List of countries by income equality

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World map of income inequality Gini coefficients by country. Based on World Bank data ranging from 1992 to 2020.[1]
  •   Above 50%
  •   Between 45% to 50%
  •   Between 40% to 45%
  •   Between 35% to 40%
  •   Between 30% to 35%
  •   Below 30%
  •   No data

This is a list of countries or dependencies by income inequality metrics, including Gini coefficients. The Gini coefficient is a number between 0 and 1, where 0 corresponds with perfect equality (where everyone has the same income) and 1 corresponds with perfect inequality (where one person has all the income—and everyone else has no income).

Income distribution can vary greatly from wealth distribution in a country (see List of countries by wealth inequality). Income from black market economic activity is not included and is the subject of current economic research.[2][3]

UN, World Bank and CIA list – income ratios and Gini indices[edit]

Row numbers are static. Other columns are sortable. This allows ranking of any column.

Key:

R/P 10%
The ratio of the average income of the richest 10% to the poorest 10%.
R/P 20%
The ratio of the average income of the richest 20% to the poorest 20%.
Gini
Gini index, a quantified representation of a nation's Lorenz curve. A Gini index of 0% expresses perfect equality, while index of 100% expresses maximal inequality.
UN
Data from the United Nations Development Programme.
CIA
Data from the Central Intelligence Agency's The World Factbook.
Country Subregion Region UN R/P CIA R/P[4] Gini[5][6]
10%[4] 20%[7] 10% Year % Year
 
