List of countries by public sector size

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This is a list of countries by public sector, calculated as the number of public sector employees as a percentage of the total workforce. Information is based mainly on data from the OECD[1][2][3] and the ILO.[4] If a source has figures for more than one year, only the most recent figure is used (with notes for exceptional circumstances).

In the former Eastern Bloc countries, the public sector in 1989 accounted for between 70% to over 90% of total employment.[5] In China a full 78.3% of the urban labor force were employed in the public sector by 1978, the year the Chinese economic reform was launched, after which the rates dropped. Jin Zeng estimates the numbers were 56.4% in 1995 and 32.8% in 2003,[6] while other estimates are higher.[7][8][9]

In OECD countries, the average public sector employment rate was 21.3% in 2013.[1]

List[edit]

Country OECD (%)[1][2][3] ILO (%)[4][10][11][12] Other estimates (%)
 Afghanistan 8.3 (2021)
 Angola 14.6 (2014)
 Albania 14.4 (2019)
 American Samoa 25.0 (2012)
 Argentina 19.3 (2021)
 Armenia 21.8 (2013) 19.4 (2020)
 Australia 20.4 (2012) 28.9 (2020)
 Austria 15.2 (2014) 3.9 (2020)
 Azerbaijan 22.4 (2021) 21.7 (World Bank publication, 2009)[13]
 Bahamas 33.7 (2009)
 Bangladesh 8.0 (2010)
 Bahrain 8.4*[a] (Baldwin-Edwards, 2010)[14]
 Barbados 22.3 (2013)
 Belarus 39.3 (2015) 72.0 (World Bank publication, 2010),[5] 40.1 (BelStat, 2017)[15]
 Belgium 21.5 (2013) 21.1 (2019)
 Bermuda 10.3 (2010)
 Bhutan 17.8 (2012)
 Bolivia 7.8 (2021)
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 25.4 (2021)
 Botswana 21.7 (2019)
 Brazil 12.1 (2013) 12.4 (2021)
 Bulgaria 21.1 (2019)
 Cameroon 9.8 (2014)
 Canada 22.4 (2013) 21.6 (2021)
 Chile 14.0 (2013) 13.1 (2021)
 China 28.0 (2012) 73% (2019, Chinese government),[7][8] 29.3 (2004),[6] 50 (2011, Business Insider)[9]
 Colombia 10.0 (2013) 3.9 (2021) 5.3*[b] (2017, Public Spending and Investment Commission),[16] 6.8 (2017, Colombian Insurers Federation)[17]
 Costa Rica 13.2 (2021)
 Croatia 29.8 (2020)
 Czech Republic 18.0 (2013) 15.4 (2015)
 Cuba 77.0 (2010) 72.0 (2014, Third World Quarterly)[18]
 Denmark 32.9 (2011) 30.2 (2020)
 Dominican Republic 14.0 (2021)
 Ecuador 7.0 (2021)
 Egypt 26.3 (2013)
 El Salvador 8.0 (2021)
 Estonia 22.0 (2013) 23.8 (2019)
 Ethiopia 6.6 (2021)
 Finland 27.0 (2013) 26.1 (2019)
 France 28.0 (2013) 20.5 (2019)
 Georgia 17.7 (2019) 21.1 (World Bank publication, 2009)[13]
 Ghana 11.0 (2013)
 Germany 15.3 (2012) 12.9 (2013)
 Greece 14.6 (2012) 21.3 (2019)
 Guatemala 11.5 (2014)
 Guinea 8.0 (2012)
 Haiti 9.0 (2012)
 Hong Kong 7.5 (2012)
 Hungary 24.8 (2012) 24.8 (2012)
 India 3.80 (2014) 4.7*[c] (2002)[19] 3.80 (World Bank Data and Reserve Bank of India Data, 2012)[20][21]
 Indonesia 9.5 (2019)
 Iran 18.3 (2008)
 Iraq 37.4 (2021)
 Ireland 19.5 (2014) 17.9 (2014)
 Israel 20.7 (2007) 18.5 (2014)
 Italy 18.3 (2013) 16.0 (2013)
 Japan 12.9 (2014) 7.7 (2019)
 Jordan 24.3 (2019)
 Kazakhstan 23.3 (2012) 20.8 (World Bank publication, 2009)[13]
