List of countries by system of government

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World's states colored by form of government1

This is a list of countries by system of government. There is also a political mapping of the world that shows what form of government each country has, as well as a brief description of what each form of government entails. The list is colour-coded according to the type of government, for example: blue represents a republic with an executive head of state, and red is a constitutional monarchy with a ceremonial head of state. The colour-coding also appears on the following map, representing the same government categories. The legend of what the different colours represent is found just below the map.

It is noteworthy that some scholars in the People's Republic of China claim that the country's system of government is a "semi-presidential system combining party and government in actual operation".[1] Under its constitution, the Chinese President is a largely ceremonial office with limited power.[2] However, since 1993, as a matter of convention, the presidency has been held simultaneously by the General Secretary of the Communist Party, the top leader in the one-party system who heads the Politburo and the Secretariat.[3]

Certain states have been defined as having more than one system of government or a mixed system – for instance, Poland possesses a semi-presidential government where the President appoints the Prime Minister or can veto legislation passed by parliament, but its Constitution defines the country as a parliamentary republic and its ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence.[4][5][6][7][8][9]

List of countries[edit]

Map[edit]

A colour-coded legend of forms of government.

Legend[edit]

  •   Presidential republic: Head of state is the head of government and is independent of legislature
  •   Semi-presidential republic: Head of state has some executive powers and is independent of legislature; remaining executive power is vested in ministry that is subject to parliamentary confidence
  •   Republic with an executive presidency nominated by or elected by the legislature: President is both head of state and government; ministry, including the president, may or may not be subject to parliamentary confidence
  •   Parliamentary republic: Head of state is mostly or entirely ceremonial; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  •   Constitutional monarchy: Head of state is mostly or entirely ceremonial; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  •   Semi-constitutional monarchy: Head of state is executive; monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
  •   Absolute monarchy: Head of state is executive; all authority vested in absolute monarch
  •   One-party state: Head of state is executive or ceremonial; power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
  •   Countries in which constitutional provisions for government have been suspended (e.g. military juntas)
  •   No constitutionally defined basis to current regime (e.g. transitional governments)
  •   Overseas possessions, colonies, and places without governments

Note: this chart represent de jure systems of government, not the de facto degree of democracy. Several states that are constitutional republics are in practice ruled as authoritarian states

UN member states and observers[edit]

Name Constitutional form Head of state Basis of executive legitimacy
 Afghanistan Provisional n/a No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime[note 1]
 Albania Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Algeria Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Andorra Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Angola Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Antigua and Barbuda Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Argentina Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Armenia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Australia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Austria Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Azerbaijan Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Bahamas, The Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Bahrain Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Bangladesh Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Barbados Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Belarus Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Belgium Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Belize Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Benin Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Bhutan Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Bolivia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Botswana Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Brazil Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Brunei Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Bulgaria Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Burkina Faso Provisional n/a All authority vested in a committee of the nation's military leaders for the duration of a state of emergency; constitutional provisions for government are suspended
 Burundi Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Cambodia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Cameroon Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Canada Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Cape Verde Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Central African Republic Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Chad Provisional n/a All authority vested in a committee of the nation's military leaders for the duration of a state of emergency; constitutional provisions for government are suspended
 Chile Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 China, People's Republic of Republic Ceremonial Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement[note 2]
 Colombia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Comoros Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Congo, Republic of the Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Costa Rica Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Côte d'Ivoire Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Croatia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Cuba Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Cyprus Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Czech Republic Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Denmark Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Djibouti Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Dominica Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Dominican Republic Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 East Timor Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Ecuador Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Egypt Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 El Salvador Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Equatorial Guinea Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Eritrea Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Estonia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Eswatini Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Ethiopia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Fiji Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Finland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 France Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Gabon Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Gambia, The Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Georgia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Germany Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Ghana Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Greece Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Grenada Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Guatemala Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Guinea Provisional n/a All authority vested in a committee of the nation's military leaders for the duration of a state of emergency; constitutional provisions for government are suspended
 Guinea-Bissau Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Guyana Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Haiti Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Honduras Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Hungary Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Iceland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 India Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Indonesia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Iran Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Iraq Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Ireland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Israel Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Italy Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Jamaica Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Japan Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Jordan Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Kazakhstan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Kenya Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Kiribati Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Kuwait Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Kyrgyzstan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Laos Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Latvia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Lebanon Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Lesotho Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Liberia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Libya Provisional n/a No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
 Liechtenstein Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Lithuania Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Luxembourg Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Madagascar Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Malawi Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Malaysia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Maldives Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Mali Provisional n/a All authority vested in a committee of the nation's military leaders for the duration of a state of emergency; constitutional provisions for government are suspended
 Malta Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Marshall Islands Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Mauritania Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Mauritius Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Mexico Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Micronesia Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Moldova Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Monaco Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Mongolia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Montenegro Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Morocco Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Mozambique Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Myanmar Provisional n/a All authority vested in a committee of the nation's military leaders for the duration of a state of emergency; constitutional provisions for government are suspended
 Namibia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Nauru Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
   Nepal Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Netherlands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 New Zealand Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Nicaragua Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Niger Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Nigeria Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 North Korea Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 North Macedonia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Norway Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Oman Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Pakistan Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Palau Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Palestine Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Panama Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Papua New Guinea Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Paraguay Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Peru Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Philippines Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Poland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence[note 3]
 Portugal Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Qatar Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Romania Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Russia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Rwanda Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Saint Lucia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Samoa Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 San Marino Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 São Tomé and Príncipe Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Saudi Arabia Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Senegal Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Serbia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Seychelles Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Sierra Leone Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Singapore Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Slovakia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Slovenia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Solomon Islands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Somalia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 South Africa Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 South Korea Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 South Sudan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Spain Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Sri Lanka Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Sudan Provisional n/a No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
 Suriname Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Sweden Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Switzerland Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
 Syria Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Tajikistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Tanzania Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Thailand Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Togo Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Tonga Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 Trinidad and Tobago Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Tunisia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Turkey Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Turkmenistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Tuvalu Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Uganda Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Ukraine Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 United Arab Emirates Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
 United Kingdom Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 United States Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Uruguay Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Uzbekistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Vanuatu Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Vatican City Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
 Venezuela Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Vietnam Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Yemen Provisional n/a No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime[note 4]
 Zambia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Zimbabwe Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature

