List of countries by public debt

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These are lists of countries by public debt, based on data from the Central Intelligence Agency's World Factbook and the International Monetary Fund. Net debt figure is the cumulative total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency.[further explanation needed]

Concept[edit]

Gross government debt is the total amount of debt the government has issued and is the most relevant data for discussions of government default and debt ceilings. It is different from external debt, which includes the foreign currency liabilities of non-government entities. Net debt subtracts financial assets a government holds from the gross debt amount. Net debt would decrease by about one-third of GDP.

The public debt relative information provided by national sources (CIA) is not always objective and true, given the fact that there is no independent research in these matters. Note that net debt figures are included where gross debt figures are unavailable in the CIA set (USA).

Public debt as % of GDP[edit]

Public debt as a percent of GDP by CIA (2012)
Government debt as a percent of GDP in the European Union, Norway, and Iceland in 2019

The figures here are represented as a percentage of annual gross domestic product.

Debt as % of GDP
Country Region Gross public debt[1] Year Total (gross) government
debt
[2]
Net government
debt
[3]
Year
 Afghanistan  Asia 8.3 2016 7.346 2016
 Albania  Europe 71.3 2017 71.244 65.472 2017
 Algeria  Africa 19.9 2017 66.57 20.487 2021
 Andorra  Europe 41.1 2012
 Angola  Africa 87.8 2017 107.53 2021
 Antigua and Barbuda  Americas 92.7 2016 86.823 2017
 Argentina  Americas 53.7 2017 52.615 2017
 Armenia  Asia 69.88 2021 62.787 2020
 Aruba  Americas 67.0 2013
 Australia  Oceania 47.1 2017 70.2 19.094 2021
 Austria  Europe 78.8 2017 84.28 54.320 2021
 Azerbaijan  Asia 48.8 2017 20.04 2021
 Bahamas  Americas 66.9 2016 57.205 2017
 Bahrain  Asia 82.7 2017 90.335 2017
 Bangladesh  Asia 28.1 2017 41.91 2021
 Barbados  Americas 108.3 2017 132.876 76.284 2017
 Belarus  Europe 46.2 2017 48.58 2021
 Belgium  Europe 104.3 2017 117.07 90.324 2021
 Belize  Americas 86.3 2016 99.023 2017
 Benin  Africa 56.4 2017 41.37 2021
 Bhutan  Asia 93.7 2017 102.398 2017
 Bolivia  Americas 51.5 2017 68.31 35.369 2021
 Bosnia and Herzegovina  Europe 43.2 2017 40.972 33.735 2017
 Botswana  Africa 18.5 2017 15.646 -2.683 2017
 Brazil  Americas 78.4 2017 102.76 51.583 2021
 Brunei  Asia 2.70 2017 2.689 2017
 Bulgaria  Europe 28.6 2017 23.927 10.878 2017
 Burkina Faso  Africa 32.5 2016 48.06 2021
 Burma  Asia 36.75 2017 34.725 2017
 Burundi  Africa 40.9 2017 56.690 2017
 Cambodia  Asia 28.2 2017 31.44 2021
 Cameroon  Africa 32.3 2017 44.97 30.418 2021
 Canada  Americas 89.7 2017 114.97 27.793 2021
 Cape Verde  Africa 127.0 2017 126.029 116.538 2017
 Central African Republic  Africa 42.5 2016 53.441 2017
 Chad  Africa 60.8 2017 44.35 2021
 Chile  Americas 25.2 2017 37.51 5.257 2021
 China  Asia 47 2017 66.53 2021
 Colombia  Americas 53.0 2017 68.06 41.270 2021
 Comoros  Africa 26.3 2016 28.381 2017
 DR Congo  Africa 14.6 2017 13.42 2021
 Congo  Africa 92.2 2017 98.42 2021
 Costa Rica  Americas 66.2 2017 49.098 2017
 Ivory Coast  Africa 51.4 2017 42.61 2021
