List of countries by research and development spending

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This is a list of countries by research and development (R&D) spending in real terms and as per latest data available.

List[edit]

Only those nations which annually spend more than 50 million dollars have been included. The world's total nominal R&D spending was approximately one trillion dollars in 2010.[1]

Country/Region Expenditures on R&D
(billions of US$, PPP)
% of GDP PPP Expenditures on R&D per capita
(US$ PPP)
Year Source
1  China 553.4 2.2 388 2018 [2]
2  United States 511.1 2.7 1,586 2016 [3]
3  Japan 165.7 3.2 1,297 2016 [3]
4  Germany 118.8 2.9 1,450 2016 [3]
5  South Korea 91.6 4.3 1,518 2014 [4]
6  India 66.5 0.9 39 2015 [5]
7  Brazil 38.0 1.3 906 2017 [6]
8  United Kingdom 44.8 1.7 693 2014 [6]
9  Russia 42.6 1.2 290 2014 [4]
10  France 38.4 2.2 178 2018 [7][3][8]
11  Taiwan 33.7 3.1 1,384 2015 [9][4]
12  Italy 27.4 1.3 452 2014 [4]
13  Canada 25.7 1.6 724 2014 [6]
14  Australia 23.3 2.1 987 2014 [10]
15  Spain 19.2 1.2 413 2014 [4]
16  Israel 18.6 4.9 1,973 2018 [11]
17  Netherlands 16.3 2.0 968 2014 [6]
18  Turkey 15.3 1.0 198 2014 [4]
19  Sweden 14.2 3.2 1,468 2014 [6]
20   Switzerland 13.1 3.0 1,648 2012 [4]
21  Belgium 12.4 2.5 1,103 2014 [6]
22  Thailand 12.4 1.0 180 2017 [3]
23  Austria 11.9 3.1 1,416 2015 [4]
24  Poland 11.6 0.9 301 2014 [4][8][3]
25  Malaysia 10.6 1.3 344 2015 [7]
26  Singapore 10.0 2.2 1,832 2014 [6]
27  Mexico 9.0 0.9 238 2014 [4]
28  Denmark 8.2 3.1 1,450 2014 [6]
29  Finland 7.2 3.2 1,318 2014 [6]
30  Czech Republic 6.3 2.0 600 2014 [4]
31  Egypt 6.2 0.7 73 2013 [7]
32  South Africa 6.1 0.8 108 2016 [3]
33  Norway 5.8 1.7 1,124 2014 [6]
34  Argentina 5.0 0.5 0.9 2018 [4][3][8][12]
35  United Arab Emirates 4.3 0.7 471 2014 [6]
36  Ireland 3.6 1.5 779 2014 [6]
37  Portugal 3.6 1.3 348 2014 [4]
38  Hungary 3.4 1.4 343 2014 [4]
39  Ukraine 3.0 0.8 74 2013 [7]
40  Hong Kong 2.7 0.7 373 2012 [7]
41  Greece 2.4 1.0 217 2014 [4][13][8]
42  Pakistan 2.4 0.3 13 2013 [7]
43  Romania 2.3 0.5 114 2016 [3]
44  Indonesia 2.0 0.1 8 2013 [7]
45  New Zealand 1.8 1.2 401 2013 [4]
46  Saudi Arabia 1.8 0.3 60 2012 [14][15]
47  Colombia 1.6 0.2 31 2014 [7][3][8]
48  Chile 1.5 0.4 87 2014 [4][3][8]
49  Slovenia 1.5 2.4 713 2014 [4]
50  Morocco 1.5 0.7 48 2010 [7]
51  Slovakia 1.4 0.9 251 2014 [4]
52  Qatar 1.3 0.5 699 2012 [7]
53  Belarus 1.1 0.7 118 2013 [7]
54  Vietnam 0.9 0.2 10 2011 [16]
55  Kuwait 0.8 0.3 214 2013 [7]
56  Bulgaria 0.8 0.7 112 2013 [17]
57  Ecuador 0.8 0.4 50 2016 [3][8]
58  Ethiopia 0.8 0.6 9 2013 [7]
59  Tunisia 0.8 0.7 73 2012 [7]
60  Lithuania 0.8 0.9 245 2017 [17]
61  Luxembourg 0.7 1.3 1,253 2014 [6]
62  Croatia 0.7 0.8 167 2013 [17]
63  Serbia 0.7 0.7 98 2013 [17]
64  Iran 0.7 0.1 9 2014 [18]
65  Kazakhstan 0.7 0.2 39 2013 [7]
66  Philippines 0.5 0.1 5 2007 [7]
67  Peru 0.4 0.1 13 2015 [13][3][8]
68  Estonia 0.3 1.3 265 2017 [19]
69  Azerbaijan 0.3 0.2 36 2013 [7]
70  Latvia 0.3 0.5 137 2017 [17]
71  Uganda 0.3 0.5 8 2010 [7]
72  Costa Rica 0.3 0.5 62 2011 [7]
