List of countries by spoken languages

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This list shows countries organised by the languages which are spoken there.

Indo-European languages[edit]

Albanian[edit]

Language Country Status
Albanian  Albania official
 Kosovo official
 Macedonia significant minority
 Italy significant minority, also as Arbëreshë
 Montenegro minority
 Greece significant minority, also as Arvanitika
 Serbia minority
 Romania minority
  Switzerland minority

Armenian[edit]

Regions Country Status
Asia  Armenia official
 Cyprus minority
 Georgia significant minority
 Iran minority
 Israel minority
 Lebanon minority
 Syria minority
 Turkey minority
Europe  France minority
 United Kingdom minority
 Spain minority
 Greece minority
 Russia minority
 United States minority
South America  Argentina minority
 Brazil minority

Baltic[edit]

Language Country Status
Baltic  Canada unofficial, spoken in Canada
Latgalian  Latvia unofficial, spoken in Latgale
 Russia significant minority in Siberia
Latvian  Latvia official
Lithuanian  Latvia minority
 Lithuania official
 Poland minority, majority in the city of Puńsk

Celtic[edit]

Map of the Celtic nations
Language Country Status
Breton  France minority language in  Brittany, but unofficial
Cornish  United Kingdom minority language in  Cornwall, but unofficial
Irish  Ireland co-official with English
 United Kingdom minority and official in Northern Ireland
 United States minority
Manx  Isle of Man minority
Scottish Gaelic  Canada minority in  Nova Scotia
 United Kingdom significant minority in  Scotland
 United States minority
Welsh  Argentina significant minority in  Chubut
 United Kingdom spoken by approximately 20% of the population in Wales[1] and co-official with English
 United States minority

Germanic[edit]

Language Country Status
Afrikaans  South Africa co-official with 10 other languages
 Namibia unofficial
 United States minority
 Netherlands minority
 United Kingdom minority
 Germany minority
 Belgium minority
 Australia minority
 Argentina minority
Alsatian  France regional language in  Alsace
Danish  Denmark official
 Germany in  Schleswig-Holstein, official recognised minority language
 Faroe Islands co-official alongside with Faroese
 Greenland minority
 Iceland minority
Faroese  Faroe Islands co-official with Danish
 Denmark unofficial
Frisian  Denmark minority
 Germany official recognised minority language
 Netherlands minority language in  Friesland
Icelandic  Iceland official
 Denmark minority
Low German
(Low Saxon)
 Germany Niederdeutsch, recognized as regional language
 Netherlands Nederduits, recognized as regional language
Norwegian  Norway official, including Svalbard and Jan Mayen
Scots  Scotland minority in Scotland
 Ireland minority in Ireland
Swedish  Sweden official
 Finland co-official with Finnish.
 Åland Islands official
 Estonia minority

Dutch[edit]

Regions Country Status
Europe  Netherlands official
 Belgium co-official with French and German
 France in French Flanders
 Germany in Low Rhine Country
Africa  South Africa spoken as minority, often used together with daughter language Afrikaans
 Namibia spoken as minority, often used together with daughter language Afrikaans
Asia  Indonesia regional language in minority (historic language)
Oceania  New Zealand Minority
North America  Aruba co-official with Papiamento
 Curaçao co-official with English and Papiamento
 Sint Maarten co-official with English
 United States spoken in minority primarily in Michigan and Indiana
 Canada Minority
South America  Suriname official
 French Guiana unofficial, spoken in Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni

English[edit]

Regions Country Status
Africa  Botswana co-official with Tswana
 Cameroon co-official with French
 Gambia official
 Ghana official
 Kenya co-official with Swahili
 Lesotho co-official with Sesotho
 Liberia official
 Malawi official
 Mauritius official
 Namibia official
 Nigeria official
 Rwanda co-official with Kinyarwanda and French
 Seychelles co-official with French and Seychellois Creole
 Sierra Leone official
 South Africa co-official with 10 other languages
 South Sudan official
 Swaziland co-official with Swati
 Uganda co-official with Swahili
 Zambia official
 Zimbabwe official
Asia  Bahrain Unofficial
 India co-official with 21 other languages
 Lebanon significant minority
 Pakistan co-official with Urdu
 Philippines co-official with Filipino, and with regional languages as auxiliary official languages[2]
 Singapore co-official with Tamil, Mandarin, and Malay
 Sri Lanka co-official
 Bangladesh de facto co-official with Bengali
 Malaysia co-official with Tamil, Mandarin, and Malay
 Brunei co-official with Mandarin, and Malay
Europe  Ireland co-official with Irish, see Hiberno-English
 Malta co-official with Maltese
 United Kingdom co-official with Welsh, see British English
North America  Antigua and Barbuda official
 Bahamas official
 Barbados official
 Belize official
 Canada official, see Canadian English
 Dominica official
 Grenada official
 Jamaica official, see Jamaican English
 Saint Kitts and Nevis official
 Saint Lucia official
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines official
 Trinidad and Tobago official
 United States de facto, see American English
Oceania  Australia de facto, see Australian English
 Fiji co-official with Fijian and Hindustani
 Kiribati co-official with Kiribati
 Marshall Islands co-official with Marshallese
 FS. Micronesia
 Nauru de facto
 New Zealand co-official with Māori and New Zealand Sign Language; see also New Zealand English
 Palau co-official with Palauan
 Papua New Guinea co-official with Tok Pisin and Hiri Motu
 Solomon Islands official
 Vanuatu co-official with Bislama and French
South America  Guyana official
Dependent entities
 American Samoa co-official with Samoan
 British Indian Ocean Territory de facto
 Anguilla official
 Bermuda official
 British Virgin Islands official
 Cayman Islands official
 Christmas Island official
 Cook Islands co-official with Cook Islands Māori
 Falkland Islands official
 Gibraltar official
 Guam co-official with Chamorro
 Guernsey official
 Hong Kong co-official with Chinese
 Isle of Man official
 Jersey official
 Montserrat official
 Norfolk Island co-official with Norfuk
 Northern Mariana Islands co-official with Chamorro and Carolinian
 Pitcairn Islands co-official with Pitkern
 Puerto Rico co-official with Spanish
 Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha official
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands official
 Turks and Caicos Islands official
 U.S. Virgin Islands official
Map of the German-speaking world

