List of countries in the Eurovision Song Contest
Fifty-two countries have participated in the Eurovision Song Contest since it started in 1956. Winners of the contest have come from twenty-seven of these countries. The contest, organised by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), is held annually between members of the Union. Broadcasters from different countries submit songs to the event, and cast votes to determine the most popular in the competition.
Participation in the contest is primarily open to all active member broadcasters of the EBU. To be an active member, broadcasters must be a member of the European Broadcasting Union, or be in a Council of Europe member country. Eligibility to participate is not determined by geographic inclusion within the continent of Europe, despite the "Euro" in "Eurovision", nor does it have a direct connection with the European Union. Several countries geographically outside the boundaries of Europe have competed: Israel, Cyprus, and Armenia, in Western Asia, since 1973, 1981 and 2006 respectively; Morocco, in North Africa, in the 1980 competition alone; and Australia making a debut in the 2015 contest. In addition, several transcontinental countries with only part of their territory in Europe have competed: Turkey, since 1975; Russia, since 1994; Georgia, since 2007; and Azerbaijan, which made its first appearance in the 2008 edition. Two of the countries that have previously sought to enter the competition, Lebanon and Tunisia, in Western Asia and North Africa respectively, are also outside of Europe. The Persian Gulf state of Qatar, in Western Asia, announced in 2009 its interest in joining the contest in time for the 2011 edition. However, this did not materialise, and there are no known plans for a future Qatari entry the Eurovision Song Contest. Australia, where the contest has been broadcast since the 1970s, has participated every year since making its debut in 2015.
The number of countries participating each year has grown steadily, from seven in 1956 to over twenty in the late 1980s. A record 43 countries participated in 2008, 2011 and 2018. As the number of contestants has risen, preliminary competitions and relegation have been introduced, to ensure that as many countries as possible get the chance to compete. In 1993, a preliminary show, Kvalifikacija za Millstreet ("Qualification for Millstreet"), was held to select three Eastern European countries to compete for the first time at the main Contest. After the 1993 Contest, a relegation rule was introduced; the six lowest-placed countries in the contest would not compete the following year. In 1996, a new system was introduced. Audio tapes of all twenty-nine entrants were submitted to national juries. The twenty-two highest-placed songs after the juries voted reached the contest. Norway, as host country, was given a bye to the final. From 1997 to 2001 a system was used whereby the countries with the lowest average scores over the previous five years were relegated. Countries could not be relegated for more than one year.
Between 2001 and 2003, the relegation system used in 1994 and 1995 was used. In 2004, a semi-final was introduced. The ten highest-placed countries in the previous year's Contest qualified for the final, along with the "Big Four": the largest financial contributors to the EBU. All other countries entered the semi-final. Ten countries qualified from the semi, leaving a final of twenty-four. In 2008, two semi-finals were held with all countries, except the host country and the Big Four, participating in one of the semi-finals.
Some countries, such as Germany, France, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom, have entered most years, while Morocco has only entered once. Two countries, Tunisia and Lebanon, have attempted to enter the contest but withdrew before making a début. Liechtenstein, a country without an eligible television service, tried unsuccessfully to enter in 1976.
- 1 Participants
- 2 Participating countries in the decades
- 3 Unsuccessful attempts to participate
- 4 Other EBU members who have never entered the Eurovision Song Contest
- 5 Other countries who have broadcast the Eurovision Song Contest
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
The following table lists the countries that have participated in the contest at least once. Shading indicates countries that have withdrawn from the contest.
Morocco participated in the contest once, in 1980. Luxembourg, one of the original seven participants, has not been seen at the contest since 1993. Italy withdrew from the contest in 1997 and returned in 2011. Slovakia previously competed three times between 1994 and 1998, failing to break into the top ten, but returned in 2009. Monaco returned to the contest in 2004, after over two decades out of the contest. However, the country failed to advance from the semi-final with each of its first three entries post-return, and withdrew after the 2006 Contest.