 Croatia  Europe 81.5 2017 85.46 66.534 2021
 Cuba  Americas 35.8 2017
 Cyprus  Asia 104.5 2017 112.42 81.236 2021
 Czech Republic  Europe 35.1 2017 41.39 22.869 2021
 Denmark  Europe 35.1 2017 39.29 16.273 2021
 Djibouti  Africa 32.3 2017 30.649 28.101 2017
 Dominica  Americas 81.0 2016 87.570 2017
 Dominican Republic  Americas 47.1 2017 68.2 28.556 2021
 Ecuador  Americas 41.0 2017 67.44 2021
 Egypt  Africa 104.4 2017 90.6 94.005 2021
 El Salvador  Americas 68.1 2017 59.319 2017
 Equatorial Guinea  Africa 23.4 2017 42.676 22.347 2017
 Eritrea  Africa 113.7 2017 131.244 2017
 Estonia  Europe 9.3 2017 22.38 -0.572 2021
 Ethiopia  Africa 60.2 2017 58.51 52.228 2021
 European Union Europe 86.8 2014 83.211 68.516 2017
 Fiji  Oceania 50.4 2017 46.623 42.332 2017
 Faroe Islands  Europe 35.0 2014
 Finland  Europe 63.8 2017 68.59 22.574 2021
 France  Europe 98.5 2017 118.57 87.651 2021
 Gabon  Africa 42.8 2017 61.065 2017
 Gambia  Africa 116.1 2016 123.239 2017
 Georgia  Asia 44.2 2017 45.099 44.918 2017
 Germany  Europe 64.1 2017 72.21 45.099 2021
 Ghana  Africa 76.8 2017 74.65 65.273 2021
 Gibraltar  Europe 7.5 2008
 Greece  Europe 180.0 2017 200.53 2021
 Grenada  Americas 84.4 2016 71.448 2017
 Guatemala  Americas 30.1 2017 24.375 2017
 Guinea  Africa 56.0 2016 45.92 2021
 Guinea-Bissau  Africa 46.3 2016 41.971 2017
 Guyana  Americas 52.3 2017 50.676 50.676 2017
 Haiti  Americas 33.5 2016 52.44 2021
 Honduras  Americas 51.9 2017 50.42 2021
 Hong Kong  Asia 0.10 2017 0.27 2021
 Hungary  Europe 73.9 2017 75.87 66.413 2021
 Iceland  Europe 47.4 2017 52.53 33.344 2021
 India  Asia 70.2 2017 89.86 2021
 Indonesia  Asia 33.1 2017 41.83 24.802 2021
 Iran  Asia 14.2 2017 40.43 29.741 2021
 Iraq  Asia 63.7 2016 57.980 2017
 Ireland  Europe 69.5 2017 61.25 59.829 2021
 Israel  Asia 59.5 2017 80 57.928 2021
 Italy  Europe 131.2 2017 158.31 119.885 2021
 Jamaica  Americas 117.8 2017 104.074 2017
 Japan  Asia 223.8 2017 263.97 153.040 2021
 Jordan  Asia 86.0 2017 95.557 88.490 2017
 Kazakhstan  Asia 27.5 2017 24.11 -11.784 2021
 Kenya  Africa 52.6 2017 70.46 50.364 2021
 Kiribati  Oceania 26.8 2016 26.315 2017
 North Korea  Asia
 South Korea  Asia 43.3 2017 52.24 6.609 2021
 Kosovo  Europe 20.6 2016 20.940 2017
 Kuwait  Asia 26.2 2017 36.57 2021
 Kyrgyzstan  Asia 58.4 2017 66.79 2021
 Laos  Asia 67.3 2017 70.66 2021
 Latvia  Europe 38.9 2017 45.02 26.918 2021
 Lebanon  Asia 142.2 2017 152.846 147.164 2017
 Lesotho  Africa 47.8 2016 34.703 -0.944 2017
 Liberia  Africa 46.5 2017 34.434 31.997 2017
 Libya  Africa 5.1 2017
 Lithuania  Europe 38.9 2017 47.68 29.717 2021
 Luxembourg  Europe 19.3 2017 27.49 -8.284 2021
 Madagascar  Africa 42.3 2016 44.96 2021
 Malawi  Africa 54.6 2017 59.318 2017
 Malaysia  Asia 52.5 2017 66.02 2021
 Maldives  Asia 81.5 2017 68.051 2017
 Mali  Africa 28.0 2017 46.24 29.866 2021
 Malta  Europe 46.0 2018 57.08 40.452 2021
 Marshall Islands  Oceania 32.2 2016 27.969 2017
 Mauritania  Africa 99.6 2017 91.086 90.799 2017
 Mauritius  Africa 66.0 2017 60.150 2017
 Micronesia  Oceania 24.8 2016 24.489 2017
 Mexico  Americas 51.5 2017 65.6 46.120 2021
 Moldova  Europe 43.4 2017 39.24 2021
 Mongolia  Asia 91.4 2017
 Montenegro  Europe 105.15 [4]2021 67.493 2017
 Morocco  Africa 77.2 2017 76.57 64.042 2021
 Mozambique  Africa 119.4 2017 123.51 2021