German[edit]

Regions Country Status
Europe  Austria official
 Germany official
 Liechtenstein official
  Switzerland co-official with French and Italian
 Belgium official
 Hungary co-official with Hungarian in the city of Sopron
 Italy co-official with Italian in South Tyrol
 Luxembourg co-official with French and Luxembourgish
 Poland co-official as auxiliary language in the Opole Voivodeship
  Vatican City official with other languages, language of the Swiss Guard
 France minority in Alsace and Lorraine
 Czech Republic minority
 Denmark minority
 Romania minority
 Russia minority
Africa  Namibia co-official as auxiliary language
Asia  Kazakhstan minority
North America  United States minority[3]
South America  Argentina minority
 Brazil minority
 Chile minority

Greek[edit]

Language Country Status
Greek  Greece official
 Cyprus co-official with Turkish
 Albania significant minority, widely spoken and co-official with Albanian in Himara, Dropull, Finiq and Derviçan regions
 Macedonia minority
 Russia minority
 Ukraine minority
 Turkey minority
 Italy minority
 Armenia minority
 Romania minority
 Hungary minority
 Syria minority
 United States minority
 Australia minority

Iranian[edit]

Language Country Status
Balochi  Afghanistan minority
 Iran significant minority in Balochistan
 Pakistan Majority in Balochistan
 United Arab Emirates minority
Persian  Afghanistan co-official as Dari, with Pashto
 Bahrain minority
 Germany minority
 Iran official
 Iraq significant minority
 Pakistan minority
 Qatar minority
 Russia minority
 Tajikistan official, as Tajik
 United Arab Emirates minority
 United States minority
 Uzbekistan minority
Tajik  Afghanistan significant minority
 Iran minority
 Kazakhstan minority
 Kyrgyzstan minority
 Pakistan minority
 Tajikistan official
 Uzbekistan minority
 China minority
 Turkmenistan minority
 Russia minority
Kurdish  Armenia recognized minority
 Iran regional
 Iraq co-official with Arabic
 Syria significant minority
 Turkey significant minority
Mazandarani  Iran unofficial, in Māzandarān Province
Pashto  Afghanistan co-official with Dari
 Iran minority
 Pakistan majority in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and FATA
 United Arab Emirates minority

Indo-Aryan[edit]

Bengali[edit]

Language Country Status
Asia  Bangladesh official
 India official, along with 21 others; primarily spoken in the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, with significant minority in Bihar, Jharkhand and Orissa
 Saudi Arabia significant minority
 United Arab Emirates significant minority
 Oman minority
 South Korea minority
 Japan minority
 Qatar minority
 Kuwait minority
 Malaysia significant minority
 Singapore minority
 Maldives minority
   Nepal minority
 Pakistan minority. Mostly used in Karachi, where it holds the status as that of a recognized secondary language[4][5][6][7]
Africa  Sierra Leone honorary official language, along with English
 South Africa minority
Europe  Italy minority
 United Kingdom significant minority
North America  United States significant minority
 Canada minority
Oceania  Australia minority
Map of the Bengali-speaking world

Domari[edit]

Regions Country Status
Africa  Algeria minority
 Egypt minority
 Morocco minority
 Sudan minority
 Tunisia minority
Asia  India minority
 Iran significant minority
 Iraq minority
 Pakistan minority
 Libya minority
 Syria minority
 Turkey minority
 Palestine minority
 Israel minority
 Afghanistan minority
 Bangladesh minority
 Jordan minority
 Iraq minority
 Lebanon minority
 Uzbekistan minority
 Armenia minority
 Azerbaijan minority
 Georgia minority
 Turkmenistan minority
 Kazakhstan minority
 Tajikistan minority
 Kuwait minority
 Kyrgyzstan minority
Europe  Russia minority

Romani[edit]

Regions Country Status
Asia  Bangladesh minority
 India minority
 Pakistan minority
 Iran minority
 Afghanistan minority
 Uzbekistan minority
 Kazakhstan minority
 Turkmenistan minority
 Tajikistan minority
 Kyrgyzstan minority
 Armenia minority
Europe  Albania minority
 Austria minority
 Belarus minority
 Belgium minority
 Bosnia and Herzegovina minority
 Bulgaria significant minority
 Croatia minority
 Cyprus minority
 Czech Republic minority
 Denmark minority
 Estonia minority
 Finland officially recognised minority language
 France minority
 Germany officially recognised minority language
 Greece minority
 Hungary significant minority, officially recognised minority language
 Ireland minority
 Italy minority
 Kosovo officially recognized minority language
 Latvia minority
 Lithuania minority
 Macedonia official in Šuto Orizari Municipality
 Moldova minority
 Montenegro minority
 Netherlands minority
 Norway officially recognised minority language
 Poland minority
 Portugal minority
 Romania co-official in 79 rural communes
 Russia officially recognised minority language
 Serbia officially recognised minority language
 Slovakia minority
 Slovenia officially recognised minority language
 Spain minority
 Sweden officially recognised minority language
  Switzerland minority
 Turkey minority
 Ukraine minority
 United Kingdom minority
North America  United States minority
 Canada minority

Other Indo-Aryan[edit]