Yugoslavia and Serbia and Montenegro were both dissolved, in 1991 and 2006 respectively. Serbia and Montenegro participated in the 1992 Contest as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which consisted of only the two republics. Both Montenegro and Serbia have competed as separate countries since 2007.
- Table key
- Withdrawn – Countries who have participated in the past but have withdrawn.
- Former – Former countries that have been dissolved.
Participating countries in the decades
The table lists the participating countries in each decade since the first Eurovision Song Contest was held in 1956.
Seven countries participated in the first contest. Since then, the number of entries has increased steadily. In 1961, 3 countries debuted, Finland, Spain and Yugoslavia, joining the 13 already included. Yugoslavia will become the only socialist country to participate in the following three decades. In 1970, a Nordic-led boycott of the contest reduced the number of countries entering to twelve. By the late 1980s, over twenty countries had become standard.
In 1993, the collapse of the USSR in Eastern Europe gave many new countries the opportunity to compete. Three countries—Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, all of them former Yugoslav republics—won through from a pre-qualifier to compete. After the 1993 event, a relegation system was introduced, allowing even more Eastern European countries to compete: seven more made their debut in 1994.
In 2003, three countries applied to make their debut: Albania, Belarus and Ukraine. In addition, Serbia and Montenegro, who had not competed since 1992, applied to return. The EBU, having originally accepted the four countries' applications, later rejected all but Ukraine; allowing four extra countries to compete would have meant relegating too many countries. The semi-final was introduced in 2004 in an attempt to prevent situations like this. The Union set a limit of forty countries, but by 2005 thirty-nine were competing. In 2007, the EBU lifted the limit, allowing forty-two countries to compete. Two semi-finals were held for the first time in 2008.
- Winner – The country won the Eurovision Song Contest that year.
- Second place – The country was ranked second that year.
- Third place – The country was ranked third that year.
- Remaining places – The country placed from fourth to second last this year.
- Last – The country was ranked last that year.
- Non-qualified – The country did not qualify to the final (2004–present).
- Non-qualified for the contest – The country did not survive the pre-qualifying round (1993, 1996)
- Undecided – The country has confirmed participation for the next Eurovision Song Contest, however, the competition has not yet taken place.
- Debutant – The country made its debut during the decade.
- Did not participate – The country did not participate in the Eurovision Song Contest that year.
- Disqualified or withdrawn – The country was going to participate in the Eurovision that year, but was disqualified or withdrew that year.
- A cross (X) means that the country participated in the contest that year.
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||X||X||X||X||X||X|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X|
|Serbia and Montenegro||X||X||X|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||X||X||X||X|
Unsuccessful attempts to participate
There have been several unsuccessful attempts to participate in the Eurovision Song Contest. For broadcasters to participate, they must be member of the EBU and register their intention to compete before the deadline specified in the rules of that year's event. Each participating broadcaster pays a fee towards the organisation of the contest. Should a country withdraw from the contest after the deadline, they will still need to pay these fees, and may also incur a fine or temporary ban.
Since 2013, Television of Catalonia fulfils the requirements to be an active member of the EBU. According to articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Statutes and annexes 2 and 5 of the Admission Criteria, Television of Catalonia is a European public audiovisual broadcaster from a country (Spain) that is a member of the International Telecommunication Union and has a "national character" because it represents and offers full coverage to a specific political and cultural community (Catalonia) of a plurilingual State (Spain). In this sense, Television of Catalonia requested in the summer of 2017 at the General Assembly of the EBU in Dublin its membership as a full member. The EBU will resolve the Catalan application at the beginning of 2019 and RTVE could veto its entry into this organisation.
China aired the Eurovision Song Contest 2015 and then Chinese provincial television channel Hunan Television had confirmed its interest in participating in the Eurovision Song Contest 2016. The EBU had responded saying "we are open and are always looking for new elements in each Eurovision Song Contest". However, on 3 June 2015, the EBU denied that China would participate as a guest or full participant in 2016.