 Kuwait 18.6 (2016) 18.5*[a] (Baldwin-Edwards, 2008)[14]
 Kyrgyzstan 15.1 (World Bank publication, 2009)[13]
 Latvia 31.2 (2013) 29.0 (2020)
 Liechtenstein 7.1 (2015)
 Lithuania 26.9 (2019) 24.0 (World Bank publication, 2010)[5]
 Luxembourg 22.1 (2011)
 Macau 6.5 (2014)
 Madagascar 11.0 (2012)
 Malaysia 15.1 (2019)
 Mali 8.4 (2010)
 Mexico 13.8 (2013) 12.2 (2021)
 Moldova 26.5 (2015) 41.0 (World Bank publication, 2010)[5]
 Mongolia 24.4 (2021)
 Montenegro 32.2 (2021)[22][23]
 Morocco 8.7 (2021)
 New Zealand 13.4 (2011) 11.5 (2011)
 Nigeria 8.6 (2019)
 Netherlands 17.3 (2013) 19.9 (2019)
 North Macedonia 25.4 (2021)
 Norway 35.6 (2013) 32.2 (2020)
OECD 21.3*[d] (2013)
 Oman 14.0*[a] (Baldwin-Edwards, 2008)[14]
 Pakistan 7.3 (2021)
 Panama 17.2 (2021)
 Paraguay 9.8 (2021)
 Peru 8.1 (2021)
 Philippines 9.1 (2019)
 Poland 25.2 (2013) 23.6 (2019) 16.0 (World Bank publication, 2010)[5]
 Portugal 18.4 (2014) 14.7 (2014)
 Qatar 16.1 (2010) 12.1*[a] (Baldwin-Edwards, 2009)[14]
 Romania 16.0 (2019) 15.3 (INS, 2015)[24]
 Russia 40.6 (2011) 31.0 (2016, IMF)[25]
 Rwanda 5.9 (2021)
 Saint Lucia 18.0 (2021)
 San Marino 16.2 (2021)
 Saudi Arabia 35.3 35.3*[a] (Baldwin-Edwards, 2008)[14]
 Senegal 8.7 (2011)
 Serbia 23.3 (2021)
 Seychelles 44.3 (2020)
 Singapore 2.6 (2021)
 Slovakia 18.2 (2013) 27.3 (2021)
 Slovenia 20.9 (2012) 20.9 (2012)
 South Africa 17.4 (2013) 15.6 (2021)
 South Korea 11.6 (2013) 10.3 (2014)
 Spain 17.9 (2014) 16.3 (2019)
 Sri Lanka 15.1 (2012)
 Sweden 29.9 (2013) 29.3 (2020)
 Switzerland 18.0 (2014) 16.0 (2021)
 Tajikistan 33.0 (World Bank publication, 2010)[5]
 Tanzania 7.5 (2013)
 Thailand 9.3 (2019)
 Trinidad and Tobago 22.9 (2021)
 Turkey 15.9 (2011) 15.8 (2021)
 Ukraine 26.7 (2012) 26.5 (2013)
 United Arab Emirates 10.2 (2021)
 United Kingdom 21.5 (2013) 21.5 (2013)
 United States 17.6 [not included in dataset] (2013) 13.6 (2021) 19.2 (Mercatus publication, 2013)[26]
 Uruguay 16.9 (2021)
 Uzbekistan 18.2 (2019)
 Venezuela 24.3 (2020)
 Vietnam 8.4 (2021)
 Zambia 9.7 (2013)
 Zimbabwe 12.1 (2019)
  1. ^ a b c d e GCC estimates by Baldwin-Edwards are state employment as a proportion of total employment. The employment of nationals is primarily in the state sector, with migrant workers dominating the private sector.
  2. ^ The number of employees in Colombia's public sector is underestimated because subcontracting and outsourcing are common in many government agencies.
  3. ^ India's public sector still accounted for 69% of the country's organised workforce.
  4. ^ OECD average for 2013 does not include Australia, Czech Republic, Germany, South Korea, Ireland and Portugal.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c OECD (2015). "Employment in the public sector". Government at a Glance 2015. Paris: OECD Publishing. doi:10.1787/g2224992d2-en. S2CID 242295583. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