Language Country Status
Angika  India majority in Anga, significant minority in the rest of the country
   Nepal minority language, in Terai region
Assamese  Bhutan minority
 India official language along with 21 others
 United Kingdom minority
 United States minority
Awadhi[8]  Bhutan minority
 India majority in Uttar Pradesh, minority in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Delhi
Bhili  India minority
Bhojpuri  Fiji minority
 Guyana minority
 India in Bihar, Jharkhand, and Uttar Pradesh
 Mauritius minority
   Nepal minority
 United Kingdom minority
 Suriname minority
 Trinidad and Tobago minority
 Seychelles minority
 South Africa minority
 Australia minority
Bishnupriya Manipuri  India minority, mostly in Manipur, Assam and Tripura
 Bangladesh minority
 Burma minority
Chakma  Bangladesh minority, mostly in Chittagong Division
 India minority, mostly in Tripura, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh
Chhattisgarhi  India majority in Chhattisgarh, minority in Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, and Bihar
Chittagonian  Bangladesh significant minority, major language of Chittagong Division of Bangladesh
 Burma minority, mostly in Arakan and Yangon
 Oman minority
 Saudi Arabia minority
 United Arab Emirates minority
 Qatar minority
 Kuwait minority
 Pakistan minority, mostly in Karachi
 United Kingdom minority
 United States minority
Dhivehi  India in Lakshadweep
 Maldives official
Dogri  Pakistan in Punjab, and Azad Kashmir
 India in Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, and Himachal Pradesh
Gujarati  Australia minority
 Canada significant minority
 India official in Gujarat
 Pakistan significant minority
 South Africa significant minority
 Kenya minority
 Mauritius minority
 Tanzania minority
 Uganda minority
 United Kingdom significant minority
 United States significant minority
 Zimbabwe minority
Hajong  India minority, mostly in Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and West Bengal
 Bangladesh minority
Halbi  India in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Andhra Pradesh
Kalash  Pakistan minority
 Afghanistan minority
Kashmiri  India official, spoken in Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh
 Pakistan spoken in Azad Kashmir
 United Kingdom minority, mostly by immigrants from Azad Kashmir
Khandeshi  India minority, spoken in Maharashtra, Gujarat
Khowar  Pakistan majority in Chitral, minority in Gilgit
Kannada  India official in Karnataka state
 United States minority
Kumaoni  India majority in Uttarakhand, minority in Assam
Lomavren  Armenia minority
 Azerbaijan minority
 Bulgaria minority
 Georgia minority
 Iran minority
 Russia minority
 Syria minority
Magadhi  India official in Bihar
Maithili  India official in Bihar
   Nepal significant minority in Terai
Mal Paharia  India minority, mostly in Jharkhand and West Bengal
 Bangladesh minority
Marathi  India official along with 21 others, widely spoken in Maharashtra & Goa, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Sindh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Telangana, Daman and Diu.
 Israel minority
 Mauritius minority
 Singapore minority
 United States Significant minority
 United Kingdom Significant minority
 Australia Significant minority
 New Zealand Significant minority
 South Africa Significant minority
 United Arab Emirates Significant minority
 Bahrain Significant minority
Marwari  India primarily in Rajasthan and Gujarat and its too spoken in west Bengal, Bihar,jharkhand, eastern u.p, assam , and northeastern states
Nepali  Bhutan unofficial
 Hong Kong unofficial
 India official in Sikkim, regional language in West Bengal
 Myanmar unofficial
   Nepal official
 United Kingdom unofficial
Oriya  Bangladesh minority
 India official in Orissa
Punjabi  India official with others
 Pakistan majority in Punjab
 United Kingdom significant minority
 Canada minority
 United States minority
Rajasthani  India official along with others
 Pakistan minority
Rajbanshi  India minority
 Bangladesh minority
   Nepal minority
Rohingya  Burma minority, mostly in Arakan, Burma
 Bangladesh minority, mostly in Chittagong Division, Bangladesh
 Pakistan minority, mostly in Karachi
 Saudi Arabia minority
 Oman minority
 United Arab Emirates minority
 Thailand minority
 Malaysia minority
 India minority
Sindhi  Hong Kong minority
 India official with others
 Oman minority
 Pakistan majority in Sindh
 Philippines minority[citation needed]
 Singapore minority
 United Arab Emirates minority
 United Kingdom minority
 United States minority
Sinhalese  Sri Lanka co-official with Tamil
Sylheti  Bangladesh major language of Sylhet Division of Bangladesh
 India significant minority in the state of Assam, especially in Barak Valley
 United Kingdom significant minority
 United States minority
 United Arab Emirates minority
Tanchangya  Bangladesh minority; mainly in Chittagong Division, related to Chakma, Chittagonian, Pali, Prakrit, Sanskrit Rohingya and Bengali language
 India minority; mainly in Indian states of Assam, Tripura and Mizoram
 Burma minority; mainly in Rakhine State, and few of them in Chin State and Yangon Division of Burma
Urdu  Bahrain minority
 Bangladesh significant minority
 Fiji co-official as Hindustani with English and Fijian
 India co-official with 21 others
   Nepal minority
 Mauritius minority
 Oman minority
 Pakistan co-official with English
 Qatar minority
 Saudi Arabia minority
 South Africa minority
 United Arab Emirates minority
 United Kingdom minority
 United States minority

Italic[edit]

French[edit]

Regions Country Status
Europe  Andorra spoken, not official
 Belgium co-official with Dutch
 France official
 Italy co-official in the  Aosta Valley
 Luxembourg co-official with Luxembourgish
 Monaco official
  Switzerland co-official with German, Italian, and Romansh
Africa  Algeria unofficial, but widely used
 Benin official
 Burkina Faso official
 Burundi co-official with Kirundi
 Cameroon co-official with English
 Central African Republic co-official with Sango
 Chad co-official with Arabic
 Comoros co-official with Arabic and Comorian
 Dem. Rep. Congo official
 Congo official
 Ivory Coast official
 Djibouti co-official with Arabic
 Equatorial Guinea co-official with Spanish
 Gabon official
 Guinea official
 Madagascar co-official with Malagasy
 Mali official
 Mauritania de facto
 Mauritius de facto
 Morocco de facto
 Niger official
 Réunion official
 Rwanda co-official with English and Kinyarwanda
 Senegal official; Wolof most widely spoken
 Seychelles co-official with English and Seychellois Creole
 Togo official
 Tunisia unofficial, but widely used
Asia  Cambodia minority
 Vietnam minority
 Laos administrative language
 Lebanon co-official with Arabic
 India in Puducherry, co-official with Tamil, Telugu, and Malayalam
North America  Canada co-official with English; majority in Quebec, minority in New Brunswick, Ontario, Manitoba
 Guadeloupe official
 Haiti co-official with Haitian Creole
 Martinique official
 Saint Barthélemy official
 Saint Martin official
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon official
 United States minority language, especially in Louisiana, Maine, Vermont, and New Hampshire[3]
Oceania  French Polynesia official
 New Caledonia official
 Vanuatu co-official with English and Bislama
 Wallis and Futuna official
South America  French Guiana official
 Brazil minority, significantly in RJ/ES and other coastal states; see French, Belgian and Swiss Brazilians
Map of the French-speaking world
Map of the Italian-speaking world

Italian[edit]