During the Chinese broadcast of the first 2018 semi-final on Mango TV, both Albania and Ireland were edited out of the show, along with their snippets in the recap of all 19 entries. Albania was skipped due to a ban on television performers displaying tattoos that took effect in January 2018 while Ireland was censored due to its representation of a homosexual couple on-stage. In addition, the LGBT flag and tattoos on other performers were also blurred out from the broadcast. As a result, the EBU has terminated its partnership with Mango TV, citing that censorship "is not in line with the EBU's values of universality and inclusivity and its proud tradition of celebrating diversity through music," which led to a ban on televising the second semi-final and the grand final in the country. A spokesperson for the broadcaster's parent company Hunan TV said they "weren't aware" of the edits made to the programme.
Since 2010, the Faroese national broadcaster Kringvarp Føroya (KVF) has been attempting to gain EBU membership and thus participate independently in the Eurovision Song Contest. However KVF cannot obtain EBU membership due to the islands being a constituent part of the Kingdom of Denmark as determined by the unity of the Realm.
In late 2018, the Faroese national broadcaster Kringvarp Føroya showed renewed interest in joining the European Broadcasting Union and participating in the Eurovision Song Contest. According to the broadcaster, they are not excluded by the rule that only independent nations can join, and as a result the Faroese broadcaster started internal discussions on applying for the EBU membership and participating in the Eurovision Song Contest and even hosting a national final similar to the Dansk Melodi Grand Prix.
Since 2006, the Gibraltarian national broadcaster Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) has been attempting to gain EBU membership and thus participate independently in the Eurovision Song Contest. However GBC cannot obtain EBU membership due to the British Overseas Territory not being independent from the United Kingdom. Gibraltar has broadcast the Eurovision Song Contest 2008 and the final of the 2006 edition.
Since 2011, the Greenlandic national broadcaster Kalaallit Nunaata Radioa (KNR) has attempted to gain EBU membership and thus participate independently in the Eurovision Song Contest. However KNR cannot obtain EBU membership due to the autonomous country not being independent from the Kingdom of Denmark. Greenland has broadcast the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 on tape delay. On 4 May 2017, it was announced that Greenland would broadcast the 2017 contest final on delay.
Kazakhstan has not participated in the Eurovision Song Contest yet. Kazakhstan is negotiating to join the European Broadcasting Union. The state television company (K-1) has been hoping for pending or approved EBU membership since 2008. If this happens, they may be eligible to compete in the Eurovision Song Contest. Nevertheless, they have broadcast the Eurovision Song Contests from 2010 onwards. However, according to the EBU, no Kazakh broadcaster has ever formally applied to join the EBU.
On 18 December 2015, it was announced that Khabar Agency, a major media outlet in Kazakhstan, had been accepted into the EBU as an Associate member, but were still not eligible to take part in the contest under the current rules. Only countries who are part of the European Broadcasting Area are eligible to participate, with Australia being the only exception after being an associate member for over 30 years.
They debuted at the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2018 alongside Wales, placing sixth. On 30 July 2018, the EBU stated that the decision to invite Kazakhstan was made solely by the Junior Eurovision reference group, and there were no current plans to invite associate members other than Australia.
On 22 November 2018, Jon Ola Sand said in a press conference that "we need to discuss if we can invite our associate member Kazakhstan to take part in adult ESC in the future, but this is part of a broader discussion in the EBU and I hope we can get back to you on this issue later." However, shortly after he clarified that they will not have an entry in the 2019 edition.
Kosovo has never participated in the Eurovision Song Contest on its own, but the contest has had a long history within the country which has broadcast it since 1961, and after the start of Kosovo's UN administration, the Kosovan public broadcaster RTK has been independently licensed by the EBU to broadcast all three shows. Despite not having participated at the song contest, Kosovo did participate in the Eurovision Young Dancers 2011.
RTK can formally apply to become a member of the EBU, once Kosovo becomes a member of the International Telecommunications Union, as defined by the EBU rules. The EBU will vote on full membership of the Kosovar broadcaster in June 2019, possibly allowing the country to debut in 2020, or in the near future after that.
