List of sovereign states by research and development spending

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This is a list of countries by research and development (R&D) spending in real terms and as per latest data available. Gross domestic spending on R&D is defined as the total expenditure (current and capital) on R&D carried out by all resident companies, research institutes, university and government laboratories, etc., in a country. It includes R&D funded from abroad, but excludes domestic funds for R&D performed outside the domestic economy.[1]

List[edit]

Only those nations which annually spend more than 50 million dollars have been included. The world's total nominal R&D spending was approximately one trillion dollars in 2010.[2]

Country/Region Expenditures on R&D
(billions of US$, PPP)
% of GDP PPP Expenditures on R&D per capita
(US$ PPP)
Year Source
1  United States 612.714 3.1 1,866 2019 [3]
2  China 514.798 2.2 368 2019 [3]
3  Japan 172.614 3.2 1,375 2019 [3]
4  India 158.691 1.3 120 2022 [4]
5  Germany 131.932 3.2 1,586 2019 [3]
6  South Korea 100.055 4.6 1,935 2019 [3]
7  France 63.658 2.2 944 2019 [3]
8  United Kingdom 51.702 1.8 762 2019 [3]
9  Taiwan 42.945 3.5 1,822 2019 [3]
10  Russia 38.549 1.0 263 2019 [3]
11  Brazil 38.0 1.3 181 2017 [5]
12  Italy 33.840 1.4 561 2019 [3]
13  Canada 26.636 1.5 700 2019 [3]
14  Australia 25.58 1.8 1,008 2019 [6]
15  Turkey 24.827 1.1 297 2019 [3]
16  Spain 22.468 1.3 473 2019 [3]
17  Netherlands 20.167 2.2 1154 2019 [3]
18  Sweden 17.722 3.4 1,707 2019 [3]
19  Israel 16.888 4.9 1,810 2019 [3]
20  Poland 16.086 1.3 420 2019 [3]
21  Belgium 16.043 2.9 1,395 2019 [3]
22  Austria 14.945 3.2 1,672 2019 [3]
23  Switzerland 13.1 3.0 1,648 2012 [7]
24  Thailand 12.4 1.0 180 2017 [8]
25  Indonesia 10.758 0.3 40 2021 [9]
26  Malaysia 10.6 1.3 344 2015 [10]
27  Singapore 10.0 2.2 1,832 2014 [5]
28  Mexico 9.0 0.9 238 2014 [7]
29  Denmark 8.2 3.1 1,450 2014 [5]
30  Finland 7.2 2.8 1,318 2018 [5]
31  Czech Republic 6.3 2.0 600 2014 [7]
32  Egypt 6.2 0.7 73 2013 [10]
33  South Africa 6.1 0.8 108 2016 [8]
34  Norway 5.8 1.7 1,124 2014 [5]
35  Argentina 5.0 0.5 112 2018 [7][8][11][12]
36  United Arab Emirates 4.3 0.7 471 2014 [5]
37  Ireland 3.6 1.5 779 2014 [5]
38  Portugal 3.6 1.3 348 2014 [7]
39  Hungary 3.4 1.4 343 2014 [7]
40  Ukraine 3.0 0.8 74 2013 [10]
41  Hong Kong 2.7 0.7 373 2012 [10]
42  Greece 2.4 1.0 217 2014 [7][13][11]
43  Pakistan 2.4 0.3 13 2013 [10]
44  Romania 2.3 0.5 114 2016 [8]
45  New Zealand 1.8 1.2 401 2013 [7]
46  Saudi Arabia 1.8 0.3 60 2012 [14][15]
47  Colombia 1.6 0.2 31 2014 [10][8][11]
48  Chile 1.5 0.4 87 2014 [7][8][11]
49  Slovenia 1.5 2.4 713 2014 [7]
50  Morocco 1.5 0.7 48 2010 [10]
51  Slovakia 1.4 0.9 251 2014 [7]
52  Qatar 1.3 0.5 699 2012 [10]
53  Belarus 1.1 0.7 118 2013 [10]
54  Vietnam 0.9 0.2 10 2011 [16]
55  Kuwait 0.8 0.3 214 2013 [10]
56  Bulgaria 0.8 0.7 112 2013 [17]
57  Ecuador 0.8 0.4 50 2016 [8][11]
58  Ethiopia 0.8 0.6 9 2013 [10]
59  Tunisia 0.8 0.7 73 2012 [10]
60  Lithuania 0.8 0.9 245 2017 [17]
61  Luxembourg 0.7 1.3 1,253 2014 [5]
62  Croatia 0.7 0.8 167 2013 [17]
63  Serbia 0.7 0.7 98 2013 [17]
64  Iran 0.7 0.1 9 2014 [18]
65  Kazakhstan 0.7 0.2 39 2013 [10]