 Namibia  Africa 43.0 2017 46.103 43.643 2017
 Nauru  Oceania 65.0 2016 60.147 2017
 Nepal  Asia 27.3 2017 43.7 2021
 Netherlands  Europe 49.0 2019 61.14 46.173 2021
 New Zealand  Oceania 32.0 2017 60.22 4.649 2021
 Nicaragua  Americas 46.0 2017 50.26 2021
 Niger  Africa 45.9 2016 48.64 40.894 2021
 Nigeria  Africa 15.3 2017 35.51 19.608 2021
 North Macedonia  Europe 47.3 2017 39.254 38.446 2017
 Norway  Europe 37.0 2017 40.00 -90.469 2021
 Oman  Asia 41.3 2017 88.65 -10.776 2021
 Pakistan  Asia 67.2 2017 85.97 61.608 2021
 Palau  Oceania 24.1 2016
 Panama  Americas 38.8 2017 38.158 35.881 2017
 Papua New Guinea  Oceania 39.8 2017 47.74 2021
 Paraguay  Americas 22.5 2017 25.566 20.437 2017
 Peru  Americas 25.7 2017 39.13 10.118 2021
 Philippines  Asia 41.9 2017 52.51 2021
 Poland  Europe 46.2 2017 60.18 46.668 2021
 Portugal  Europe 127.7 2017 130.05 108.098 2021
 Puerto Rico  Americas 91.6 2016 54.573 2017
 Qatar  Asia 56.8 2017 60.58 2021
 Romania  Europe 38.5 2017 36.878 28.341 2017
 Russia  Europe 11.8 2017 18.98 2021
 Rwanda  Africa 47.2 2017 69.39 2021
 Saint Kitts and Nevis  Americas 65.8 2016 62.378 2017
 Saint Lucia  Americas 82.9 2016 71.262 2017
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Americas 79.2 2016 80.813 77.860 2017
 Western Samoa  Oceania 52.6 2016 49.121 2017
 San Marino  Europe 25.8 2013 56.569 2017
 São Tomé and Príncipe  Africa 60.2 2017 83.300 2017
 Saudi Arabia  Asia 30.0 2017 34.35 -7.723 2021
 Senegal  Africa 61.3 2017 65.42 2021
 Serbia  Europe 71.0 2017 61.476 58.684 2017
 Seychelles  Africa 56.8 2017 63.315 48.427 2017
 Sierra Leone  Africa 57.6 2017 58.428 2017
 Singapore  Asia 114.6 2017 132.35 2021
 Slovakia  Europe 51.6 2017 60.63 2021
 Slovenia  Europe 78.6 2017 78.01 49.159 2021
 Solomon Islands  Oceania 9.0 2016 10.011 -1.101 2017
 Somalia  Africa 76.7 2017
 South Africa  Africa 50.1 2017 82.76 47.896 2021
 South Sudan  Africa 33.0 2017 66.341 2017
 Spain  Europe 96.7 2017 121.31 86.344 2021
 Sri Lanka  Asia 79.6 2017 98.3 2021
 Sudan  Africa 54.8 2017 250.71 2021
 Suriname  Americas 64.6 2016 72.053 2017
 Swaziland  Africa 27.5 2016 29.173 23.673 2017
 Sweden  Europe 39.0 2017 41.72 9.014 2021
 Switzerland  Europe 32.9 2017 48.48 23.053 2021
 Syria  Asia 58.4 2017
 Taiwan  Asia 29.9 2017 35.172 33.291 2017
 Tajikistan  Asia 41.5 2017 48.86 2021
 Tanzania  Africa 36.6 2016 39.25 2021
 Thailand  Asia 44.1 2017 56.37 2021
 Togo  Africa 68.6 2017 78.633 2017
 Tonga  Oceania 48[5] 2017
 Trinidad and Tobago  Americas 61 2016 41.340 -10.968 2017
 Tunisia  Africa 66.5 2017 71.275 21.269 2017
 Turkey  Asia 29.6 2017 45.52 22.736 2021
 Turkmenistan  Asia 23.9 2016 28.820 2017
 Tuvalu  Oceania 53.7 2016 49.186 2017
 Uganda  Africa 38.2 2017 50.93 2021
 Ukraine  Europe 89.0 2017 64.3 2021
 United Arab Emirates  Asia 60.3 2017 38.19 -79.486 2021
 United Kingdom  Europe 87.0 2018 111.52 78.166 2021
 United States  Americas 82.3 2017 133.64 82.268 2021
 Uruguay  Americas 62.5 2017 69.02 32.300 2021
 Uzbekistan  Asia 15.1 2017 40.11 2021
 Vanuatu  Oceania 31.3 2016 48.412 2017
 Venezuela  Americas 25.8 2017 34.866 2017
 Vietnam  Asia 62.3 2017 47.1 2021
 Wallis and Futuna  Oceania 5.6 2004
 Yemen  Asia 135.5 2017 79.33 139.372 2021
 Zambia  Africa 62.8 2017 119.57 56.349 2021
 Zimbabwe  Africa 75.5 2017 2.23 2021
 World 59.9 2017