 Afghanistan Southern Asia Asia
 Albania Southern Europe Europe 7.2 4.2 7.2 2004 30.8 2019
 Algeria Northern Africa Africa 9.6 4.0 9.6 1995 27.6 2011
 Angola Middle Africa Africa 9.0 51.3 2018
 Argentina South America Americas 31.6 8.8 35.0 2007 42.3 2020
 Armenia Western Asia Asia 8.0 5.0 25.8 2004 25.2 2020
 Australia Australia, New Zealand Oceania 12.5 6.3 12.7 1994 34.3 2018
 Austria Western Europe Europe 6.9 4.9 6.8 2004 30.2 2019
 Azerbaijan Western Asia Asia 9.7 9.5 2001 33.7 2008
 Bangladesh Southern Asia Asia 7.5 4.8 7.5 2000 32.4 2016
 Belarus Eastern Europe Europe 6.9 3.6 6.9 2002 24.4 2020
 Belgium Western Europe Europe 8.2 4.2 8.3 2000 27.2 2019
 Belize Central America Americas 28.8 19.9 2013 49.8 2014
 Benin Western Africa Africa 9.4 16.3 9.4 2003 37.8 2018
 Bhutan Southern Asia Asia 6.6 37.4 2017
 Bolivia South America Americas 93.9 11.8 157.3 2002 43.6 2020
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Southern Europe Europe 5.4 5.4 5.5 2001 33.0 2011
 Botswana Southern Africa Africa 43.0 15.0 53.3 2015
 Brazil South America Americas 16.5 21.1 16.3 2013 48.9 2020
 Bulgaria Eastern Europe Europe 7.0 7.3 8.8 2005 40.3 2019
 Burkina Faso Western Africa Africa 11.6 5.3 11.5 2003 47.3 2018
 Burundi Eastern Africa Africa 19.3 6.7 19.3 1998 38.6 2013
 Cambodia South-eastern Asia Asia 12.2 12.0 2004 37.9 2008
 Cameroon Middle Africa Africa 15.7 11.5 15.4 2001 46.6 2014
 Canada Northern America Americas 9.4 6.2 9.5 2000 33.3 2017
 Cape Verde Western Africa Africa 10.7 42.4 2015
 Central African Republic Middle Africa Africa 69.2 18.5 68.1 1993 56.2 2008
 Chad Middle Africa Africa 10.0 37.5 2018
 Chile South America Americas 26.2 11.2 32.1 2003 44.9 2020
 China Eastern Asia Asia 21.6 10.2 21.8 2004 38.2 2019
 Colombia South America Americas 60.4 13.4 56.3 2008 54.2 2020
 Comoros Eastern Africa Africa 11.2 45.3 2014
 DR Congo Middle Africa Africa 8.8 42.1 2012
 Congo Middle Africa Africa 12.8 48.9 2011
 Costa Rica Central America Americas 23.4 12.3 37.3 2003 49.3 2020
 Ivory Coast Western Africa Africa 16.6 8.4 17.0 2002 37.2 2018
 Croatia Southern Europe Europe 7.3 5.3 7.2 2003 28.9 2019
 Cyprus Western Asia Asia 5.3 31.2 2019
 Czech Republic Eastern Europe Europe 5.2 3.7 5.2 1996 25.3 2019
 Denmark Northern Europe Europe 8.1 4.0 12.0 2000 27.7 2019
 Djibouti Eastern Africa Africa 8.8 41.6 2017
 Dominican Republic Caribbean Americas 25.3 10.5 18.8 2012 39.6 2020
 Ecuador South America Americas 35.2 10.7 17.5 2006 47.3 2020
 Egypt Northern Africa Africa 8.0 4.6 8.0 2000 31.5 2017
 El Salvador Central America Americas 38.6 7.0 55.4 2002 38.8 2019
 Estonia Northern Europe Europe 10.8 5.4 11.0 2003 30.8 2019
 Eswatini Southern Africa Africa 25.1 14.2 25.4 2001 54.6 2016
 Ethiopia Eastern Africa Africa 6.6 7.1 6.5 2000 35.0 2015
 European Union Europe 8.6 2015 30.6 2012
 Fiji Melanesia Oceania 6.0 30.7 2019
 Finland Northern Europe Europe 5.6 3.9 5.7 2000 27.7 2019
 France Western Europe Europe 9.1 5.2 8.3 2004 32.4 2018
 Gabon Middle Africa Africa 7.4 38.0 2017
 Gambia Western Africa Africa 20.2 5.9 20.6 1998 35.9 2015
 Georgia Western Asia Asia 15.4 7.1 15.2 2003 34.5 2020
 Germany Western Europe Europe 6.9 5.1 6.9 2000 31.7 2018