66  Philippines 0.5 0.1 5 2007 [10]
67  Peru 0.4 0.1 13 2015 [13][8][11]
68  Estonia 0.3 1.6 453 2019 [19]
69  Azerbaijan 0.3 0.2 36 2013 [10]
70  Latvia 0.3 0.5 137 2017 [17]
71  Uganda 0.3 0.5 8 2010 [10]
72  Costa Rica 0.3 0.5 62 2011 [10]
73  Iceland 0.3 1.9 831 2014 [5]
74  Mongolia 0.3 0.2 74 2013 [10]
75  Uruguay 0.2 0.3 70 2015 [10][8][11]
76  Sudan 0.2 0.2 5 2007 [13]
77  Algeria 0.2 0.1 4 2007 [13]
78  Cyprus 0.1 0.5 151 2013 [17]
79  North Macedonia 0.1 0.4 56 2013 [10]
80  Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.1 0.3 32 2013 [10]
81  Malta 0.1 0.9 271 2013 [17]
82  Bolivia 0.1 0.2 7 2012 [8][11]
83  Botswana 0.1 0.3 37 2012 [10]
84  Oman 0.1 0.2 25 2013 [10]
85  Macau 0.1 0.1 122 2014 [5]
86  Moldova 0.1 0.4 16 2013 [10]
87  Bahrain 0.1 0.1 45 2014 [5]
88  Paraguay 0.1 0.1 9 2015 [8][11]
89  Georgia 0.1 0.2 15 2014 [10]
90  Montenegro 0.0 0.4 56 2013 [17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Research and development (R&D) - Gross domestic spending on R&D - OECD Data". theOECD. Retrieved 2022-08-10.
  2. ^ "- Royal Society" (PDF). royalsociety.org.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "OECD data: Gross domestic spending on R&D".
  4. ^ "Research and development expenditure (% of GDP) - India". worldbank.org.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Research and development expenditure (% of GDP) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2017-02-28.
  6. ^ "Research and Experimental Development, Businesses, Australia, 2019-20 financial year | Australian Bureau of Statistics". www.abs.gov.au. 2021-03-09. Retrieved 2022-05-20.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Research and development (R&D) – Gross domestic spending on R&D – OECD Data". data.oecd.org. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "How Much Does Your Country Invest in R&D?". UNESCO.
  9. ^ "Terbongkar! Ini Alasan Anggaran R&D RI Hanya 0,28% Dari PDB". CNBC Indonesia.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "Research and development expenditure (% of GDP)". World Bank. Retrieved 2016-02-09.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Science, technology and innovation". UNESCO.
  12. ^ "Inversión en I+D". Argentina.gob.ar. Retrieved 2020-11-07.
  13. ^ a b c d "UNESCO science report, 2010: the current status of science around the world; 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  14. ^ "2012 Global R&D Funding Forecast: R&D Spending Growth Continues While Globalization Accelerates". 16 December 2011.
  15. ^ "Data" (PDF). www.natureasia.com.
  16. ^ vietnamnet.vn. "How much does Vietnam spend on R&D? – News VietNamNet". english.vietnamnet.vn. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h "File:Gross domestic expenditure on R&D, 2003–13 (% of GDP) YB15.png – Statistics Explained". ec.europa.eu.
  18. ^ "مصاحبه تفصیلی فارس با قائم‌مقام معاون تحقیقات وزارت بهداشت/۱ رشد علمی کشور پارسال منفی شد/ تحقیقات پزشکی بدون بودجه درجا می‌زند". Farsnews.ir. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  19. ^ "TD052: Research and development expenditures and their financing from state and local budgets". Eesti Statistkaamet. Retrieved 2018-11-13.