List of countries by research and development spending

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This is a list of countries by research and development (R&D) spending in real terms and as per latest data available.

List[edit]

Only those nations which annually spend more than 50 million dollars have been included. The world's total nominal R&D spending was approximately one trillion dollars in 2010.[1]

Rank Country/Region Expenditures on R&D
(billions of US$, PPP),
% of GDP PPP Expenditures on R&D per capita
(US$ PPP),
Year Source
1  United States 511.1 2.744% 1,586.35 2016 [2]
2  China 451.9 2.107% 321.99 2016 [2]
 European Union 388.3 2.03% 764.3 2014 [3]
3  Japan 165.7 3.147% 1,297.39 2016 [2]
4  Germany 118.8 2.94% 1,450.17 2016 [2]
5  South Korea 91.6 4.292% 1,518.47 2014 [4]
6  India 66.5 0.85% 39.37 2015 [5]
7  France 60.0 2.256% 905.8 2014 [3]
8  United Kingdom 44.8 1.701% 692.9 2014 [3]
9  Russia 42.6 1.187% 290.21 2014 [4]
10  Brazil 38.4 1.17% 177.89 2012 [6][2][7]
11  Taiwan 33.7 3.1% 1,383.84 2015 [8][4]
12  Italy 27.4 1.287% 452.14 2014 [4]
13  Canada 25.7 1.612% 723.5 2014 [3]
14  Australia 23.3 2.12% 986.86 2014 [9]
15  Spain 19.2 1.222% 413.46 2014 [4]
16  Netherlands 16.3 1.973% 967.8 2014 [3]
17  Turkey 15.3 1.007% 198.36 2014 [4]
18  Sweden 14.2 3.161% 1,468.1 2014 [3]
19   Switzerland 13.1 2.967% 1,647.90 2012 [4]
20  Israel 12.7 4.3% 1,361.56 2015 [4]
21  Belgium 12.4 2.465% 1,102.9 2014 [3]
22  Austria 11.9 3.1% 1,416.14 2015 [4]
23  Poland 11.6 1.004% 301.06 2014 [4]
24  Malaysia 10.6 1.3% 344.3 2015 [6]
25  Singapore 10.0 2.186% 1,831.7 2014 [3]
26  Mexico 9.0 0.941% 237.57 2014 [4]
27  Denmark 8.2 3.085% 1,450.2 2014 [3]
28  Finland 7.2 3.174% 1,318.0 2014 [3]
29  Czech Republic 6.3 1.997% 600.04 2014 [4]
30  Egypt 6.2 0.68% 73.18 2013 [6]
31  Norway 5.8 1.710% 1,123.9 2014 [3]
32  Argentina 5.0 0.588% 129.09 2013 [4][2][7]
33  South Africa 4.8 0.732% 92.25 2012 [4]
34  United Arab Emirates 4.28 0.70% 470.7 2014 [3]
35  Ireland 3.6 1.519% 779.4 2014 [3]
36  Portugal 3.6 1.285% 347.84 2014 [4]
37  Thailand 3.6 0.39% 52.67 2011 [6]
38  Hungary 3.4 1.371% 343.01 2014 [4]
39  Ukraine 3 0.76% 73.7 2013 [6]
40  Hong Kong 2.7 0.73% 373.09 2012 [6]
41  Greece 2.4 0.835% 216.72 2014 [4]
42  Pakistan 2.4 0.29% 13.29 2013 [6]
43  Indonesia 2.0 0.08% 8.09 2013 [6]
44  New Zealand 1.8 1.172% 400.99 2013 [4]
45  Saudi Arabia 1.8 0.25% 60.01 2012 [10][11]
46  Colombia 1.6 0.24% 31 2014 [6][2][7]
47  Chile 1.54 0.38% 87.39 2014 [4][2][7]
48  Slovenia 1.5 2.386% 712.63 2014 [4]
49  Morocco 1.5 0.73% 47.59 2010 [6]
50  Romania 1.5 0.383% 75.62 2014 [4]
51  Slovakia 1.4 0.886% 250.55 2014 [4]
52  Qatar 1.3 0.47% 698.50 2012 [6]
53  Belarus 1.12 0.67% 118.44 2013 [6]
54  Vietnam 0.87 0.21% 9.91 2011 [12]
55  Kuwait 0.83 0.30% 214.16 2013 [6]
56  Bulgaria 0.81 0.65% 112.15 2013 [13]
57  Ecuador 0.8 0.44% 49.90 2016 [2][7]
58  Ethiopia 0.79 0.61% 9.08 2013 [6]
59  Tunisia 0.78 0.68% 72.83 2012 [6]
60  Lithuania 0.76 0.95% 245.36 2013 [13]
61  Luxembourg 0.7 1.256% 1,252.7 2014 [3]
62  Croatia 0.7 0.81% 166.75 2013 [13]