 Ghana Western Africa Africa 14.1 10.3 13.7 1999 43.5 2016
 Greece Southern Europe Europe 10.2 7.1 10.4 2000 33.1 2019
 Guatemala Central America Americas 33.9 11.9 48.2 2002 48.3 2014
 Guinea Western Africa Africa 10.5 5.5 21.6 2006 29.6 2018
 Guinea-Bissau Western Africa Africa 19.0 12.6 84.8 1991 34.8 2018
 Guyana South America Americas 26.0 1999 44.6 2007
 Haiti Caribbean Americas 54.4 8.6 68.1 2001 41.1 2012
 Honduras Central America Americas 59.4 17.1 35.2 2003 48.2 2019
 Hong Kong Eastern Asia Asia 17.8 53.9 2016
 Hungary Eastern Europe Europe 5.5 4.9 5.6 2002 30.0 2019
 Iceland Northern Europe Europe 4.0 26.1 2017
 India Southern Asia Asia 8.6 5.5 8.6 2004 35.7 2011
 Indonesia South-eastern Asia Asia 7.8 6.6 7.9 2002 37.9 2021
 Iran Southern Asia Asia 17.2 7.7 16.9 1998 40.9 2019
 Iraq Western Asia Asia 4.4 29.5 2012
 Ireland Northern Europe Europe 9.4 5.0 9.4 2000 30.6 2018
 Israel Western Asia Asia 13.4 8.5 11.8 2005 38.6 2018
 Italy Southern Europe Europe 11.6 7.0 11.7 2000 35.2 2018
 Jamaica Caribbean Americas 17.3 17.0 2004 35.0 2016
 Japan Eastern Asia Asia 4.5 5.4 4.5 1993 32.9 2013
 Jordan Western Asia Asia 11.3 5.2 11.3 2003 33.7 2010
 Kazakhstan Central Asia Asia 8.5 3.8 8.0 2004 27.8 2018
 Kenya Eastern Africa Africa 13.6 7.7 18.6 2000 40.8 2015
 South Korea Eastern Asia Asia 7.8 5.3 5.9 2011 31.4 2016
 Kosovo Eastern Europe Europe[a] 29.0 2017
 Kyrgyzstan Central Asia Asia 6.4 3.8 6.4 2003 29.0 2020
 Laos South-eastern Asia Asia 8.3 5.9 8.4 2002 38.8 2018
 Latvia Northern Europe Europe 11.6 5.8 11.6 2003 34.5 2019
 Lebanon Western Asia Asia 5.1 31.8 2011
 Lesotho Southern Africa Africa 39.8 20.8 48.2 2002 44.9 2017
 Liberia Western Africa Africa 12.8 5.9 35.3 2016
 Lithuania Northern Europe Europe 10.4 7.2 10.3 2003 35.3 2019
 Luxembourg Western Europe Europe 5.7 6.8 2000 34.2 2019
 Macau Eastern Asia Asia 35.0 2013
 North Macedonia Southern Europe Europe 12.5 7.3 12.3 2003 33.0 2018
 Madagascar Eastern Africa Africa 19.2 8.7 19.3 2001 42.6 2012
 Malawi Eastern Africa Africa 10.9 8.1 11.0 2004 38.5 2019
 Malaysia South-eastern Asia Asia 22.1 8.2 28.0 2003 41.1 2015
 Maldives Southern Asia Asia 7.0 29.3 2019
 Mali Western Africa Africa 12.5 5.2 12.6 2001 36.1 2018
 Malta Southern Europe Europe 4.5 31.0 2019
 Mauritania Western Africa Africa 12.0 5.4 11.8 2000 32.6 2014
 Mauritius Eastern Africa Africa 5.9 36.8 2017
 Mexico Central America Americas 21.6 8.8 24.6 2004 45.4 2020
 Micronesia Micronesia Oceania 8.4 40.1 2013
 Moldova Eastern Europe Europe 8.2 3.6 8.3 2003 26.0 2019
 Mongolia Eastern Asia Asia 8.2 5.1 8.2 2002 32.7 2018
 Montenegro Southern Europe Europe 4.8 36.8 2018
 Morocco Northern Africa Africa 11.7 7.0 11.9 1999 39.5 2013
 Mozambique Eastern Africa Africa 18.8 14.2 18.8 2002 54.0 2014
 Myanmar South-eastern Asia Asia 6.3 11.6 1998 30.7 2017
 Namibia Southern Africa Africa 106.6 22.8 129.0 2003 59.1 2015
 Nepal Southern Asia Asia 15.8 5.0 15.6 2004 32.8 2010
 Netherlands Western Europe Europe 9.2 4.2 9.2 1999 29.2 2019
 New Zealand Australia, New Zealand Oceania 12.4 36.2 1997
 Nicaragua Central America Americas 31.0 10.2 15.4 2001 46.2 2014