History and interest
Jugovizija, the national pre-selection of Yugoslavia organized by the Yugoslav broadcaster Yugoslav Radio Television (JRT) since 1961 and it featured entries submitted by the subnational public broadcasting centres based in the capitals of each of the constituent republics and autonomous provinces. Each of them had its own regional jury. SAP Kosovo was represented by RTV Priština, but their entry has never won. Jugovizija 1986 was organized by RTV Priština. Before 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence, Viktorija a singer from Vučitrn represented Yugoslavia as part of Aska in 1982 and Nevena Božović from Mitrovica represented Serbia in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2007. After the breakup of Yugoslavia, numerous Kosovo Albanian singers participated at the Festivali i Këngës which is the Albanian national selection for Eurovision organized by RTSH. The most notable participants to date were Rona Nishliu who represented Albania in the Eurovision 2012 and Lindita who represented Albania in the Eurovision 2017. Some singers, especially Kosovo Serbs, participate in Serbian national selection organized by RTS. Nevena Božović also represented Serbia, as member of Moje 3, in the Eurovision Song Contest 2013 and she will compete in the Eurovision Song Contest 2019 again as a solo artist.
After Kosovo's declaration of independence from Serbia in 2008, its broadcaster Radio Television of Kosovo (RTK) applied for EBU membership, and wished to enter Kosovo into Eurovision Song Contest 2009. There is a cooperation agreement signed between the EBU and RTK and the EBU supports the membership of RTK. From 2013 on, RTK has observer status within the EBU and did participate in the Eurovision Young Dancers 2011. According to the Kosovan newspaper Koha Ditore, a possible entry would be selected via a national final called Akordet e Kosovës, a former pop show that had been taken off the air some years ago.
Lebanon has never participated in the Eurovision Song Contest. The country's broadcasting organization, Télé Liban, was set to make the country's debut at the Eurovision Song Contest 2005 with the song "Quand tout s'enfuit" performed by Aline Lahoud, but withdrew due to Lebanon's laws barring the broadcast of Israeli content.
Liechtenstein has never participated at the Eurovision Song Contest, but the contest has had a long history within the country, with at least one attempt to participate being made by the principality.
Liechtensteiners have had the opportunity to watch the contest on Swiss, Austrian or German television. The country has made attempts to participate in the contest in the past: in 1976 a Liechtenstein entry was selected to compete in the contest – Biggi Bachman and "Little Cowboy" would have been the country's first entry had there been a national broadcaster, but as there was none in the country the entry was rejected from competing.
On 15 August 2008, 1FLTV, licensed by Liechtenstein's government, became the first broadcaster based in Liechtenstein. This would allow the country to begin competing at the Eurovision Song Contest for the first time, should they decide to join the EBU, a pre-requisite for entering the contest. Shortly after its foundation however, the broadcaster announced that they were not interested in joining the EBU or Eurovision at that time because they had no budget for membership.
In July 2009, the broadcaster officially announced its intent to apply to join the EBU by the end of July, with the intent of taking part at the Eurovision Song Contest 2010, to be held in Oslo, Norway. Peter Kölbel, managing director of 1FLTV, officially confirmed the broadcaster's interest, revealing that they had plans to develop a national final similar to Deutschland sucht den Superstar, the German version of the Idol series. In November 2009, 1FLTV decided to postpone EBU and Eurovision plans, due to financial reasons began to search for other options for funding EBU membership in the future.
1FLTV submitted its application for EBU membership on 29 July 2010. If accepted, 1FLTV would have gained full EBU membership and would have been able to send an entry to the Eurovision Song Contest 2011. However, Liechtenstein did not appear on the official list of participants for Eurovision 2011. In late 2012 it was announced by Peter Kölbel of 1FLTV that Liechtenstein would not be able to take part till 2013 at the earliest. They had been trying to get government subsidies since 2010 to enable participation, participation was likely if in April 2012 the Government approved funding.
