List of countries by system of government

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This is a list of countries by system of government. There is also a political mapping of the world that shows what form of government each country has, as well as a brief description of what each form of government entails. The list is color-coded according to the type of government, for example: blue represents a republic with an executive head of state, and pink is a constitutional monarchy with a ceremonial head of state. The color-coding also appears on the following map, representing the same government categories. The legend of what the different colors represent is found just below the map.

List of countries[edit]

UN member states and observers[edit]

Name Constitutional form Head of state Basis of executive legitimacy
 Afghanistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Albania Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Algeria Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Andorra Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Angola Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Antigua and Barbuda Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Argentina Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Armenia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Australia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Austria Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Azerbaijan Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Bahamas, The Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Bahrain Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Bangladesh Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Barbados Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Belarus Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Belgium Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Belize Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Benin Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Bhutan Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Bolivia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Botswana Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Brazil Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Brunei Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Bulgaria Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Burkina Faso Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Burundi Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Cambodia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Cameroon Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Canada Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Cape Verde Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Central African Republic Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Chad Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Chile Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 China, People's Republic of Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Colombia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Comoros Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Congo Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Costa Rica Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Côte d'Ivoire Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Croatia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Cuba Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Cyprus Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Czech Republic Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Denmark Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Djibouti Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Dominica Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Dominican Republic Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 East Timor Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Ecuador Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Egypt Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 El Salvador Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Equatorial Guinea Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Eritrea Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Estonia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Ethiopia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Federated States of Micronesia Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Fiji Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Finland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 France Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Gabon Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Gambia, The Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Georgia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Germany Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Ghana Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Greece Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Grenada Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Guatemala Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Guinea Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Guinea-Bissau Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Guyana Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Haiti Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Honduras Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Hungary Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Iceland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 India Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Indonesia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Iran Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Iraq Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Ireland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Israel Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Italy Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Jamaica Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Japan Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Jordan Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Kazakhstan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Kenya Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Kiribati Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Korea, North Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Korea, South Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Kuwait Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Kyrgyzstan Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Laos Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Latvia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Lebanon Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Lesotho Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Liberia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Libya n/a n/a No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
 Liechtenstein Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Lithuania Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Luxembourg Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Macedonia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Madagascar Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Malawi Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Malaysia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Maldives Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Mali Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Malta Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Marshall Islands Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Mauritania Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Mauritius Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Mexico Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Moldova Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Monaco Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Mongolia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Montenegro Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Morocco Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Mozambique Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Myanmar Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Namibia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Nauru Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
   Nepal Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Netherlands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 New Zealand Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Nicaragua Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Niger Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Nigeria Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Norway Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Oman Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Pakistan Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Palau Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Palestine Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Panama Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Papua New Guinea Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Paraguay Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Peru Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Philippines Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Poland Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Portugal Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Qatar Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Romania Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Russia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Rwanda Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Saint Lucia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Samoa Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 San Marino Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 São Tomé and Príncipe Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Saudi Arabia Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Senegal Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Serbia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Seychelles Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Sierra Leone Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Singapore Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Slovakia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Slovenia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Solomon Islands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Somalia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 South Africa Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 South Sudan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Spain Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Sri Lanka Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Sudan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Suriname Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Swaziland Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Sweden Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Switzerland Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Syria Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Tajikistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Tanzania Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Thailand n/a n/a No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
 Togo Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Tonga Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Trinidad and Tobago Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Tunisia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Turkey Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Turkmenistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Tuvalu Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Uganda Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Ukraine Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 United Arab Emirates Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 United Kingdom Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 United States Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Uruguay Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Uzbekistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Vanuatu Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Vatican City Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Venezuela Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Vietnam Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Yemen n/a n/a No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
 Zambia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Zimbabwe Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature

Note that Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania are Islamic Republics.

Unrecognized states[edit]

The following states control their territory and are recognized by at least one UN member state.

Name Constitutional form Head of state Basis of executive legitimacy
 Abkhazia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 China, Republic of Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Cook Islands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Kosovo Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Niue Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Northern Cyprus Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 South Ossetia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence

The following states/governments control their territory, but are not recognised by any UN member states.

Name Constitutional form Head of state Basis of executive legitimacy
 Artsakh Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Somaliland Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Transnistria Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence

Map[edit]

A colo(u)r-coded legend of forms of government.

Legend[edit]

Note: this chart represent de jure systems of government, not the de facto degree of democracy. Several states constitutionally republics, broadly appear as authoritarian states.