Regions Country Status
Europe  Albania unofficial, but widely spoken; some 70% of the population
 Belgium minority
 Croatia official status in Istria
 France minority language in  Corsica
 Germany minority
 Greece minority
 Italy official
 Luxembourg minority
 Malta unofficial, but widely spoken; some 66% of the population
 Monaco unofficial, but widely spoken
 San Marino official
 Slovenia co-official in Koper, Izola and Piran
  Switzerland co-official with French, German, and Romansh
  Vatican City official
Africa  Eritrea minority
 Libya minority
 Somalia minority
Americas  Argentina minority
 Brazil minority
 Canada minority
 Peru minority
 United States minority[3]
 Uruguay minority
 Venezuela minority
Oceania  Australia minority

Portuguese[edit]

Language Country Status
Europe  Portugal official
 Spain significant minority in Olivenza
 France significant minority
 Luxembourg significant minority
  Switzerland significant minority
 Andorra significant minority
 Germany significant minority
Africa  Angola official
 Cape Verde official
 Guinea-Bissau official
 Equatorial Guinea co-official with Spanish and French
 Mozambique official
 São Tomé and Príncipe official
 South Africa minority
 Namibia minority
Asia  Timor-Leste co-official with Tetum
 Japan significant minority; see Brazilians in Japan
 Macau co-official with Chinese
 India minority in Goa State
North America  United States significant minority
 Canada significant minority
South America  Brazil official, see Brazilian Portuguese
 Paraguay significant minority
 Uruguay minority; see Portuñol
 Venezuela significant minority
Map of the Lusophone world
Map of the Hispanophone world

Spanish[edit]

The following is a list of the 22 countries where Spanish is an official language:

Language Country Status
Europe  Spain official
 Andorra majority
 France minority
 Germany minority
 Gibraltar not official – majority
 Italy minority
 United Kingdom minority
Africa  Equatorial Guinea co-official with Portuguese and French
 Morocco not official – minority
 Western Sahara co-official with Arabic
 Ceuta official
 Melilla official
 Canary Islands official
 Gabon, Cocobeach official
Asia  Japan minority
 Philippines former official language, spoken by a minority
North America  Belize plurality, but unofficial
 Costa Rica official
 Cuba official
 Dominican Republic official
 El Salvador official
 Guatemala official
 Honduras official
 Mexico de facto
 Nicaragua official
 Panama official
 United States Co-official language in New Mexico and Puerto Rico. Spoken by a majority in PR and a significant minority in NM. Minority elsewhere[3]
South America  Argentina official
 Bolivia co-official with Quechua and Aymara
 Brazil not official – minority
 Chile official
 Colombia official
 Ecuador official
 Paraguay co-official with Guaraní
 Peru official
 Uruguay official
 Venezuela official

Other Italic Lang.[edit]

Language Country Status
Catalan  Andorra official
 France in Northern Catalonia
 Italy a significant minority in Alghero
 Spain co-official with Spanish in  Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and  Valencian Community. In El Carche (Murcia and La Franja (Aragon it is not official.
Corsican  France regional language in  Corsica
 Italy minority in  Sardinia
Galician  Galicia co-official with Spanish
 Argentina minority, from immigration
 Brazil minority, from immigration
 Cuba minority, from immigration
 France minority, from immigration
 Germany minority, from immigration
  Switzerland minority, from immigration
 Uruguay minority, from immigration
 Venezuela minority, from immigration
Jèrriais  Jersey unofficial
 Sark unofficial
Latin   Vatican City official, but not spoken
Mirandese  Portugal co-official with Portuguese in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, Mogadouro and Vimioso
Romanian  Bulgaria minority
 Italy minority
 Moldova official
 Romania official
 Spain minority
 Serbia co-official in province of Vojvodina with 5 other languages
Romansh   Switzerland co-official with French, Italian, and German

Slavic[edit]

Map of the Russian-speaking world
Language Country Status
Belarusian  Belarus co-official with Russian
 Lithuania minority
 Poland minority
 Russia minority
Bosnian  Bosnia and Herzegovina co-official with Croatian and Serbian
 Croatia significant minority
 Macedonia minority
 Montenegro minority, official in Sandžak
 Serbia significant minority, official in Sandžak
 Turkey significant minority
Bulgarian  Bulgaria official
 Greece minority
 Macedonia minority
 Moldova minority
 Romania minority
 Serbia minority
 Turkey minority
 Ukraine minority
Croatian  Austria co-official with German and Hungarian in Burgenland
 Bosnia and Herzegovina co-official with Bosnian and Serbian
 Croatia official
 Italy co-official in Molise
 Montenegro official
 Romania official in the municipalities of Carașova and Lupac[9]
 Serbia co-official in province of Vojvodina with 5 other languages
Czech  Austria minority
 Croatia minority
 Czech Republic official
 Germany minority
 Slovakia minority
Kashubian  Poland official in Pomerania
Macedonian  Albania minority, official in Pustec Municipality
 Macedonia official
 Greece minority
 Bulgaria minority
 Serbia minority, official in two municipalities
 Kosovo minority
 Romania minority
Polish  Belarus significant minority
 Lithuania significant minority
 Poland official
 Ukraine significant minority
 Brazil minority; see Polish Brazilian
 Ireland minority
 United States not official – minority[3]
Russian
 Armenia significant minority
 Azerbaijan significant minority
 Belarus co-official with Belarusian
 Bulgaria minority
 China minority
 Estonia significant minority
 Finland minority
 Georgia significant minority
 Germany minority
 Greece minority
 Israel significant minority
 Jordan significant minority
 Kazakhstan co-official with Kazakh
 Kyrgyzstan co-official with Kyrgyz
 Latvia significant minority
 Lithuania minority
 Moldova co-official with Ukrainian and Romanian in  Transnistria
 Mongolia significant minority
 Poland minority
 Russia official
 Serbia minority
 Turkey significant minority
 Tajikistan significant minority
 Turkmenistan significant minority
 Ukraine significant minority, regional in some regions
 Uzbekistan significant minority
Rusyn  Hungary minority
 Poland minority
 Romania minority
 Slovakia minority
 Ukraine official in Zakarpattia
 Serbia co-official in The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina with Serbian Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, and Croatian.
Serbian  Bosnia and Herzegovina official with Croatian and Bosnian
 Croatia significant minority
 Kosovo co-official with Albanian
 Macedonia minority
 Montenegro official
 Romania co-official in Caraşova
 Serbia official
Slovak  Czech Republic minority
 Slovakia official
Slovene  Austria minority
 Croatia minority
 Hungary minority
 Italy co-official in Friuli-Venezia Giulia with Friulian, Italian and German
 Slovenia official
 United States minority in Ohio[10]
Sorbian, Lower  Germany regional language in Brandenburg
Sorbian, Upper  Germany regional language in Brandenburg and Saxony
Ukrainian  Argentina minority
 Belarus significant minority
 Brazil minority
 Canada minority
 Kazakhstan significant minority
 Kyrgyzstan minority
 Moldova significant minority
 Poland minority
 Romania significant minority
 Russia significant minority
 Transnistria co-official with Romanian and Russian
 Ukraine official
 United Kingdom minority
 United States minority
 Uzbekistan minority