On 10 September 2013, 1FLTV informed and confirmed to Esctoday.com that Liechtenstein would not be participating at the Eurovision Song Contest 2014 in Copenhagen, Denmark. The broadcaster has no plans to join the EBU at the moment. This was confirmed again on 28 July 2014 in the run-up to the Eurovision Song Contest 2015 in Austria. 1FLTV did however state their interest in participating in the Eurovision Song Contest, but that they have to evaluate the costs of EBU membership, a necessary prelude to participation. 1FLTV confirmed that the nation will not be able to make its début in 2016, due to lack of funds to join the EBU. On 21 September 2016, 1FLTV announced that they would not be able to debut to the contest in 2017, but that they would set their eyes on a future participation once they overcome their financial hurdles. Yet again, on 1 September 2017 they also announced they would not debut at the 2018 contest in Lisbon.
On 4 November 2017 the broadcaster confirmed that it was planning to debut in the Eurovision Song Contest in 2019 and would organise a national selection to select both the singer and the song. However, on 20 July 2018, the EBU stated that 1 FL TV have not applied for membership.
Qatar Radio (QR) is currently an associate member of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), while all competing countries of the Eurovision Song Contest must be active members of the Union. The broadcaster first revealed on 12 May 2009 that they were interested in becoming active members of the Union, which would allow the nation to compete in the Contest. Qatar Radio has stated that they hope to join Eurovision by 2011. Qatar first became involved in the Contest at the 2009 edition, where the broadcaster sent a delegation to the contest and broadcast a weekly radio show called '12pointsqatar' dedicated to Eurovision, which received favourable responses and has initiated the further involvement of Qatar in Eurovision. Qatar Radio has said that they feel that they would be happy to join all other competitors in the contest, including Israel if Qatar gets membership.
Qatar is required to have a broadcaster which has at least associate membership of the EBU in order to have a chance to take part, as Qatar Radio is only a radio station and Qatar lies outside the European Broadcasting Area and cannot apply for Council of Europe membership, with Australia being the only exception after being an associate member for over 30 years. The broadcaster would most likely be Qatar Television (QTV) also owned and run by the Qatar General Broadcasting and Television Corporation (QGBTC). If Qatar Radio gets accepted too, then they would be able to air the contest alongside the television broadcast.
The Scottish National Party (SNP) has campaigned for a place in Eurovision for Scotland but had been rejected numerous times because Scotland is represented as a part of the British entry and is represented by the BBC. On 11 February 2008 the EBU stated that a Scottish broadcaster could apply for EBU membership, but under the current rules could not enter the Eurovision Song Contest as the BBC currently has exclusive rights to represent the entire United Kingdom.
Scotland would have been eligible to enter the contest had Scotland gained independence as a result of the Scottish independence referendum, 2014, as Scotland would therefore have been a separate country.
On 25 November 2013, the Scottish Government released a referendum blueprint which detailed plans for the transfer of BBC Scotland into the Scottish Broadcasting Service (SBS) and joining the EBU, as well as partaking in competitions, including Scottish entries in the Eurovision Song Contest. Had the referendum vote been favour of independence, then the earliest that Scotland would be eligible to debut would have been 2017. However, the referendum result on 18 September 2014 was to remain part of the United Kingdom, and the aforementioned BBC retains exclusive rights to represent the United Kingdom, including Scotland.
The Soviet Union never participated in the Eurovision Song Contest, but it made several attempts in the late 1980s. In 2009, Eduard Fomin, a former employee of the Ministry of Education of the RSFSR, revealed that in 1987 George Veselov, the Minister of Education for the Soviet Union, brought forward the idea of Soviet participation in the Eurovision Song Contest due to the number of political reforms made by the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev during the late 1980s. The idea was mainly a political one, with the thought that a win in the contest for the Soviet Union would impact on the relationships between the Soviet Union and the capitalist countries of the west. Valery Leontyev was suggested as a singer for the Soviet Union's first entry into the contest, but Veselov's ideas were not shared by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, or by Gorbachev himself, believing it to be too radical a step to take, and so the Soviet Union never entered the contest before dissolving.