Other states[edit]

Name Constitutional form Head of state Basis of executive legitimacy
 Abkhazia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Artsakh Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Cook Islands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Donetsk People's Republic Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Kosovo Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Luhansk People's Republic Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 Niue Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Northern Cyprus Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
 Somaliland Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
 South Ossetia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Taiwan (Republic of China) Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
 Transnistria Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence

Systems of governance[edit]

Italics indicate states with limited recognition.

Presidential systems[edit]

These are systems in which a president is the active head of the executive branch of government, and is elected and remains in office independently of the legislature.

In full presidential systems, the president is both head of state and head of government. There is generally no prime minister, although if one exists, in most cases they serve purely at the discretion of the president.

The following list includes democratic and non-democratic states:

Presidential systems without a prime minister[edit]

Nations with limited recognition are in italics.

Presidential systems with a prime minister[edit]

Nations with limited recognition are in italics.

Semi-presidential systems[edit]

In semi-presidential systems, there is always both a president and a head of government, commonly but not exclusively styled as a prime minister. In such systems, the president has genuine executive authority, but the role of a head of government may be exercised by the prime minister.

Premier-presidential systems[edit]

The president chooses a prime minister and cabinet from the parliament with approval from the parliament, however only the parliament may remove them from office with a vote of no confidence. The president does not have the right to dismiss the prime minister or the cabinet.

Nations with limited recognition are in italics.

President-parliamentary systems[edit]

The president is head of state and the prime minister is head of government, although the prime minister generally works under the discretion of the former more so than in a premier-presidential system. The president chooses the prime minister and the cabinet without a confidence vote from the parliament, but must have the support of a parliamentary majority for their selection. In order to remove a prime minister or their cabinet from power, the president may dismiss them or the parliament can remove them by a vote of no confidence.

Nations with limited recognition are in italics.

Parliamentary and related systems[edit]

In a parliamentary republic, the head of government is selected or nominated by the legislature and is also accountable to it. The head of state is ordinarily called a president and (in full parliamentary republics) is separate from the head of government, serving a largely apolitical, ceremonial role. In these systems, the head of government is usually called the prime minister, chancellor or premier. In mixed republican systems and directorial republican systems, the head of government also serves as head of state and is usually titled president.

Full parliamentary republican systems[edit]

In some full parliamentary systems, the head of state is directly elected by voters. Under other classification systems, however, these systems may instead be classed as semi-presidential systems (despite their weak presidency).[12] Full parliamentary republican systems that do not have a directly elected head of state usually use either an electoral college or a vote in the legislature to appoint the president.

Directly elected head of state[edit]
Indirectly elected head of state[edit]

Nations with limited recognition are in italics.

Parliamentary republics with an executive presidency[edit]

A combined head of state and head of government in the form of an executive president is either elected by the legislature or by voters after candidates are nominated for the post by the legislature (in the case of Kiribati), and they must maintain the confidence of the legislature to remain in office. In effect, "presidents" in this system function the same as prime ministers do in other parliamentary systems.

Assembly-independent republican systems[edit]

A combined head of state and head of government (usually titled president) is elected by the legislature but is immune from a vote of no confidence (as is their cabinet), thus acting more independently from the legislature.[30] They may or may not also hold a seat in the legislature.