Mongolic languages[edit]

Language Country Status
Mongolian  Mongolia official
 China regional, co-official with Chinese in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
Kalmyk Oirat  Russia official in  Kalmykia[11]
Daur  China minority, spoken by Daur people in Morin Dawa Daur Autonomous Banner of Inner Mongolia

Turkic languages[edit]

Language Country Status
Azerbaijani  Azerbaijan official
 Iran co-official in Iranian Azerbaijan
 Iraq minority
 Georgia regional
 Russia co-official in Dagestan
 Syria minority
 Turkey regional
 Ukraine minority
 Belarus minority
Uyghur  China regional, co-official with Chinese in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
 Kazakhstan minority
Uzbek  Afghanistan minority
 China minority
 Kyrgyzstan minority
 Russia minority
 Tajikistan minority
 Turkmenistan minority
 Uzbekistan official
Kazakh  Afghanistan minority
 China regional, co-official with Chinese in Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
 Iran minority
 Kazakhstan official
 Mongolia minority
 Russia minority
 Tajikistan minority
 Turkey minority
 Turkmenistan minority
 Ukraine minority
 Uzbekistan minority
Kyrgyz  Afghanistan minority
 China minority
 Kyrgyzstan official
 Pakistan minority
 Tajikistan minority
Turkish  Turkey official
 Cyprus co-official with Greek
 Iraq recognized regional lang.
 Afghanistan recognized regional lang.
 Kosovo recognized regional lang.
 Macedonia recognized regional lang.
 Romania recognized minority lang.
 Bulgaria minority
 Greece minority
 Germany significant minority
Turkmen  Turkmenistan official
 Iraq majority in northern Iraq
 Iran minority
 Afghanistan minority
 Russia spoken in Stavropol Krai
 Turkey minority
Gagauz  Găgăuzia official language of the autonomous region of Gagauzia, Moldova
 Moldova recognized minority language
 Ukraine recognized minority language
Tatar  Tatarstan official language of the Republic of Tatarstan
 Russia spoken in Russia and in former Soviet Union
 Turkey minority
Crimean Tatar  Crimea  Ukraine spoken and protected but not officially recognized language of Ukraine
 Romania minority language in Dobroudja
 Turkey minority

Afro-Asiatic languages[edit]

Distribution of Arabic as sole official language (green) and one of several official languages (blue)

Semitic languages[edit]

Arabic[edit]

Regions Country Status
Islam Liturgical language of Islam
Africa  Algeria official
 Comoros co-official with French
 Chad co-official with French
 Djibouti co-official with French
 Egypt official
 Eritrea co-official with Tigrinya
 Libya official
 Mauritania official
 Morocco co-official with Berber
 Somalia co-official with Somali
 Sudan co-official with English
 Tunisia official
 Western Sahara co-official with Spanish
Asia  Bahrain official
 Iraq co-official with Kurdish
 Israel co-official with Hebrew
 Jordan official
 Kuwait official
 Lebanon official
 Oman official
 Palestine official
 Qatar official
 Saudi Arabia official
 Syria official
 United Arab Emirates official
 Yemen official
 Iran regional
 Afghanistan regional/religious
 Philippines optional language along with Spanish
Europe  France minority
 Germany minority
 Italy minority
 Netherlands minority
 Spain minority
 Sweden minority
 Turkey significant minority
 United Kingdom minority
Oceania  Australia minority
North America  United States significant minority[3]
 Canada minority
South America  Argentina minority, immigrants from Lebanon
 Brazil minority, see Arab Brazilian

Other Semitic Lang.[edit]

Language Country Status
Hebrew Judaism Liturgical language of Judaism
 Israel official
Maltese  Malta official
 Australia minority
 Canada minority
 Italy minority
 United States minority

Dravidian languages[edit]

Language Country Status
Badaga  India minority
Brahui  Pakistan minority, spoken in Balochistan
 Iran minority
 Afghanistan minority
 Turkmenistan minority
Chenchu  India minority
Duruwa  India minority
Gondi  India minority
Kolami  India minority
Koraga  India minority
Kota  India minority, endangered Dravidian language
Koya  India minority
Kui  India minority
Kumarbhag Paharia  India minority
Kurukh  Bangladesh minority
 India minority
Maria  India minority
Nagarchal  India minority, endangered Dravidian language
Pardhan  India minority
Sauria Paharia  India minority
 Bangladesh minority
Toda  India minority, endangered Dravidian language
Telugu  India officialAndhra Pradesh
 United States minority
 Canada minority
 Australia minority
 Germany minority
 Denmark minority
 Sweden minority
 New Zealand minority
Tamil  India official in Tamil Nadu
 Singapore official
 Sri Lanka official
 Malaysia minority
 Canada minority
 Mauritius minority
 South Africa minority
 United States minority
 Canada minority
 Australia minority
 Germany minority
 Denmark minority
 Sweden minority
 New Zealand minority
Malayalam  India official at state of Kerala
 Bahrain minority
Tulu  India minority
Kodava  India minority
Ollari  India minority

Japonic languages[edit]

Language Country Status
Japanese  France minority
 Japan official
 Philippines minority
 Peru minority
 United States minority
 Palau Official in Angaur
 Brazil minority
Ryukyuan  Japan minority
 Brazil minority

Language isolate[edit]