  2. ^ a b OECD (2013). "Employment in general government and public corporations". Government at a Glance 2013. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  3. ^ a b OECD (2011). "Employment in General Government and Public Corporations". Government at a Glance 2011. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  4. ^ a b "Share of employment in the public sector by sex (%)". International Labour Organization. Retrieved 20 October 2015.[dead link]
  5. ^ a b c d e f Omar S. Arias, Carolina Sánchez-Páramo, María E. Dávalos, Indhira Santos, Erwin R. Tiongson, Carola Gruen, Natasha de Andrade Falcão, Gady Saiovici, Cesar A. Cancho (2014). Back to Work: Growing with Jobs in Europe and Central Asia. World Bank Publications. pp. 86, 101. ISBN 9780821399118.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  6. ^ a b Zeng, Jin (2013). State-Led Privatization in China: The Politics of Economic Reform. Routledge. pp. 52–53. ISBN 9781134464890.
  7. ^ a b http://www.xf.gov.cn/zxzx/gjj/202001/t20200123_2016545.shtml
  8. ^ a b "国家统计局局长就2019年全年国民经济运行情况答记者问".
  9. ^ a b "CHART OF THE DAY: Guess Which Country Has The Highest Percentage Of Workers Employed By The Government". Business Insider. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
  10. ^ "Home - ILOSTAT - the leading source of labour statistics".
  11. ^ "Home - ILOSTAT - the leading source of labour statistics".
  12. ^ "ILO Data Explorer".
  13. ^ a b c d Indermit S. Gill, Ivailo Izvorski, Willem van Eeghen, Donato De Rosa (2014). Diversified Development: Making the Most of Natural Resources in Eurasia. World Bank Publications. p. 164. ISBN 9781464801204.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  14. ^ a b c d e Baldwin-Edwards, Martin (2011). "Labour immigration and labour markets in the GCC countries: national patterns and trends". Kuwait Programme on Development, Governance and Globalisation in the Gulf States. London: The London School of Economics and Political Science. 15: 15.
  15. ^ National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus, "Численность занятого населения по формам собственности"
  16. ^ "La austeridad de Duque: ¿es posible reducir la burocracia?". 19 November 2018.
  17. ^ "¿Cuántos empleados públicos?".
  18. ^ Torres, Ricardo (2 June 2016). "Economic transformations in Cuba: a review". Third World Quarterly. 37 (9): 1683–1697. doi:10.1080/01436597.2016.1177454. S2CID 156099431.
  19. ^ Kumar, Rajiv (2008). India and the Global Economy. Academic Foundation. p. 246. ISBN 9788171886616.
  20. ^ "Labor force, total - India | Data".
  21. ^ "Reserve Bank of India - Publications".
  22. ^ "Mjesečni statistički pregled" (PDF). Monstat (in Montenegrin). 2021-05-16.
  23. ^ "Na državnim jaslama preko 50.000 zaposlenih". Investitor.me (in Montenegrin). Retrieved 2021-05-16.
  24. ^ "84 pct of Romania's employed population work in the private sector, says INS". Business Review. 30 April 2015.
  25. ^ "The Russian State's Size and its Footprint: Have They Increased?". 2 June 2016. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  26. ^ "Government-Financed Employment and the Real Private Sector in the 50 States". Mercatus Center. 2013-11-25. Retrieved 2018-10-24.