 Malawi 10.9 6.7 39.0 2004 11.0 2004 39.0 2004
 Malaysia 22.1 12.4 46.2 2009 28.0 2003 est. 46.2 2009
 Maldives 37.4 2004
 Mali 12.5 7.6 33.0 2010 12.6 2001 40.1 2001
 Malta 27.4 2011
 Mauritania 12.0 7.4 40.5 2008 11.8 2000 39.0 2000
 Mauritius 39.0 2006 est.
 Mexico 21.6 12.8 48.3 2008 24.6 2004 51.7 2008
 Moldova 8.2 5.3 33.0 2010 8.3 2003 38.0 2008
 Mongolia 8.2 5.4 36.5 2008 8.2 2002 36.5 2008
 Montenegro 30.0 2008 24.3 2010
 Morocco 11.7 7.2 40.9 2007 11.9 1999 40.9 2007 est.
 Mozambique 18.8 9.9 45.7 2008 18.8 2002 45.6 2008
 Myanmar 11.6 1998 40
 Namibia 106.6 56.1 63.9 2004 129.0 2003 59.7 2010
   Nepal 15.8 9.1 32.8 2010 15.6 2004 32.8 2010
 Netherlands 9.2 5.1 30.9 2007 9.2 1999 30.9 2007
 New Zealand 12.4 6.8 36.2 1997 36.2 1997
 Nicaragua 31.0 8.8 40.5 2005 15.4 2001 40.5 2010
 Niger 46.0 20.7 34.6 2008 44.3 1995 34.0 2007
 Nigeria 17.8 9.7 48.8 2010 17.5 2003 43.7 2003
 Norway 6.1 3.9 25.8 2000 6.0 2000 25.0 2008
 Oman 32
 Pakistan 6.5 4.3 30.0 2008 6.6 2002 30.6 2007–2008
 Panama 49.9 23.9 51.9 2010 61.4 2003 51.9 2010 est.
 Papua New Guinea 23.8 12.6 50.9 1996 23.8 1996 50.9 1996
 Paraguay 38.8 25.7 52.4 2010 65.9 2003 53.2 2009
 Peru 26.1 15.2 48.1 2010 31.5 2003 46.0 2010
 Philippines 15.5 9.3 43.0 2009 15.5 2003 44.8 2009
 Poland 8.8 5.6 34.1 2009 8.7 2002 34.1 2009
 Portugal 15.0 8.0 38.5 2007 9.2 1995 est. 38.5 2007
 Qatar 41.1 2007 39
 Romania 7.5 4.9 30.0 2009 7.4 2003 33.2 2011
 Russia 12.7 7.6 40.1 2009 12.8 2002 41.7 2011
 Rwanda 18.6 9.9 50.8 2011 18.2 2000 46.8 2000
 Sao Tome and Principe 50.8 2001
 Saudi Arabia 32.0
 Senegal 12.3 7.4 39.2 2005 12.4 2001 41.3 2001
 Serbia 27.8 2009 28.2 2008
 Seychelles 65.8 2007
 Sierra Leone 87.2 57.6 42.5 2003 87.2 1989 62.9 1989
 Singapore 17.7 9.7 48.1 2008 17.3 1998 47.8 2012
 Slovakia 6.7 4.0 26.0 2009 6.7 1996 26.0 2005
 Slovenia 5.9 3.9 31.2 2004 5.9 1998 23.8 2011
 Somalia 30
 South Africa 33.1 17.9 63.1 2009 31.9 2000 65.0 2005
 South Sudan 45.5 2009
 Spain 10.3 6.0 34.7 2000 10.2 2000 32.0 2005
 Sri Lanka 11.1 6.9 40.3 2007 36.1 2003/04
fiscal year
49.0 2010
 St. Lucia 42.6 1995
 Sudan 35.3 2009 51
 Suriname 52.9 1999
 Swaziland 25.1 13.0 51.5 2010 25.4 2001 50.4 2001
 Sweden 6.2 4.0 25.0 2000 6.2 2000 23.0 2005
  Switzerland 9.0 5.5 33.7 2000 8.9 2000 29.6 2010
 Syria 35.8 2004 42.0
 Taiwan 6.1 2002 est. 34.2 2011
 Tajikistan 7.8 5.2 30.8 2009 7.8 2003 32.6 2006
 Tanzania 9.2 5.8 37.6 2007 9.3 2000 37.6 2007
 Thailand 12.6 7.7 40.0 2009 12.4 2002 53.6 2009
 Timor-Leste 31.9 2007 31.9 2007 est.
 Togo 34.4 2006
 Trinidad and Tobago 12.9 7.6 40.3 1992
 Tunisia 13.4 7.9 41.4 2005 13.7 2000 40.0 2005 est.
 Turkey 6.6 4.6 39.0 2008 17.1 2003 40.2 2010
 Turkmenistan 12.3 7.7 40.8 1998 12.2 1998 40.8 1998
 Uganda 16.6 9.2 44.3 2009 16.4 2002 44.3 2009
 Ukraine 5.9 4.1 26.4 2009 7.6 2006 28.2 2009
 United Arab Emirates 31
 United Kingdom 13.8 7.2 34.0 2005 13.6 1999 40 2008-2009
 United States 15.9 8.4 45 2007 15.0 2007 est. 45.0 2007
 Uruguay 20.1 10.2 45.3 2010 17.9 2003 45.3 2010
 Uzbekistan 10.6 6.2 36.7 2003 10.6 2003 36.8 2003
 Venezuela 18.8 16.0 44.8 2006 50.3 2003 39.0 2011
 Vietnam 6.9 4.9 35.6 2008 10.0 2004 37.6 2008
 West Bank and Gaza 35.5 2009
 Yemen 8.6 5.6 37.7 2005 8.6 2003 37.7 2005
 Zambia 54.6 2006 50.8 2004
 Zimbabwe 50.1 1995 50.1 2006
 World 12.0 2002 est. 39 2007