Language Country Status
Basque
 France majority in Northern Basque Country
 Spain co-official with Spanish in  Basque Country and parts of  Navarre
Korean  Brazil minority
 China minority, co-official with Chinese in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in Jilin Province
 Japan minority
 North Korea official
 South Korea official
 United States not official – minority[3]
Nihali  India minority, endangered language

South Caucasian languages[edit]

Regions Country Status
Georgian  Georgia official
 Turkey minority
 Iran minority
 Azerbaijan minority
Mingrelian language  Georgia significant language
 Abkhazia significant language
Svan language  Georgia minority
Laz language  Turkey significant language
 Georgia minority

Sino-Tibetan languages[edit]

Other Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Language Country Status
Burmese[12]  Burma official
 Thailand minority
 Malaysia minority
Tibetan[13]  China minority, official in Tibet Autonomous Region
   Nepal minority, in Upper Mustang
 India minority
Hani[14]  China minority, in Yunnan province.
 Vietnam minority, called "Hà Nhì"
 Laos minority,
Karen[12]  Burma minority, 7 mi. p., Kayin state
 Thailand minority, 1 mi. p.,
 United States minority, 70,000 p.
 Australia minority, 11,000 p.
Lahu[15]  China minority, 720,000 peoples, in Yunnan province.
 Myanmar minority, 150,000 peoples
 Thailand minority, 100,000 peoples
 Laos minority
 United States minority
 Vietnam minority, called "La Hủ"
Nuosu (Yi, Lolo)  China minority, spoken by 7.76 mi. of Yi people in South China[16]
 Vietnam minority, called "Lô Lô".

Chinese[edit]

Yue Chinese[edit]

The varieties of spoken Chinese in Eastern China and Taiwan.
Map of the Sinophone world
Information:
  Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language
  Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers w/ or w/o recognition
  Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers w/ or w/o recognition
  Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers w/ or w/o recognition
  Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers w/ or w/o recognition
  Major Chinese speaking settlements

Cantonese[edit]

Regions Country Status
Africa  Angola minority
 Cape Verde minority
 Mauritius minority
 South Africa minority
Asia  Brunei minority
 Cambodia minority
 China regional
 Hong Kong co-official with English
 Indonesia minority
 Japan minority
 Laos minority
 Macau co-official with Portuguese
 Malaysia minority
 Burma minority
 North Korea minority
 Philippines minority
 Singapore minority
 South Korea minority
 Thailand minority
 Vietnam minority
Europe  Bulgaria minority
 France minority
 Germany minority
 Ireland minority
 Italy minority
 Netherlands minority
 Romania minority
 Russia minority
 Serbia minority
 Spain minority
 United Kingdom minority
North America  Canada minority
 Cuba minority
 Dominican Republic minority
 Jamaica minority
 Mexico minority
 Nicaragua minority
 Panama minority
 Trinidad and Tobago minority
 United States minority
Oceania  Australia minority
 Fiji minority
 New Zealand minority
 Samoa minority
 Tonga minority
South America  Argentina minority
 Brazil minority
 Chile regional
 Guyana minority
 Peru minority
 Suriname minority
Taishanese[edit]
Regions Country Status
Africa  South Africa minority
Asia  China regional
 Indonesia minority
 Malaysia minority
 Philippines minority
 Singapore minority
 Thailand minority
 Vietnam minority
Europe  United Kingdom minority
North America  Canada minority
 United States minority
Oceania  Australia minority
 New Zealand minority
South America  Brazil minority
 Peru minority

Hakka[edit]

Regions Country Status
Africa  Angola minority
 Cape Verde minority
 Mauritius minority
 South Africa minority
Asia  Brunei minority
 Cambodia minority
 China regional
 Hong Kong minority
 Indonesia minority
 Japan minority
 Laos minority
 Macau minority
 Malaysia minority
 Burma minority
 North Korea minority
 Philippines minority
 Singapore minority
 South Korea minority
 Taiwan minority
 Thailand minority
 Vietnam minority
Europe  Bulgaria minority
 France minority
 Germany minority
 Ireland minority
 Italy minority
 Netherlands minority
 Romania minority
 Russia minority
 Serbia minority
 Spain minority
 United Kingdom minority
North America  Canada minority
 Cuba minority
 Dominican Republic minority
 Jamaica minority
 Mexico minority
 Nicaragua minority
 Panama minority
 Trinidad and Tobago minority
 United States minority
Oceania  Australia minority
 Fiji minority
 New Zealand minority
 Samoa minority
 Tonga minority
South America  Argentina minority
 Brazil minority
 Chile regional
 Guyana minority
 Peru minority
 Suriname minority

Mandarin[edit]

Standard Chinese[edit]

Regions Country Status
Africa  Angola minority
 Cape Verde minority
 Mauritius minority
 South Africa minority
Asia  Brunei minority
 Cambodia minority
 China national
 Hong Kong co-official with English and Cantonese
 Indonesia minority
 Japan minority
 Laos minority
 Macau co-official with Portuguese and Cantonese
 Malaysia minority
 Burma minority
 North Korea minority
 Philippines minority
 Singapore co-official with Tamil, English, and Malay
 South Korea minority
 Taiwan official
 Thailand minority
 Vietnam minority
Europe  Bulgaria minority
 France minority
 Germany minority
 Ireland minority
 Italy minority
 Netherlands minority
 Romania minority
 Russia minority
 Serbia minority
 Spain minority
 United Kingdom minority
North America  Canada minority
 Cuba minority
 Dominican Republic minority
 Jamaica minority
 Mexico minority
 Nicaragua minority
 Panama minority
 Trinidad and Tobago minority
 United States minority[3]
Oceania  Australia minority
 Fiji minority
 New Zealand minority
 Samoa minority
 Tonga minority
South America  Argentina minority
 Brazil minority
 Chile regional
 Guyana minority
 Peru minority
 Suriname minority

Min/Min Nan[edit]