Lowest public debt as percentage of GDP (1980 to 2012)[6][edit]

Year Country Public debt to GDP ratio
1980  Kuwait 0.6%
1981  Kuwait 2.5%
1982  Bhutan 1.7%
1983  Bhutan 3.5%
1984  China 1.0%
1985  China 3.3%
1986  China 3.2%
1987  China 3.6%
1988  China 4.5%
1989  Luxembourg 4.0%
1990  Romania 1.0%
1991  Romania 2.7%
1992  Luxembourg 4.8%
1993  Luxembourg 6.0%
1994  Luxembourg 5.5%
1995  China 6.1%
1996  United Arab Emirates 5.9%
1997  United Arab Emirates 4.8%
1998  Estonia 5.5%
1999  United Arab Emirates 4.8%
2000  United Arab Emirates 3.1%
2001  United Arab Emirates 2.7%
2002  Brunei 2.0%
2003  Brunei 1.0%
2004  Brunei 0.4%
2005  Brunei 0.3%
2006  Libya 0.5%
2007  Libya 0.0%
2008  Libya 0.0%
2009  Libya 0.0%
2010  Libya 0.0%
2011  Libya 0.0%
2012  Libya 0.0%

Public debt per capita[edit]

The figures here are represented per capita.

Public debt per capita by country, in USD
Country (Purchasing
Power
Parity
)[7][8][9]
(Official
Exchange
Rate)[7][8][10]
Year
 Japan $102,503 $91,768 2017
 Singapore $97,852 $60,016 2017
 Qatar $77,278 $37,990 2017
 Greece $50,562 $33,905 2017
 Italy $49,060 $41,056 2017
 Ireland $47,822 $44,871 2017
 Belgium $47,291 $44,119 2017
 United States $46,645 $46,645 2017
 Canada $44,348 $41,323 2017
 Bahrain $43,659 $21,673 2017
 France $41,040 $37,189 2017
 Austria $39,419 $37,310 2017
 United Kingdom $39,311 $35,320 2017
 Portugal $38,127 $26,462 2017
 Bermuda $37,015 $37,015 2016
 Spain $35,466 $26,210 2017
 Germany $33,349 $29,394 2017
 Aruba $30,674 $19,918 2016
 Netherlands $30,452 $27,415 2017
 Barbados $28,001 $26,777 2017
 Finland $27,111 $27,986 2017
  Switzerland $26,367 $34,225 2017
 Norway $25,900 $27,095 2017
 Cyprus $25,047 $17,103 2017
 Slovenia $24,939 $17,110 2017
 Luxembourg $23,582 $23,742 2017
 Israel $22,922 $25,351 2017
 Malta $21,746 $14,204 2017
 Antigua and Barbuda $21,709 $13,796 2017
 Australia $21,695 $23,990 2017
 Hungary $21,693 $10,427 2017
 Lebanon $21,238 $13,039 2017
 Iceland $21,169 $28,505 2017
 Sweden $21,048 $21,763 2017
 Kuwait $20,462 $8,525 2017
 Puerto Rico $20,360 $16,320 2017
 Bahamas $19,796 $19,960 2017
 Oman $19,326 $7,196 2017
 United States Virgin Islands $19,292 $25,819 2017
 Croatia $18,601 $9,976 2017
 Seychelles $18,482 $10,068 2017
 Saint Kitts and Nevis $18,363 $11,420 2017
 Taiwan $18,027 $8,682 2017
 Denmark $17,487 $19,784 2017
 Slovakia $16,798 $8,970 2017
 Andorra $15,915 $12,973 2016
 Malaysia $15,873 $5,313 2017
 Korea, South $15,633 $11,830 2017
 Uruguay $15,241 $11,540 2017
 Poland $14,829 $6,912 2017
 Equatorial Guinea $14,783 $5,858 2017
 Trinidad and Tobago $14,735 $7,834 2017
 San Marino $14,726 $11,722 2017
 United Arab Emirates $14,133 $7,769 2017
 Faroe Islands $13,728 $18,969 2015
 Mauritius $13,262 $6,253 2017