Directorial republican systems[edit]

In a directorial system, a council jointly exercise the powers and ceremonial roles of both the head of state and head of government. The council is elected by the parliament, but it is not subject to parliamentary confidence during its fixed term.

Constitutional monarchies[edit]

These are systems in which the head of state is a constitutional monarch; the existence of their office and their ability to exercise their authority is established and restrained by constitutional law.

Constitutional monarchies with ceremonial/non-executive monarchs[edit]

Systems in which a prime minister is the active head of the executive branch of government. In some cases, the prime minister is also leader of the legislature, while in other cases the executive branch is clearly separated from legislature (although the entire cabinet or individual ministers must step down in the case of a vote of no confidence).[33][34][dubious ] The head of state is a constitutional monarch who normally only exercises his or her powers with the consent of the government, the people and/or their representatives (except in emergencies, e.g. a constitutional crisis or a political deadlock).[note 12]

Constitutional monarchies with active monarchs[edit]

The prime minister is the nation's active executive, but the monarch still has considerable political powers that can be used at their own discretion.

Absolute monarchies[edit]

Specifically, monarchies in which the monarch's exercise of power is unconstrained by any substantive constitutional law. The monarch acts as both head of state and head of government.

One-party states[edit]

States in which political power is by law concentrated within one political party whose operations are largely fused with the government hierarchy (as opposed to states where the law establishes a multi-party system but this fusion is achieved anyway through electoral fraud or simple inertia).

Nations with limited recognition are in italics.

Military juntas[edit]

A committee of the nation's military leaders controls the government for the duration of a state of emergency. Constitutional provisions for government are suspended in these states; constitutional forms of government are stated in parentheses.

Transitional governments[edit]

States that have a system of government that is in transition or turmoil. These regimes lack a constitutional basis.

Systems of internal structure[edit]

Unitary states[edit]

A state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. The majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government. Of the 193 UN member states, 132 are governed as centralized unitary states, and an additional 34 are regionalized unitary states.

Centralized unitary states[edit]

States in which most power is exercised by the central government. What local authorities do exist have few powers.

Regionalized unitary states[edit]

States in which the central government has delegated some of its powers to regional authorities, but where constitutional authority ultimately remains entirely at a national level.

Federation[edit]

States in which the national government shares power with regional governments with which it has legal or constitutional parity. The central government may or may not be (in theory) a creation of the regional governments.

European Union[edit]