Some former republics of the Soviet Union, which were geographically situated in Europe, would later compete in the contest on their own in the 1990s and 2000s: Russia, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan, except Kazakhstan, with four of the countries going on to win one of the contests: Estonia, Latvia, Russia, and Azerbaijan. Ukraine was the first ex-USSR country to win twice.
Tunisia was to perform fourth in the 1977 Eurovision Song Contest's running order. The reason for the country's withdrawal was never officially established; rumours suggest ERTT did not want to compete with Israel. To date, the only African nation to participate in the Eurovision Song Contest is Morocco, who made just one appearance, in the 1980 contest. On 18 June 2007, the public Tunisian television broadcaster confirmed that due to a governmental request they will not participate in the contest.
In the 1960s, the late Welsh singer, scholar and writer Meredydd Evans proposed that Wales should have its own entry in the Eurovision Song Contest. In 1969, Cân i Gymru was launched by BBC Cymru Wales as a selection show for the contest, with songs to be performed in Welsh. However, it was decided that the BBC would continue to send one entry for the whole of the United Kingdom. Despite this, Cân i Gymru has been broadcast every year since, with the exception of 1973. The winning song takes part in the annual Pan Celtic Festival in Ireland. Wales has appeared as an independent country in another EBU production, Jeux Sans Frontières and Welsh national broadcaster S4C has been encouraged to take part in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest. Wales is also eligible to take part in minority language song contest Liet-Lávlut, but has so far shown no interest.
Wales participated in the inaugural Eurovision Choir of the Year in 2017, where they finished 2nd. Wales announced on 9 May 2018 that they would debut at the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2018 in Minsk, Belarus. They finished in 20th place with 29 points.
Other EBU members who have never entered the Eurovision Song Contest
Other countries who have broadcast the Eurovision Song Contest
|Brazil||Rede Tupi (RTTV)||1969, 1970, 1972|
|Chile||Canal 9||1969, 1970|
|Egypt||Egyptian Radio and Television Union (ERTU)||1981|
|Hong Kong||Radio Television Hong Kong (RTHK)||1971–1972, 1975, 1978–1979|
|India||All India Radio (AIR)||TBC|
|Japan||Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK)||1972, 1975, 1978, 2000|
|Jordan||Jordan Radio and Television Corporation (JRTV)||1975, 1978|
|Kyrgyzstan||Kyrgyz Television (KTRK)||2012 |
|Mexico||Canal de las Estrellas||2004|
|New Zealand||BBC UKTV||2014–2016|
|Puerto Rico||Maquila Solidarity Network (MSN)||2003–2004|
|South Korea||Korean Broadcasting System (KBS)||1975|
|Taiwan||Taiwan Television (TTV)||1972|
|Thailand||National Broadcasting Services of Thailand (NBT)||1972|
|United States||Unknown, Logo TV||2000, 2016–2018|
- List of countries in the ABU Radio Song Festival
- List of countries in the ABU TV Song Festival
- List of countries in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest
- List of countries in the Turkvision Song Contest
- United Kingdom in the Eurovision Song Contest § Separate entrants
- VRT and RTBF alternate responsibilities for the contest.
- Until 2018 participated as F.Y.R. Macedonia.
- RTR and C1R alternate responsibilities for the contest since 2008.
- The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia competed as "Yugoslavia" in 1992.
- "Admission". EBU. European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- Repo, Juha (12 May 2009). "Gulf nation wants to join Eurovision". ESCToday. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
- ESCtoday.com. Eurovision Song Contest 1993. Retrieved on 2 February 2008.
- O'Connor, John Kennedy (2005). The Eurovision Song Contest 50 Years The Official History. London: Carlton Books Limited. ISBN 1-84442-586-X.