 Niger Western Africa Africa 46.0 5.4 44.3 1995 37.3 2018
 Nigeria Western Africa Africa 17.8 9.1 17.5 2003 35.1 2018
 Norway Northern Europe Europe 6.1 4.1 6.0 2000 27.7 2019
 Pakistan Southern Asia Asia 6.5 4.8 6.6 2002 29.6 2018
 Panama Central America Americas 49.9 15.9 61.4 2003 49.8 2019
 Papua New Guinea Melanesia Oceania 23.8 9.3 23.8 1996 41.9 2009
 Paraguay South America Americas 38.8 11.7 65.9 2003 43.5 2020
 Peru South America Americas 26.1 10.3 31.5 2003 43.8 2020
 Philippines South-eastern Asia Asia 15.5 7.2 15.5 2003 42.3 2018
 Poland Eastern Europe Europe 8.8 4.6 8.7 2002 30.2 2018
 Portugal Southern Europe Europe 15.0 6.4 9.2 1995 32.8 2019
 Qatar Western Asia Asia 41.1 2007
 Romania Eastern Europe Europe 7.5 8.0 7.4 2003 34.8 2019
 Russia Eastern Europe Europe 12.7 6.6 12.8 2002 36.0 2020
 Rwanda Eastern Africa Africa 18.6 8.5 18.2 2000 43.7 2016
 São Tomé and Príncipe Middle Africa Africa 4.7 40.7 2017
 Saudi Arabia Western Asia Asia 45.9 2013
 Senegal Western Africa Africa 12.3 7.7 12.4 2001 38.1 2018
 Serbia Southern Europe Europe 4.2 34.5 2019
 Seychelles Eastern Africa Africa 9.8 32.1 2018
 Sierra Leone Western Africa Africa 87.2 5.4 87.2 1989 35.7 2018
 Singapore South-eastern Asia Asia 17.7 17.3 1998 45.9 2017
 Slovakia Eastern Europe Europe 6.7 4.1 6.7 1996 23.2 2019
 Slovenia Southern Europe Europe 5.9 3.7 5.9 1998 24.4 2019
 Somalia Eastern Africa Africa 36.8 2017
 South Africa Southern Africa Africa 33.1 28.4 31.9 2000 63.0 2014
 South Sudan Eastern Africa Africa 13.0 44.1 2016
 Spain Southern Europe Europe 10.3 7.3 10.2 2000 34.3 2019
 Sri Lanka Southern Asia Asia 11.1 6.8 36.1 2003 39.3 2016
 Saint Lucia Caribbean Americas 6.8 51.2 2016
 Sudan Northern Africa Africa 6.2 34.2 2014
 Suriname South America Americas 57.9 1999
 Sweden Northern Europe Europe 6.2 4.6 6.2 2000 29.3 2019
 Switzerland Western Europe Europe 9.0 5.2 8.9 2000 33.1 2018
 Syria Western Asia Asia 37.5 2003
 Taiwan Eastern Asia Asia 6.1 2002 33.6 2014
 Tajikistan Central Asia Asia 7.8 5.6 7.8 2003 34.0 2015
 Tanzania Eastern Africa Africa 9.2 6.2 9.3 2000 40.5 2018
 Thailand South-eastern Asia Asia 12.6 6.0 12.4 2002 35.0 2020
 East Timor South-eastern Asia Asia 4.1 28.7 2014
 Togo Western Africa Africa 9.7 42.4 2018
 Trinidad and Tobago Caribbean Americas 12.9 40.3 1992
 Tunisia Northern Africa Africa 13.4 5.2 13.7 2000 32.8 2015
 Turkey Western Asia Asia 6.6 8.5 17.1 2003 41.9 2019
 Turkmenistan Central Asia Asia 12.3 12.2 1998 40.8 1998
 Uganda Eastern Africa Africa 16.6 8.2 16.4 2002 42.7 2019
 Ukraine Eastern Europe Europe 5.9 3.5 7.6 2006 25.6 2020
 United Arab Emirates Western Asia Asia 26.0 2018
 United Kingdom Northern Europe Europe 13.8 5.4 13.6 1999 35.1 2017
 United States Northern America Americas 18.5 9.4 14.0 2014 41.5 2019
 Uruguay South America Americas 11.8 7.8 17.9 2003 40.2 2020
 Uzbekistan Central Asia Asia 10.6 10.6 2003 35.3 2003
 Venezuela South America Americas 18.8 15.8 50.3 2003 39.0 2011
 Vietnam South-eastern Asia Asia 6.9 6.2 10.0 2004 35.7 2018
 Yemen Western Asia Asia 8.6 6.1 8.6 2003 36.7 2014
 Zambia Eastern Africa Africa 21.1 57.1 2015
 Zimbabwe Eastern Africa Africa 8.6 50.3 2019
 World 38.0 2007