The exact political character of the European Union is debated, some arguing that it is sui generis (unique), but others arguing that it has features of a federation or a confederation. It has elements of intergovernmentalism, with the European Council acting as its collective "president", and also elements of supranationalism, with the European Commission acting as its executive and bureaucracy.[46] But it is not easily placed in any of the above categories.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Afghanistan: The United Nations currently recognizes the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan as the government of Afghanistan instead of the de facto ruling government, the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.
  2. ^ The President of China is legally a ceremonial office; however, since 1993, the presidency has been held by the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, who is the most powerful figure in the political system.[3]
  3. ^ The Republic of Poland has been defined de jure by its Constitution as a parliamentary republic. However, the system is largely semi-presidential in nature as the President of Poland does exercise some power – the head of state appoints the Prime Minister as the head of government, and can veto legislation as well as dissolve parliament in certain situations. The Cabinet and Prime Minister appointed by the President are subject to a vote of confidence by the Polish Parliament (Sejm).
  4. ^ a b Disputed between the internationally recognized Presidential Leadership Council, the Supreme Political Council, and the Southern Transitional Council.
  5. ^ Iran combines the forms of a presidential republic, with a president elected by universal suffrage, and a theocracy, with a Supreme Leader who is ultimately responsible for state policy, chosen by the elected Assembly of Experts. Candidates for both the Assembly of Experts and the presidency are vetted by the appointed Guardian Council.
  6. ^ Collective presidency consisting of three members; one for each major ethnic group.
  7. ^ The president is elected by parliament and holds a parliamentary seat, much like a prime minister, but is immune from a vote of no confidence (but not their cabinet), unlike a prime minister. Although, if a vote of no confidence is successful and they do not resign, it triggers the dissolution of the legislature and new elections (per section 92 of the Constitution).
  8. ^ Holds a legislative seat.
  9. ^ Elected directly by the people via double simultaneous vote.
  10. ^ Their two-person head of state and head of government, the Captains Regent, serve for six month terms, although they are not subject to parliamentary confidence during that time.
  11. ^ The President of Switzerland serves in a primus inter pares capacity amongst the Swiss Federal Council, the seven-member executive council which constitutes both the presidency and the government.
  12. ^ Some monarchs are given a limited number of discretionary reserve powers only to be used in certain circumstances in accordance with their responsibility to defend the constitution.
  13. ^ The Bishop of Urgell and President of France serve as ex officio co-princes who have their interests known through a representative.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q One of fifteen constitutional monarchies which recognize Elizabeth II as head of state, who presides over an independent government. She is titled separately in each country (e.g. Queen of Australia), and notionally appoints a Governor-General (GG) to each country other than the United Kingdom to act as her representative. The prime minister (PM) is the active head of the executive branch of government and also leader of the legislature. These countries may be known as "Commonwealth realms".
    In many cases, the Governor-General or monarch has a lot more theoretical, or constitutional, powers than they actually exercise, except on the advice of elected officials, per constitutional convention. For example, the Constitution of Australia makes the GG the head of the executive branch (including commander-in-chief of the armed forces), although they seldom ever use this power, except on the advice of elected officials, especially the PM, which makes the PM the de facto head of government.
  15. ^ a b c The Cook Islands and Niue are under the sovereignty of the Monarch of New Zealand as self-governing states in free association with New Zealand. New Zealand and its associated states, along with Tokelau and the Ross Dependency, comprise the Realm of New Zealand.
  16. ^ A federal absolute monarchy in which, different monarchies, or in this case, sheikhdoms fulfill both the duty of president and prime minister, although in actuality they are monarchs.
  17. ^ The Vatican is an elective absolute monarchy and a Roman Catholic theocracy; its monarch, the Pope, is the head of the global Roman Catholic Church. His power within the Vatican City State is unlimited by any constitution; however, as all its citizens and its residents are ordained Catholic clergy, members of the Swiss Guard, or their immediate family, they arguably have consented to obey the Pope or are minors. (Citizenship is jus officii, on the grounds of appointment to work in a certain capacity in the service of the Holy See and usually ceases upon cessation of the appointment. Citizenship is also extended to the spouse and children of a citizen, provided they are living together in the city; in practice, these are few in number, since the bulk of Vatican citizens are celibate Catholic clerics or religious. Some individuals are also authorized to reside in the city but do not qualify or choose not to request citizenship.)[37]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chen Hang (2018). "The New Development of the National President System in China——The Semi-Presidential System Combining Party and Government in the Actual Operation". Journal of Xinxiang University. 35 (1).
  2. ^ "How the Chinese government works". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 12 May 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2019. Xi Jinping is the most powerful figure in China's political system, and his influence mainly comes from his position as the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.
  3. ^ a b Chris Buckley and Adam Wu (10 March 2018). "Ending Term Limits for China's Xi Is a Big Deal. Here's Why. - Is the presidency powerful in China?". New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2019. In China, the political job that matters most is the general secretary of the Communist Party. The party controls the military and domestic security forces, and sets the policies that the government carries out. China’s presidency lacks the authority of the American and French presidencies.
  4. ^ "Poland 1997 (rev. 2009)". www.constituteproject.org. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  5. ^ a b "Poland - The World Factbook". 22 September 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  6. ^ Veser, Ernst (23 September 1997). "Semi-Presidentialism-Duverger's Concept — A New Political System Model" (PDF) (in English and Chinese). Department of Education, School of Education, University of Cologne: 39–60. Retrieved 21 August 2017. Duhamel has developed the approach further: He stresses that the French construction does not correspond to either parliamentary or the presidential form of government, and then develops the distinction of 'système politique' and 'régime constitutionnel'. While the former comprises the exercise of power that results from the dominant institutional practice, the latter is the totality of the rules for the dominant institutional practice of the power. In this way, France appears as 'presidentialist system' endowed with a 'semi-presidential regime' (1983: 587). By this standard he recognizes Duverger's pléiade as semi-presidential regimes, as well as Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and Lithuania (1993: 87). {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. ^ Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  8. ^ Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). French Politics. 3 (3): 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087. Retrieved 21 August 2017. Even if the president has no discretion in the forming of cabinets or the right to dissolve parliament, his or her constitutional authority can be regarded as 'quite considerable' in Duverger's sense if cabinet legislation approved in parliament can be blocked by the people’s elected agent. Such powers are especially relevant if an extraordinary majority is required to override a veto, as in Mongolia, Poland, and Senegal. In these cases, while the government is fully accountable to parliament, it cannot legislate without taking the potentially different policy preferences of the president into account.
  9. ^ McMenamin, Iain. "Semi-Presidentialism and Democratisation in Poland" (PDF). School of Law and Government, Dublin City University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2017. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
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