Regions Country Status
Africa  Angola minority
 Cape Verde minority
 Mauritius minority
 South Africa minority
Asia  Brunei minority
 Cambodia minority
 China regional
 Hong Kong minority
 Indonesia minority
 Japan minority
 Laos minority
 Macau minority
 Malaysia minority, lingua franca in Penang
 Burma minority
 North Korea minority
 Philippines minority
 Singapore minority
 South Korea minority
 Taiwan widely spoken, lingua franca alongside with Mandarin, see Taiwanese Minnan
 Thailand minority
 Vietnam minority
Europe  Bulgaria minority
 France minority
 Germany minority
 Ireland minority
 Italy minority
 Netherlands minority
 Romania minority
 Russia minority
 Serbia minority
 Spain minority
 United Kingdom minority
North America  Canada minority
 Cuba minority
 Dominican Republic minority
 Jamaica minority
 Mexico minority
 Nicaragua minority
 Panama minority
 Trinidad and Tobago minority
 United States minority
Oceania  Australia minority
 Fiji minority
 New Zealand minority
 Samoa minority
 Tonga minority
South America  Argentina minority
 Brazil minority
 Chile regional
 Guyana minority
 Peru minority
 Suriname minority

Other Sinitic Lang.[edit]

Language Country Status
Gaoyang  China regional
Hui  China regional
Jin  China regional
Hainanese  China regional
Pinghua  China regional
Wu  China regional
 Hong Kong minority
 United States minority
Xiang  China regional

Malayo-Polynesian languages[edit]

Bornean[edit]

Language Country Status
Brunei Malay  Brunei regional
 Malaysia minority
Coastal Kadazan  Malaysia minority
Iban  Malaysia regional
 Brunei minority
 Indonesia minority
Malagasy  Comoros minority
 Madagascar official
 Mayotte minority

Philippines[edit]

Language Country Status
Aklanon  Philippines minority
Bikol  Philippines regional
Bolinao  Philippines regional
Cebuano  Philippines regional
Cuyonon  Philippines minority
Filipino  Philippines official
Hiligaynon  Philippines regional
 United States minority
Ibanag  Philippines regional
Ifugao  Philippines minority
Ilokano  Philippines regional
Ivatan  Philippines minority
Kalinga  Philippines minority
Kamayo  Philippines minority
Kankana-ey  Philippines minority
Kapampangan  Philippines regional
Kinaray-a  Philippines minority
Maguindanao  Philippines regional
Maranao  Philippines regional
Masbatenyo  Philippines minority
Pangasinan  Philippines regional
Romblomanon  Philippines minority
Surigaonon  Philippines minority
Tagalog  Australia minority
 Brunei minority
 Canada minority
 Hong Kong minority
 Italy minority
 Japan minority
 Kuwait minority
 Malaysia minority
 Philippines regional
 Qatar minority
 Saudi Arabia minority
 Singapore minority
 Spain minority
 Taiwan minority
 United Arab Emirates minority
 United Kingdom minority
 United States minority[3]
Tao  Taiwan minority
Tausug  Brunei minority
 Indonesia minority
 Malaysia minority
 Philippines regional
Waray-Waray  Philippines regional
Zambal  Philippines regional

Oceanic[edit]

East Fijian[edit]

Language Country Status
Fijian  Fiji official

Micronesian[edit]

Language Country Status
Carolinian  Northern Mariana Islands official
 Guam minority
Chuukese  FS. Micronesia regional
Gilbertese  Fiji minority
 Kiribati official
 Nauru minority
 Solomon Islands minority
 Tuvalu minority
 Vanuatu minority
Kosraean  FS. Micronesia regional
Marshallese  Marshall Islands official
Nauruan  Nauru official
Pohnpeian  FS. Micronesia regional
Sosorolese  Palau regional
Tobian  Palau regional
Ulithian  FS. Micronesia regional
Yapese  FS. Micronesia regional

Polynesian[edit]

Language Country Status
Cook Islands Māori  Cook Islands official
Futunan  Wallis and Futuna official
Hawaiian  Hawaii official
Māori  New Zealand co-official with English and New Zealand Sign Language
Niuean  Cook Islands minority
 Niue official
 New Zealand minority
 Tonga minority
Rapa Nui  Easter Island official
Samoan  American Samoa official
 Samoa official
Tahitan  French Polynesia official
Tokelauan  Tokelau official
Tongan  Tonga official
American Tongan
Tuvaluan  Tuvalu official
Wallisian  Wallis and Futuna official
Map of locations speakers of Indonesian

Sunda–Sulawesi[edit]

Language Country Status
Batak Toba  Indonesia minority
Buginese  Indonesia minority
 Malaysia minority
Chamorro  Guam official
 Northern Mariana Islands official

Malayo-Sumbawan[edit]

Language Country Status
Acehnese  Indonesia minority
Balinese  Indonesia minority
Banjarese  Indonesia minority
Cham[17]  Cambodia minority
 Vietnam minority
 Malaysia minority
Indonesian  Indonesia official
 Timor-Leste co-official
 Malaysia minority
 Brunei minority
 Singapore minority
 Thailand minority
 Philippines minority
Jarai [18]  Vietnam minority
 Cambodia minority
Javanese  Indonesia regional
 Malaysia minority
Lampung  Indonesia minority
Madurese  Indonesia minority
Makassarese  Indonesia minority
Malay  Malaysia official
 Brunei official
 Singapore co-official
 Indonesia official
 Thailand minority
Minangkabau  Indonesia regional
 Malaysia regional
Palauan  Palau official
Rejang  Indonesia minority
Sasak  Indonesia minority
Tetum  Timor-Leste official

Tungusic languages[edit]

Language Country Status
Evenki  Russia minority, in Siberia
 China minority, in Evenki Autonomous Banner of Inner Mongolia
 Mongolia minority
Nanai (Hezhen)  Russia minority, in Khabarovsk Krai
 China minority, in Heilongjiang Province

Uralic languages[edit]

Language Country Status
Estonian  Estonia official
 Finland minority
 Russia minority
Finnish  Finland co-official with Swedish except in Åland Islands, where Swedish is the only official
 Estonia minority
 Russia minority
 Sweden minority
Hungarian  Hungary official
 Serbia minority
 Romania minority
 Slovakia minority
 Austria minority
 Ukraine minority
Sami  Finland minority
 Norway minority
 Russia minority
 Sweden minority

Na-Dene[edit]

Apachean[edit]

Language Country Status
Navajo  United States[19] minority
Apache  United States minority
Chiricahua  United States minority
Jicarilla  United States minority
Lipan Apache  United States minority
Plains Apache  United States minority
Mescalero  United States minority
Western Apache  United States minority