 New Zealand $13,180 $14,045 2017
 Brazil $13,064 $8,265 2017
 Lithuania $13,000 $6,717 2017
 Egypt $12,474 $2,450 2017
 Czech Republic $12,206 $7,007 2017
 Montenegro $12,122 $5,234 2017
 Argentina $11,884 $8,217 2017
 Mongolia $11,701 $3,281 2017
 Maldives $11,236 $7,335 2017
 Saint Lucia $10,859 $7,202 2017
 Gabon $10,847 $4,418 2017
 Mexico $10,618 $4,962 2017
 Panama $10,353 $6,150 2017
 Grenada $10,252 $7,021 2017
 Nauru $10,235 $7,293 2017
 Latvia $10,194 $5,724 2017
 Suriname $10,069 $3,963 2017
 Belarus $10,055 $3,051 2017
 Bhutan $9,993 $3,336 2017
 Sri Lanka $9,663 $3,060 2017
 Iraq $9,644 $2,858 2017
 Jamaica $9,360 $5,305 2017
 Serbia $9,333 $3,658 2017
 Azerbaijan $9,273 $2,190 2017
 Saudi Arabia $9,226 $3,569 2017
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines $9,167 $5,688 2017
 Dominica $8,747 $6,223 2017
 Albania $8,457 $3,070 2017
 Tunisia $8,406 $2,439 2017
 Cabo Verde $8,360 $3,931 2017
 Romania $8,291 $3,634 2017
 Belize $8,257 $4,757 2017
 Costa Rica $8,230 $5,713 2017
 Jordan $8,161 $3,680 2017
 China $7,878 $4,077 2017
 Iran $7,802 $2,049 2017
 Guam $7,631 $7,631 2017
 Turkey $7,613 $2,966 2017
 Congo, Republic of the $7,594 $2,253 2017
 Thailand $7,548 $2,781 2017
 South Africa $7,342 $3,343 2017
 Colombia $7,298 $3,225 2017
 Curacao $6,912 $12,375 2014
 Dominican Republic $6,249 $2,748 2017
 Ukraine $5,970 $1,811 2017
 Chile $5,952 $3,647 2017
 Cuba $5,879 $4,024 2017
 North Macedonia $5,755 $2,109 2017
 Morocco $5,665 $2,074 2017
 El Salvador $5,615 $2,723 2017
 Turkmenistan $5,519 $2,019 2017
 Greenland $5,437 $5,005 2016
 Ecuador $5,311 $2,870 2017
 Kazakhstan $5,311 $1,769 2017
 Gibraltar $5,203 $5,203 2014
 India $5,202 $1,429 2017
 Bulgaria $5,198 $1,928 2017
 Sudan $5,003 $1,292 2017
 Armenia $4,990 $2,032 2017
 Venezuela $4,684 $2,579 2017
 Bosnia and Herzegovina $4,600 $1,864 2017
 Fiji $4,555 $2,582 2017
 Guyana $4,441 $2,510 2017
 Russia $4,380 $1,721 2017
 Mauritania $4,347 $1,241 2017
 Laos $4,338 $1,492 2017
 Namibia $4,337 $2,159 2017
 Algeria $4,159 $1,106 2017
 Angola $4,145 $2,709 2017
 Vietnam $3,911 $1,329 2017
 Georgia $3,632 $1,382 2017
 Bolivia $3,628 $1,637 2017
 Indonesia $3,562 $1,112 2017
 Peru $3,488 $1,737 2017
 Ghana $3,424 $1,201 2017
 Pakistan $3,420 $983 2017
 Philippines $3,305 $1,182 2017
 Eswatini $3,030 $1,154 2017
 Estonia $3,013 $1,878 2017
 Sao Tome and Principe $2,966 $1,699 2017
 Palau $2,957 $3,271 2017
 Samoa $2,773 $2,051 2017
 Tonga $2,666 $2,053 2017
 Zambia $2,645 $986 2017
 Paraguay $2,468 $1,081 2017
 Syria $2,450 $1,199 2016
 Botswana $2,428 $1,082 2017
 Gambia $2,336 $623 2017
 Kyrgyzstan $2,216 $724 2017
 Kosovo $2,178 $788 2017
 Moldova $2,173 $876 2017
 Brunei $2,105 $754 2017
 Eritrea $2,066 $1,277 2017
 Guatemala $2,057 $1,126 2017