OECD countries[edit]

Gini coefficient, before taxes and transfers[edit]

Gini coefficient, before taxes and transfers[13]








Country mid-70s mid-80s around 1990 mid-90s around 2000 mid-2000s Late 2000s
 Australia 0.467 0.476 0.465 0.468
 Austria 0.433 0.472
 Belgium 0.449 0.472 0.464 0.494 0.469
 Canada 0.385 0.395 0.403 0.430 0.440 0.436 0.441
 Chile 0.541 0.514 0.526
 Czech Republic 0.442 0.472 0.474 0.444
 Denmark 0.373 0.396 0.417 0.415 0.417 0.416
 Estonia 0.504 0.458
 Finland 0.343 0.387 0.479 0.478 0.483 0.465
 France 0.380 0.370 0.473 0.490 0.485 0.483
 Germany 0.439 0.429 0.459 0.471 0.499 0.504
 Greece 0.448 0.426 0.446 0.466 0.454 0.436
 Hungary 0.452 0.496 0.463 0.497 0.466
 Iceland 0.365 0.382
 Ireland
 Israel 0.472 0.476 0.494 0.504 0.513 0.498
 Italy 0.420 0.437 0.508 0.516 0.557 0.534
 Japan 0.345 0.403 0.432 0.443 0.462
 South Korea 0.331 0.344
 Luxembourg 0.383 0.427 0.421 0.454 0.482
 Mexico 0.453 0.532 0.517 0.491 0.494
 Netherlands 0.426 0.473 0.474 0.484 0.424 0.426 0.426
 New Zealand 0.408 0.468 0.488 0.484 0.473 0.455
 Norway 0.351 0.404 0.426 0.447 0.410
 Poland 0.542 0.470
 Portugal 0.457 0.436 0.490 0.479 0.542 0.521
 Slovak Republic 0.458 0.416
 Slovenia 0.452 0.423
 Spain 0.461
 Sweden 0.389 0.404 0.408 0.438 0.446 0.432 0.426
  Switzerland 0.409
 Turkey 0.470
 United Kingdom 0.338 0.419 0.439 0.453 0.458 0.445 0.456
 United States 0.406 0.436 0.450 0.477 0.476 0.486 0.486

Gini coefficient, after taxes and transfers[edit]

Gini coefficient, after taxes and transfers[13]