Iroquoian[edit]

Cherokee[edit]

Austroasiatic[edit]

Language Country Status
Bahnar[20]  Vietnam minority, 227,716 p. in south Vietnam (2009)
Bru[21]  Laos minority, 69,000 p. in south Laos.
 Vietnam minority, 74,500 p. in central Vietnam (2009)
 Thailand minority
Khasi  India official language in Meghalaya
Khmer[22]  Cambodia official
 Vietnam minority, 1.26 mi. p. in south Vietnam
 Thailand minority
Khmu[21]  Laos minority, 621,000 p.
 Vietnam minority, 73,000 p.
 Thailand minority, 10,000 p.
 China minority
Kuy[23]  Thailand minority
 Cambodia minority
 Laos minority
Mnong[20]  Vietnam minority
 Cambodia minority
Mon  Burma Recognised regional language
 Thailand minority
Muong[20]  Vietnam minority, spoken by 1.6 mi. Muong peoples in north Vietnam
Vietnamese  Vietnam official
 Czech Republic minority[24]
 United States minority[3]
 Australia minority, 0.21 mi.p.[25]
 Cambodia minority, 0.6 mi.p.[26]
 Canada minority, 0.22 mi.p.
 France minority, 0.3 mi.p.
 Laos minority, 0.1 mi.p.
Wa[27]  Burma minority, 0.9 mi. peoples in Shan state
 China minority, 0.4 mi. peoples in China's Yunnan Province.

Tai–Kadai[edit]

Language Country Status
Bouyei[28]  China minority, in south China
 Vietnam minority, called "Giáy", in north Vietnam
Lao  Laos official
 Thailand minority, known as Isan, 20 mi. p. in northern and eastern Thailand
Thai  Thailand official
 China minority, spoken by Dai people in south China, noted as Tai Lü and Tai Nüa
 Myanmar minority,
 Vietnam minority, 1.6 mi. p., as Thái dialect in north Vietnam
Shan[12]  Myanmar minority, but majority in Shan state
 Thailand minority, in north-west
Nung[20]  Vietnam minority, spoken by 1 mi. p. in north Vietnam
Tày[20]  Vietnam minority, spoken by 1.6 mi. p. in north Vietnam
Zhuang  China minority,[29] 18 mi. peoples, most in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.

Hmong–Mien[edit]

Language Country Status
Hmong[30]
(Miao)
 China minority
 Vietnam minority
 Laos minority
 Thailand minority
 United States minority
 Australia minority
 France minority
Mienic
(Yao)
 China minority
 Vietnam minority, called "Dao"
 Laos minority
 Thailand minority

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Welsh Government | Census of population". Wales.gov.uk. Retrieved 2013-12-20. 
  2. ^ "1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". Official website of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 2008-02-20. [dead link] ||Article XIV, Section 7
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j [1] Johnson, Fern L. "Speaking culturally: language diversity in the United States," Table 1.5: "Speakers age 5 years and older of top 25 languages other than English." Sage Publications, Inc., 1999. Page 12. ISBN 978-0-8039-5912-5. Retrieved August 5, 2011
  4. ^ Syed Yasir Kazmi (October 16, 2009). "Pakistani Bengalis". DEMOTIX. Retrieved April 2, 2013. 
  5. ^ "کراچی کے 'بنگالی پاکستانی'(Urdu)". محمد عثمان جامعی. 17 November 2003. Retrieved April 2, 2013. 
  6. ^ "The Language Movement : An Outline". Retrieved April 2, 2013. 
  7. ^ "Karachi Department of Bengali". Retrieved April 2, 2013. 
  8. ^ Awadhi, at Ethnologue, 16th ed., 2009. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  9. ^ Croats of Romania
  10. ^ http://www.usefoundation.org/view/981
  11. ^ Kalmyk-Oirat in Ethnologue. Retrieved 01/08/2015.
  12. ^ a b c Languages of Myanmar. Ethnologue. 18th ed., 2015. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  13. ^ Standard Tibetan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015). Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  14. ^ Hani. Ethnologue. 18th ed., 2015. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  15. ^ Lahu. Ethnologue. 18th ed., 2015. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  16. ^ The Yi Ethnic Group. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  17. ^ Cham, Western & Cham, Eastern. Ethnologue. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  18. ^ Jarai. Ethnologue. 18th ed., 2015. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  19. ^ census.gov 2007 American Community Survey. Accessed 2010-07-13.
  20. ^ a b c d e Languages of Viet Nam. Ethnologue. 18th ed., 2015. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  21. ^ a b Languages of Laos. Ethnologue. 18th ed., 2015. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  22. ^ Languages of Cambodia. Ethnologue. 18th ed., 2015. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  23. ^ Kuy. Ethnologue. 18th ed., 2015. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  24. ^ Citizens belonging to minorities, which traditionally and on long-term basis live within the territory of the Czech Republic, enjoy the right to use their language in communication with authorities and in front of the courts of law (for the list of recognized minorities see National Minorities Policy of the Government of the Czech Republic). The article 25 of the Czech Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms ensures right of the national and ethnic minorities for education and communication with authorities in their own language. Act No. 500/2004 Coll. (The Administrative Rule) in its paragraph 16 (4) (Procedural Language) ensures, that a citizen of the Czech Republic, who belongs to a national or an ethnic minority, which traditionally and on long-term basis lives within the territory of the Czech Republic, have right to address an administrative agency and proceed before it in the language of the minority. In case that the administrative agency doesn't have an employee with knowledge of the language, the agency is bound to obtain a translator at the agency's own expense. According to Act No. 273/2001 (About The Rights of Members of Minorities) paragraph 9 (The right to use language of a national minority in dealing with authorities and in front of the courts of law) the same applies for the members of national minorities also in front of the courts of law.
  25. ^ Year Book Australia, 2012. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  26. ^ CIA. The World Factbook/ Cambodia/Race, 2010. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  27. ^ Wa, Parauk. Ethnologue. 18th ed., 2015. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  28. ^ Bouyei. Ethnologue. 18th ed., 2015. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  29. ^ Map of Major Zhuang language groups
  30. ^ Bryce Schroeder's Hmong page. Retrieved 01/08/2015.

External links[edit]