 Anguilla $2,024 $2,024 2013
 Zimbabwe $2,010 $1,035 2017
 Burma $1,992 $406 2017
 Nicaragua $1,992 $756 2017
 Honduras $1,992 $988 2017
 Yemen $1,913 $813 2017
 West Bank $1,850 $857 2015
 Kenya $1,833 $887 2017
 Uzbekistan $1,805 $395 2017
 Senegal $1,762 $679 2017
 Cote d'Ivoire $1,739 $724 2017
 Northern Mariana Islands $1,696 $1,696 2017
 Tajikistan $1,665 $418 2017
 Papua New Guinea $1,585 $1,041 2017
 American Samoa $1,579 $1,579 2017
 Bangladesh $1,433 $543 2017
 Tuvalu $1,394 $1,328 2017
 Somalia $1,392 $480 2017
 Mozambique $1,391 $472 2017
 Djibouti $1,309 $730 2017
 Vanuatu $1,297 $1,462 2017
 Cameroon $1,289 $504 2017
 South Sudan $1,229 $188 2017
 Benin $1,222 $445 2017
 Nigeria $1,201 $403 2017
 Togo $1,201 $441 2017
 Cambodia $1,187 $408 2017
 Sierra Leone $1,169 $366 2017
 Lesotho $1,143 $472 2017
 Tanzania $1,084 $345 2017
 Ethiopia $1,003 $404 2017
 Chad $949 $327 2017
 Guinea-Bissau $932 $397 2017
 Guinea $894 $328 2017
 Uganda $873 $261 2017
 Micronesia, Federated States of $823 $775 2017
 Rwanda $820 $304 2017
 Mali $792 $295 2017
   Nepal $703 $221 2017
 Burkina Faso $692 $243 2017
 Malawi $669 $186 2017
 Marshall Islands $660 $748 2017
 Haiti $576 $248 2017
 Madagascar $559 $161 2017
 Kiribati $546 $474 2017
 Comoros $520 $257 2017
 Niger $498 $188 2017
 Liberia $437 $235 2017
 Libya $431 $213 2017
 Burundi $349 $148 2017
 Central African Republic $312 $178 2017
 Timor-Leste $213 $80 2017
 Solomon Islands $189 $185 2017
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the $146 $88 2017
 Afghanistan $139 $41 2017
 Hong Kong $63 $47 2017
 Falkland Islands $0 $0 2015
 Macau $0 $0 2017

See also[edit]

Nation specific

References[edit]

  1. ^ Public debt. Country comparison. The World Factbook, United States Central Intelligence Agency. Archived 2007-06-13 at the Wayback Machine,
  2. ^ "Fiscal Monitor Gross debt position". www.imf.org. Retrieved 2021-02-08. Archived 2021-02-08 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 2018-05-21.
  4. ^ "Saopštenje sa 16. sjednice Vlade Crne Gore". Government of Montenegro. 2021-03-26. Retrieved 2021-03-27.
  5. ^ "Australia - Tonga - The World Factbook". CIA. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  6. ^ Kui-Wai Li, Academic Press, Jun 7, 2017, Redefining Capitalism in Global Economic Development, pp. 118-119
  7. ^ a b "Country Comparison :: Population — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
  8. ^ a b "Field Listing :: Public debt — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
  9. ^ "Field Listing :: GDP (purchasing power parity) — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
  10. ^ "Field Listing :: GDP (official exchange rate) — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.