Systems of governance[edit]

Italics indicate states with limited recognition.

Presidential republics[edit]

These are systems in which a president is the active head of state and chief executive of the government, elected and remaining in office independently of the legislature. The following list includes democratic and non-democratic states:

Full presidential systems[edit]

In full presidential systems, the president is both the head of state and the chief executive. There is generally no head of the government legislature, although if one exists, in most cases, he or she serves purely at the discretion of the president (with the exceptions being Belarus and Kazakhstan, where the prime minister is effectively the head of government).[1][2]

Presidential systems with no separate head of the legislature[edit]
Presidential systems with a separate head of the legislature[edit]

Semi-presidential systems[edit]

In semi-presidential systems, as in a full presidential system, the president is the head of state and has genuine executive authority, but the role of the head of government legislature may be exercised by a prime minister, either at the discretion of both the president and the legislature, as in the president-parliamentary system, or as solely accountable to the legislature, as in the premier-presidential system.

President-parliamentary systems[edit]
Premier-presidential systems[edit]

Mixed republics[edit]

A system in which a president or council is both the head of state and executive of the government, but they are elected by the legislature, however this person or group is not subject to parliamentary confidence during their term (although their cabinet may be); the exceptions are South Africa, where the president may be forced to resign by the Parliament's will,[3] and Kiribati, where the president is popularly elected and a successful parliamentary motion of no confidence automatically triggers a new presidential election.

Directorial republics[edit]

In the directorial system a council jointly exercises both state functions as a collective head of state and an executive branch of government. The council is elected by the legislature, but it is not subject to political confidence during its term which has a fixed duration.

Parliamentary republics[edit]

A parliamentary republic is a system in which a president is the head of state but holds holds little executive power. Instead the prime minister is the active head of the executive branch of government and also leader of the legislature. The president's degree of executive power may range from being reasonably significant (e.g. India), to only having certain limited reserve powers (e.g. Ireland) or none at all, where his or her function is primarily that of a symbolic figurehead (e.g. Germany).

Constitutional monarchies[edit]

These are systems in which the head of state is a constitutional monarch; the existence of their office and their ability to exercise their authority is established and restrained or held back by constitutional law.

Constitutional monarchies with ceremonial monarchs[edit]

Systems in which a prime minister is the active head of the executive branch of government. In some cases the prime minister is also leader of the legislature, in other cases the executive branch is clearly separated from legislature although the entire cabinet or individual ministers must step down in the case of a vote of no confidence.[11][12][dubious ] The head of state is a constitutional monarch who normally only exercises his or her powers with the consent of the government, the people or their representatives.

Constitutional monarchies with active monarchs[edit]

The prime minister is the nation's active executive, but the monarch still has considerable political powers that can be used at their own discretion.

Absolute monarchies[edit]

Specifically, monarchies in which the monarch's exercise of power is unconstrained by any substantive constitutional law.

Theocracies[edit]

States based on a state religion where the head of state is selected by some form of religious hierarchy.

One-party states[edit]

States in which political power is by law concentrated within one political party whose operations are largely fused with the government hierarchy (as opposed to states where the law establishes a multi-party system but this fusion is not achieved anyway through electoral fraud or simple inertia). However, some do have elected governments.

Military junta states[edit]

The nation's military control the organs of government and all high-ranking political executives are also members of the military hierarchy.

Transitional[edit]

States which have a system of government which is in transition or turmoil and are classified with the current direction of change.

Systems of internal governance[edit]

Unitary states[edit]

States in which the central government is supreme over any semi-independent regional governments.

Regionalised unitary states[edit]

States in which the central government has delegated some of its powers to regional authorities.

Federal states[edit]

States in which a federal government shares power with semi-independent regional governments. The central government may or may not be (in theory) a creation of the regional governments.

Confederate states[edit]

States in which a federal government is subordinate to semi-independent regional governments. The central government may or may not be (in theory) a creation of the regional governments.