- ESCtoday.com. Eurovision Song Contest 1996. Retrieved on 2 February 2008.
- Eurovision.tv. Eurovision Song Contest 1997 Archived 20 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2 February 2008.
- BBC News (12 May 2004). Eurovision finalists chosen. Retrieved on 2 February 2008.
- European Broadcasting Union (1 October 2007). Two semi-finals Eurovision Song Contest 2008. Retrieved on 2 February 2008.
- BBC (26 April 2007). The Eurovision Song Contest 1956 – present. Retrieved on 2 February 2008.
- ESCtoday.com (26 February 2007). Rúsza wins by just 18 votes. Retrieved on 9 February 2008.
- Victor Hondal (24 September 2008). Slovakia returns to Eurovision in 2009. ESCtoday.com. Retrieved on 24 September 2008.
- Gylleneskor.se (13 December 2006). Monaco drag sig ur Eurovision Song Contest (in Swedish). Retrieved on 9 February 2008.
- Ian Taylor (14 May 2007). From pariah state to kitsch victory: how a Balkan ballad showed Europe a new Serbia. The Guardian. Retrieved on 9 February 2008.
- Eurovision.tv. History by country. Retrieved on 20 August 2014.
- (EBU), European Broadcasting Union. "EBU – Members". www.ebu.ch. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- Eurovision.tv. Eurovision Song Contest 1970 Archived 28 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 9 February 2008.
- ESCtoday.com (27 November 2002). No new countries at next Eurovision Song Contest. Retrieved on 11 February 2008.
- ESCtoday.com (27 November 2002). EBU released list of participants for 2003. Retrieved on 11 February 2008.
- Eurovision.tv (27 October 2006). Georgia set on 2007. Retrieved on 11 February 2008.
- BBC News (20 March 2006). Row prompts Eurovision withdrawal. Retrieved on 14 February 2008.
- Cava, Joel. "Escòcia, Kosovo i altres vies de TV3 per accedir a la UER i Eurovisió". ElNacional.cat. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
- Lee Adams, William (22 May 2015). "China: Exclusive: China'S Hunan TV exploring Eurovision participation". wiwibloggs. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- Muldoon, Padraig (3 June 2015). "Eurovision 2016: EBU denies Kosovo and China rumours". Wiwibloggs. www.wiwibloggs.com. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
- Park, Andrea (10 May 2018). "China censors Ireland's gay-themed Eurovision performance". CBS News. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
- "China Just Banned Hip-Hop Culture and Tattoos From Television". Time.com. 22 January 2018.
- Avelino, Gerry (9 May 2018). "China: Ireland and Albania removed from semi-final 1 broadcast". Eurovoix. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- "China channel barred from airing Eurovision". BBC News. 11 May 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
- "Statement 10 May: EBU terminates this year's partnership with Mango TV". eurovision.tv. 10 May 2018. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
- Washington, Jessica (11 May 2018). "China banned from broadcasting Eurovision after censoring same-sex dance". SBS News. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
- Granger, Anthony (10 June 2015). "Faroe Islands want to participate in the Eurovision Song Contest". eurovoix.com. Eurovoix. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
- "The Faroe Islands wants EBU membership and right to participate at Eurovision". 30 December 2018. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
- Granger, Anthony (25 March 2015). "Gibraltar: No Plans To Broadcast Eurovision". eurovoix.com. Eurovoix. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- Granger, Anthony (3 May 2016). "Greenland: Will Not Broadcast Eurovision 2016". eurovoix.com. Eurovoix. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- Granger, Anthony (4 May 2017). "Greenland: KNR to broadcast Eurovision 2017 on timeshift". Eurovoix. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
- "Kazajistán negocia su incorporación a la UER". Eurovision Spain (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- "EBU on Twitter: "@Karl_Downey No broadcaster from Kazakhstan has formally applied to join the EBU"". Retrieved 19 July 2015.