Country mid-70s mid-80s around 1990 mid-90s around 2000 mid-2000s Late 2000s
 Australia 0.309 0.317 0.315 0.336
 Austria 0.236 0.238 0.252 0.265 0.261
 Belgium 0.274 0.287 0.289 0.271 0.259
 Canada 0.304 0.293 0.287 0.289 0.318 0.317 0.324
 Chile 0.527 0.503 0.494
 Czech Republic 0.232 0.257 0.260 0.268 0.256
 Denmark 0.221 0.226 0.215 0.226 0.232 0.248
 Estonia 0.349 0.315
 Finland 0.235 0.209 0.218 0.247 0.254 0.259
 France 0.300 0.290 0.277 0.287 0.288 0.293
 Germany 0.251 0.256 0.266 0.264 0.285 0.295
 Greece 0.413 0.336 0.336 0.345 0.321 0.307
 Hungary 0.273 0.294 0.293 0.291 0.272
 Iceland 0.257 0.301
 Ireland 0.331 0.324 0.304 0.314 0.293
 Israel 0.326 0.329 0.338 0.347 0.378 0.371
 Italy 0.309 0.297 0.348 0.343 0.352 0.337
 Japan 0.304 0.323 0.337 0.321 0.329
 South Korea 0.306 0.315
 Luxembourg 0.247 0.259 0.261 0.258 0.288
 Mexico 0.452 0.519 0.507 0.474 0.476
 Netherlands 0.263 0.272 0.292 0.297 0.292 0.284 0.294
 New Zealand 0.271 0.318 0.335 0.339 0.335 0.330
 Norway 0.222 0.243 0.261 0.276 0.250
 Poland 0.316 0.349 0.305
 Portugal 0.354 0.329 0.359 0.356 0.385 0.353
 Slovak Republic 0.268 0.257
 Slovenia 0.246 0.236
 Spain 0.371 0.337 0.343 0.342 0.319 0.317
 Sweden 0.212 0.198 0.209 0.211 0.243 0.234 0.259
  Switzerland 0.279 0.276 0.303
 Turkey 0.434 0.490 0.430 0.409
 United Kingdom 0.268 0.309 0.354 0.336 0.351 0.331 0.345
 United States 0.316 0.337 0.348 0.361 0.357 0.380 0.378

See also[edit]

General:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Underground economy and income inequality: two connected aspects in the oncoming context of Italian federalism. By Iacopo Odoardi and Carmen Pagliari. Vol. 15 No. 1, 2011. Global & Local Economic Review.
  2. ^ The Size of the Shadow Economies of 145 Countries all over the World: First Results over the Period 1999 to 2003. December 2004. By Friedrich Schneider (University of Linz and IZA Bonn). Institute for the Study of Labor.
  3. ^ Data show the ratio of the income or expenditure share of the richest group to that of the poorest. Human Development Report 2009, UNDP, accessed on July 30, 2011.
  4. ^ Data show the ratio of the income or expenditure share of the richest group to that of the poorest. Human Development Report 2007/2008, UNDP, accessed on February 3, 2008.
  5. ^ World Bank GINI index, accessed on November 24, 2011.
  6. ^ Data show the ratio of the household income or consumption share of the richest group to that of the poorest. Household income or consumption by percentage share (%), The World Factbook, CIA, updated on January 24, 2008. Note: To calculate the value given in the table for this article, the highest 10% value was divided by the lowest 10% value.
  7. ^ Distribution of family income - Gini index, The World Factbook, CIA, accessed on November 24, 2011.
  8. ^ Global Peace Index calculation incorporates UN Gini scores where available, so countries with a UN Gini calculation are left blank in this column. At [1] click on each country to see its Gini coefficient. Year is not given. "There are, nevertheless, some problems with the Gini-coefficient; there is a considerable lag in the publication of statistics for many countries suffers, forcing the Economist Intelligence Unit to estimate the coefficient for a sizeable proportion of the 153 countries in the GPI. These problems of measurement look likely to persist for the foreseeable future, and the use of other measures of income inequality may be more effective."
  9. ^ Stephen Young (2010) Geni Coefficient Nation Multimedia
  10. ^ Data for urban households only.
  11. ^ Data for urban households only.
  12. ^ http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
  13. ^ a b Income distribution - Inequality — OECD Stats

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]