European Union[edit]

The exact political character of the European Union is debated, some arguing that it is sui generis (unique), but others arguing that it has features of a federation or a confederation. It has elements of intergovernmentalism, with the European Council acting as its collective "president", and also elements of supranationalism, with the European Commission acting as its executive and bureaucracy.[20] But it is not easily placed in any of the above categories.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Constitution of Belarus from 1994 (rev. 2004)
  2. ^ a b "Nazarbaev Signs Kazakh Constitutional Amendments Into Law". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2017.  For more information: please see Abdurasulov, Abdujalil (6 March 2017). "Kazakhstan constitution: Will changes bring democracy?". BBC News. Retrieved 7 March 2017. 
  3. ^ "Constitution of South Africa". Constitute. Retrieved 13 April 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c Combines aspects of a presidential system with those of a parliamentary system. The president is elected by parliament and holds a parliamentary seat, much like a prime minister, but is immune from a vote of no confidence (but not their cabinet), unlike a prime minister.
  5. ^ a b c d e Combines aspects of a presidential system with those of a parliamentary system. The president is elected by parliament but does not hold a parliamentary seat, and is immune from a vote of no confidence (as well is their cabinet), unlike a prime minister.
  6. ^ "Scheda paese Repubblica di San Marino" (pdf) (in Italian). Segreteria di Stato Affari esteri. July 2012. p. 5. 
  7. ^ a b The President of Switzerland serves in a primus inter pares capacity amongst the Swiss Federal Council, the seven-member executive council which constitutes both the presidency and the government.
  8. ^ In Bangladesh, a caretaker government during parliamentary elections. The Caretaker government is headed by a Chief Adviser and a group of neutral, non-partisan advisers chosen from the civil society. During this time, the president has jurisdiction over the defence and foreign affairs ministries.
  9. ^ Collective presidency consisting of three members; one for each major ethnic group.
  10. ^ Formerly a semi-presidential republic, it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter, First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University, who in his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press, revised 2008 ISBN 9780719078538), he quotes Nousiainen, Jaakko (June 2001). "From semi-presidentialism to parliamentary government: political and constitutional developments in Finland". Scandinavian Political Studies. Wiley. 24 (2): 95–109. doi:10.1111/1467-9477.00048.  as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". According to the Finnish Constitution, the President has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval, and substantially has not the power to disband the parliament under its own desire. Finland is actually represented by its Prime Minister, and not by its President, in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. The 2012 constitutional amendments reduced the powers of the President even further.
  11. ^ Norwegian Parliament web page
  12. ^ CIA factbook on Norway
  13. ^ Bishop of Urgell and President of France serve as ex officio co-princes who are have their interests known through a representative.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r One of sixteen constitutional monarchies which recognize Elizabeth II as head of state, who presides over an independent government. She is titled separately in each country (e.g. Queen of Australia), and notionally appoints a Governor-General to each country other than the United Kingdom to act as her representative. The prime minister is the active head of the executive branch of government and also leader of the legislature. These countries may be known as "Commonwealth realms".
  15. ^ a b The Cook Islands and Niue are under the sovereignty of the Monarch of New Zealand as self-governing states in free association with New Zealand. New Zealand and its associated states, along with Tokelau and the Ross Dependency, comprise the Realm of New Zealand.
  16. ^ The UAE's constitution establishes the state as a federation of emirates, with the federal president drawn from hereditary emirs, but each emirate in turn functions as an absolute monarchy
  17. ^ a b The Vatican is an elective absolute monarchy and a Roman Catholic theocracy; its monarch, the Pope, is the head of the global Roman Catholic Church. His power within the Vatican City State is unlimited by any constitution, but all persons resident within the Vatican have consented to obey the Pope, either by virtue of being ordained Catholic clergy or members of the Swiss Guard.
  18. ^ The Bishop of Urgell and the President of France serve as ex officio co-princes who are have their interests known through a representative.
  19. ^ Iran combines the forms of a presidential republic, with a president elected by universal suffrage; and a theocracy, with a Supreme Leader who is ultimately responsible for state policy, chosen by the elected Assembly of Experts. Candidates for both the Assembly of Experts and the presidency are vetted by the appointed Guardian Council.
  20. ^ For more detailed discussion, see John McCormick, European Union Politics (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), Chapters 1 and 2.

External links[edit]