List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI
This is a list of countries by inequality-adjusted human development index (IHDI), as published by the UNDP in its 2018 Human Development Report. According to the 2016 Report, "The IHDI can be interpreted as the level of human development when inequality is accounted for," whereas the Human Development Index itself is "an index of potential human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)."
The HDI, from which the IHDI derives, is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. The HDI was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, and is anchored in the Indian Nobel laureate Amartya Sen’s work on human capabilities. It is often framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in their life, and was published by the United Nations Development Programme. Though insightful, the index does not reckon several factors, such as the net wealth per capita, the relative quality of goods, CO
2 emissions, crime rate or risk of insolvency in a country. This situation tends to lower the rank for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.
The index captures the HDI of the average person in society, which is less than the aggregate HDI when there is inequality in the distribution of health, education and income. Under perfect equality, the HDI and IHDI are equal; the greater the difference between the two, the greater the inequality.
The IHDI, estimated for 151 countries, captures the losses in human development due to inequality in health, education and income. Losses in all three dimensions vary across countries, ranging from just a few percent (Czech Republic, Slovenia) up to over 40% (Comoros, Central African Republic). Overall loss takes into account all three dimensions.
The table below ranks countries according to their inequality-adjusted human development index (IHDI). Data is based on 2017 estimates.
|Above average (0.582):
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- Human Development Reports, Composite indices — HDI and beyond (2015) 87
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- "Frequently Asked Questions - Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)". United Nations.
- "- Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org.