63  Serbia 0.7 0.73% 97.86 2013 [13]
64  Iran 0.7 0.12% 9.08 2014 [14]
65  Kazakhstan 0.67 0.17% 39.24 2013 [6]
66  Estonia 0.53 1.5% 399.24 2015 [4]
67  Philippines 0.48 0.11% 5.4 2007 [6]
68  Peru 0.4 0.12% 12.94 2015 [15][2][7]
69  Azerbaijan 0.33 0.21% 35.98 2013 [6]
70  Latvia 0.28 0.6% 136.8 2013 [13]
71  Uganda 0.28 0.48% 8.27 2010 [6]
72  Costa Rica 0.28 0.47% 61.55 2011 [6]
73  Iceland 0.27 1.891% 831.2 2014 [3]
74  Mongolia 0.26 0.17% 73.66 2013 [6]
75  Uruguay 0.24 0.34% 69.88 2015 [6][2][7]
76  Sudan 0.18 0.23% 4.74 2007 [15]
77  Algeria 0.16 0.07% 4.13 2007 [15]
78  Cyprus 0.13 0.48% 150.82 2013 [13]
79  Macedonia 0.12 0.44% 55.99 2013 [6]
80  Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.12 0.33% 31.73 2013 [6]
81  Malta 0.11 0.85% 270.78 2013 [13]
82  Bolivia 0.08 0.15% 7.29 2012 [2][7]
83  Botswana 0.07 0.25% 37.01 2012 [6]
84  Oman 0.07 0.23% 25.40 2013 [6]
85  Macau 0.07 0.09% 122.2 2014 [3]
86  Moldova 0.06 0.35% 16.44 2013 [6]
87  Bahrain 0.06 0.100% 45.2 2014 [3]
88  Paraguay 0.06 0.13% 9.13 2015 [2][7]
89  Georgia 0.05 0.16% 14.73 2014 [6]
90  Montenegro 0.03 0.38% 55.75 2013 [13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "- Royal Society" (PDF). royalsociety.org.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "How Much Does Your Country Invest in R&D?". UNESCO.}
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Research and development expenditure (% of GDP) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2017-02-28.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Research and development (R&D) - Gross domestic spending on R&D - OECD Data". data.oecd.org. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  5. ^ "2016 GLOBAL R&D FUNDING FORECAST" (PDF).
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab "Research and development expenditure (% of GDP)". World Bank. Retrieved 2016-02-09.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Science,technology and innovation". UNESCO.}
  8. ^ Taiwan ranked 9th globally for R&D spending in 2015, The Central News Agency, 2017/07/19
  9. ^ "Australian Bureau of Statistics - GROSS EXPENDITURE ON R&D (GERD)". www.abs.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2015-10-28. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  10. ^ "2012 Global R & D Funding Forecast: R & D Spending Growth Continues While Globalization Accelerates". 16 December 2011.
  11. ^ "Data" (PDF). www.natureasia.com.
  12. ^ vietnamnet.vn. "How much does Vietnam spend on R&D? - News VietNamNet". english.vietnamnet.vn. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h "File:Gross domestic expenditure on R&D, 2003–13 (% of GDP) YB15.png - Statistics Explained". ec.europa.eu.
  14. ^ "مصاحبه تفصیلی فارس با قائم‌مقام معاون تحقیقات وزارت بهداشت/۱ رشد علمی کشور پارسال منفی شد/ تحقیقات پزشکی بدون بودجه درجا می‌زند". Farsnews.com. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  15. ^ a b c "UNESCO science report, 2010: the current status of science around the world; 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-07-24.