EU27 countries[edit]

Member state 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
 
 Austria 27.4 27.6 27.0 27.6 27.2 27.2 27.9 26.8 27.5
 Belgium 26.3 26.5 25.9 25.9 26.2 26.3 26.1 25.7 25.1
 Bulgaria 35.0 33.6 35.4 35.4 37.0 37.7 40.2 39.6 40.8
 Croatia 31.2 30.9 30.9 30.2 30.4 29.8 29.9 29.7 29.2
 Cyprus 29.2 31.0 32.4 34.8 33.6 32.1 30.8 29.1 31.1
 Czech Republic 25.2 24.9 24.6 25.1 25.0 25.1 24.5 24.0 24.0
 Denmark 26.6 26.5 26.8 27.7 27.4 27.7 27.6 27.8 27.5
 Estonia 31.9 32.5 32.9 35.6 34.8 32.7 31.6 30.6 30.5
 Finland 25.8 25.9 25.4 25.6 25.2 25.4 25.3 25.9 26.2
 France 30.8 30.5 30.1 29.2 29.2 29.3 28.8 28.5
 Germany 29.0 28.3 29.7 30.7 30.1 29.5 29.1 31.1 29.7
 Greece 33.5 34.3 34.4 34.5 34.2 34.3 33.4 32.3 31.0
 Hungary 26.9 27.2 28.3 28.6 28.2 28.2 28.1 28.7 28.0
 Ireland 29.8 30.4 30.7 31.1 29.7 29.6 30.6 28.9
 Italy 32.5 32.4 32.8 32.4 32.4 33.1 32.7 33.4
 Latvia 35.1 35.7 35.2 35.5 35.4 34.5 34.5 35.6 35.2
 Lithuania 33.0 32.0 34.6 35.0 37.9 37.0 37.6 36.9 35.4
 Luxembourg 27.2 28.0 30.4 28.7 28.5 29.6 29.2 31.3 32.3
 Malta 27.2 27.1 28.0 27.7 28.1 28.6 28.2 28.7 28.0
 Netherlands 25.8 25.4 25.1 26.2 26.7 26.9 27.1 27.4 26.8
 Poland 31.1 30.9 30.7 30.8 30.6 29.8 29.2 27.8 28.5
 Portugal 34.2 34.5 34.2 34.5 34.0 33.9 33.5 32.1 31.9
 Romania 33.5 34.0 34.6 35.0 37.4 34.7 33.1 35.1 34.8
 Slovakia 25.7 25.3 24.2 26.1 23.7 24.3 23.2 20.9 20.3
 Slovenia 23.8 23.7 24.4 25.0 24.5 24.4 23.7 23.4 23.9
 Spain 34.0 34.2 33.7 34.7 34.6 34.5 34.1 33.2 33.0
 Sweden 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.9 26.7 27.6 28.0 27.0 27.6
 Serbia[n 1] 38.0 38.3 40.0 39.8 37.6 35.6
 Montenegro[n 2][8] 38.5 36.5 36.5 36.5 36.7
 European Union 30.5 30.4 30.6 30.9 30.8 30.6 30.3 30.4
Eurozone (EA19) 30.6 30.5 30.7 31.0 30.7 30.7 30.4 30.6

OECD countries[edit]

Gini coefficient, before taxes and transfers[edit]

Country mid-70s mid-80s ~ 1990 mid-90s ~ 2000 mid-2000s Late 2000s
 
 Australia 0.467 0.476 0.465 0.469
 Austria 0.433 0.472
 Belgium 0.449 0.472 0.464 0.494 0.469
 Canada 0.385 0.395 0.403 0.430 0.440 0.436 0.441
 Chile 0.441 0.414 0.426
 Czech Republic 0.442 0.472 0.474 0.444
 Denmark 0.373 0.396 0.417 0.415 0.417 0.416
 Estonia 0.504 0.458
 Finland 0.343 0.387 0.479 0.478 0.483 0.465
 France 0.380 0.370 0.473 0.490 0.485 0.483
 Germany 0.439 0.429 0.459 0.471 0.499 0.504
 Greece 0.448 0.426 0.446 0.466 0.454 0.436
 Hungary 0.452 0.496 0.463 0.497 0.466
 Iceland 0.365 0.382
 Ireland
 Israel 0.472 0.476 0.494 0.504 0.513 0.498
 Italy 0.420 0.437 0.508 0.516 0.557 0.534
 Japan 0.345 0.403 0.432 0.443 0.462
 Luxembourg 0.383 0.427 0.421 0.454 0.482
 Mexico 0.453 0.532 0.517 0.491 0.494
 Netherlands 0.426 0.473 0.474 0.484 0.424 0.426 0.426
 New Zealand 0.408 0.468 0.488 0.484 0.473 0.455
 Norway 0.351 0.404 0.426 0.447 0.410
 Poland 0.542 0.470
 Portugal 0.457 0.436 0.490 0.479 0.542 0.521
 Slovakia 0.458 0.416
 Slovenia 0.452 0.423
 South Korea 0.331 0.344
 Spain 0.461
 Sweden 0.389 0.404 0.408 0.438 0.446 0.432 0.426
 Switzerland 0.409
 Turkey 0.470
 United Kingdom 0.338 0.419 0.439 0.453 0.458 0.445 0.456
 United States 0.406 0.436 0.450 0.477 0.476 0.486 0.486