73  Iceland 0.3 1.9 831 2014 [6]
74  Mongolia 0.3 0.2 74 2013 [7]
75  Uruguay 0.2 0.3 70 2015 [7][3][8]
76  Sudan 0.2 0.2 5 2007 [13]
77  Algeria 0.2 0.1 4 2007 [13]
78  Cyprus 0.1 0.5 151 2013 [17]
79  North Macedonia 0.1 0.4 56 2013 [7]
80  Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.1 0.3 32 2013 [7]
81  Malta 0.1 0.9 271 2013 [17]
82  Bolivia 0.1 0.2 7 2012 [3][8]
83  Botswana 0.1 0.3 37 2012 [7]
84  Oman 0.1 0.2 25 2013 [7]
85  Macau 0.1 0.1 122 2014 [6]
86  Moldova 0.1 0.4 16 2013 [7]
87  Bahrain 0.1 0.1 45 2014 [6]
88  Paraguay 0.1 0.1 9 2015 [3][8]
89  Georgia 0.1 0.2 15 2014 [7]
90  Montenegro 0.0 0.4 56 2013 [17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "- Royal Society" (PDF). royalsociety.org.
  2. ^ "China's spending on research and development up 11.8 per cent to US$275 billion in 2018".
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "How Much Does Your Country Invest in R&D?". UNESCO.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Research and development (R&D) – Gross domestic spending on R&D – OECD Data". data.oecd.org. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  5. ^ "2016 Global R&D Funding Forecast" (PDF). iriweb.org.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Research and development expenditure (% of GDP) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2017-02-28.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa "Research and development expenditure (% of GDP)". World Bank. Retrieved 2016-02-09.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Science, technology and innovation". UNESCO.
  9. ^ Taiwan ranked 9th globally for R&D spending in 2015, The Central News Agency, 2017/07/19
  10. ^ "Australian Bureau of Statistics – Gross Expenditure on R&D (GERD)". www.abs.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2015-10-28. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  11. ^ "Israel's expenditure on civilian R&D rises 4.6 pct in 2018: report – Xinhua | English.news.cn". www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  12. ^ "Inversión en I+D". Argentina.gob.ar. Retrieved 2020-11-07.
  13. ^ a b c d "UNESCO science report, 2010: the current status of science around the world; 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  14. ^ "2012 Global R&D Funding Forecast: R&D Spending Growth Continues While Globalization Accelerates". 16 December 2011.
  15. ^ "Data" (PDF). www.natureasia.com.
  16. ^ vietnamnet.vn. "How much does Vietnam spend on R&D? – News VietNamNet". english.vietnamnet.vn. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h "File:Gross domestic expenditure on R&D, 2003–13 (% of GDP) YB15.png – Statistics Explained". ec.europa.eu.
  18. ^ "مصاحبه تفصیلی فارس با قائم‌مقام معاون تحقیقات وزارت بهداشت/۱ رشد علمی کشور پارسال منفی شد/ تحقیقات پزشکی بدون بودجه درجا می‌زند". Farsnews.com. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  19. ^ "TD052: Research and development expenditures and their financing from state and local budgets". Eesti Statistkaamet. Retrieved 2018-11-13.