Gini coefficient, after taxes and transfers[edit]

Country mid-70s mid-80s ~ 1990 mid-90s ~ 2000 mid-2000s Late 2000s
 
 Australia 0.309 0.317 0.315 0.336
 Austria 0.236 0.238 0.252 0.265 0.261
 Belgium 0.274 0.287 0.289 0.271 0.259
 Canada 0.304 0.293 0.287 0.289 0.318 0.317 0.324
 Chile 0.427 0.403 0.394
 Czech Republic 0.232 0.257 0.260 0.268 0.256
 Denmark 0.221 0.226 0.215 0.226 0.232 0.248
 Estonia 0.349 0.315
 Finland 0.235 0.209 0.218 0.247 0.254 0.259
 France 0.300 0.290 0.277 0.287 0.288 0.293
 Germany 0.251 0.256 0.266 0.264 0.285 0.295
 Greece 0.413 0.336 0.336 0.345 0.321 0.307
 Hungary 0.273 0.294 0.293 0.291 0.272
 Iceland 0.257 0.301
 Ireland 0.331 0.324 0.304 0.314 0.293
 Israel 0.326 0.329 0.338 0.347 0.378 0.371
 Italy 0.309 0.297 0.348 0.343 0.352 0.337
 Japan 0.304 0.323 0.337 0.321 0.329
 Luxembourg 0.247 0.259 0.261 0.258 0.288
 Mexico 0.452 0.519 0.507 0.474 0.476
 Netherlands 0.263 0.272 0.292 0.297 0.292 0.284 0.294
 New Zealand 0.271 0.318 0.335 0.339 0.335 0.330
 Norway 0.222 0.243 0.261 0.276 0.250
 Poland 0.316 0.349 0.305
 Portugal 0.354 0.329 0.359 0.356 0.385 0.353
 Slovakia 0.268 0.257
 Slovenia 0.246 0.236
 South Korea 0.306 0.315
 Spain 0.371 0.337 0.343 0.342 0.319 0.317
 Sweden 0.212 0.198 0.209 0.211 0.243 0.234 0.259
 Switzerland 0.279 0.276 0.303
 Turkey 0.434 0.490 0.430 0.409
 United Kingdom 0.268 0.309 0.354 0.336 0.351 0.331 0.345
 United States 0.316 0.337 0.348 0.361 0.357 0.380 0.378
 Costa Rica 0.493

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Serbia is a negotiating candidate to the EU.
  2. ^ Montenegro is a negotiating candidate to the EU.
  1. ^ The political status of Kosovo is disputed. Having unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008, Kosovo is formally recognised as an independent state by 101 UN member states (with another 13 states recognising it at some point but then withdrawing their recognition) and 92 states not recognizing it, while Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Gini index (World Bank estimate)". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2022-04-23.
  2. ^ Underground economy and income inequality: two connected aspects in the oncoming context of Italian federalism Archived 2012-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. By Iacopo Odoardi and Carmen Pagliari. Vol. 15 No. 1, 2011 Archived 2012-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. Global & Local Economic Review.
  3. ^ The Size of the Shadow Economies of 145 Countries all over the World: First Results over the Period 1999 to 2003. December 2004. By Friedrich Schneider (University of Linz and IZA Bonn). Institute for the Study of Labor.
  4. ^ a b Monino, Jean-Louis; Sedkaoui, Soraya (2016-03-11). Data Development Mechanisms. Big Data, Open Data and Data Development. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 43–72. doi:10.1002/9781119285199.ch3. ISBN 978-1-119-28519-9. Retrieved 2021-06-26.
  5. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  6. ^ "Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income - The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2022-08-24.
  7. ^ "Human Development Reports". UNDP. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
  8. ^ GINI Index for Montenegro (Report). 18 January 2018.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]