- "EBU on Twitter: "We can confirm that @KhabarTV was confirmed as an EBU Associate at our recent General Assembly"". Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "EBU on Twitter: "Under current rules @KhabarTV is not eligible for @Eurovision participation"". Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "Kazakhstan's Channel 31 claims: "We will participate in Eurovision 2019!"". ESCXTRA. 22 December 2017. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- "These are the 19 (!) countries taking part in Junior Eurovision 2018". junioreurovision.tv. European Broadcasting Union. 25 July 2018. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- Cobb, Ryan. "Official EBU statement: "No plans" to invite Kazakhstan to Eurovision 2019". ESCXTRA. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- Cobb, Ryan. "Jon Ola Sand: Kazakhstan participation in adult Eurovision "needs to be discussed"". ESCXTRA. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- Cobb, Ryan. "No entry in Eurovision 2019 for Kazakhstan, clarifies Jon Ola Sand". ESCXTRA. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
- "Article 3.3 (Active membership criteria)" (PDF). European Broadcasting Union.
- Van Lith, Nick (1 December 2018). "Kosovo's RTK membership vote delayed until June, report claims". Escx.
- "Kosovo: RTK wants to enter Eurovision in 2009". oikotimes.com. Archived from the original on 3 January 2010. Retrieved 22 May 2008.
- "NDR on the Kosovo potential participation in Eurovision" Archived 29 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Archived 29 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine oikotimes.com 22 May 2008 Link accessed 27/05/08
- Albavision (7 April 2011). "Kosovo new steps in ebu agreement". albavision.tk. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- "Participant Profile – Kosovo". European Broadcasting Union. 2011. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- Eurosong (19 April 2008). "Kosovo wil snel deelnemen aan het Songfestival" (in Dutch). eurosong.be. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- setimes (8 April 2010). "EBU membership key to Kosovo's Eurovision future". Setimes.com. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- Eurovisionary (2 June 2011). "Kosovo a possible candidate for Eurovision?". eurovisionary.com. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- X Tra (19 February 2005). "Aline Lahoud to sing Quand tout s'enfuit". ESCToday. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- Christian, Nicholas (20 March 2005). "Nul points as Lebanon quits contest". Scotland on Sunday. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- "No, No, Never!!! – Songs That Did Not Make It To Eurovision". eurovisionsongs.net. Archived from the original on 1 March 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- "The Eurovision Song Contest 1956 – present". BBC. 26 April 2007. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- Kuipers, Michael (24 August 2008). "Liechtenstein gets a TV station". ESCToday. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- Backfish, Emma (31 August 2008). "Liechtenstein gets national TV station". Oikotimes. Archived from the original on 6 September 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- "1FL TV from Lichtenstein not entering the EBU & Eurovision". Oikotimes. 6 October 2008. Archived from the original on 27 July 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- Harley, Lee (21 July 2009). "Liechtenstein: Set to debut in Eurovision 2010?". Oikotimes. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- "News Eurovision Russia 2009". ESCKaz. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- Hondal, Victor (4 November 2009). "Liechtenstein rules out Eurovision participation". ESCToday. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
- Coroneri, Alenka (4 November 2009). "Liechtenstein decides to postpone Eurovision plans". Oikotimes. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
- "Liechtenstein: 1FL expects "good chances" for Eurovision debut". ESCToday. 30 July 2010. Archived from the original on 2 August 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
- "Liechtenstein: No debut in Eurovision 2014!". ESCToday. 10 September 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- Jiandani, Sergio (28 July 2014). "Liechtentestein: 1 FL TV will not debut in Eurovision 2015". esctoday.com. ESCToday. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- Jiandani, Sanjay (16 September 2015). "Liechtenstein: 1 FL TV will not debut in Stockholm". esctoday.com. ESCToday. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
- Jiandani, Sanjay (21 September 2016). "Liechtenstein: 1 FL TV will not debut in Kyiv; sets its eyes on a future ESC participation". ESCToday. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
- Jiandani, Sanjay (1 September 2017). "Liechtenstein: 1 FL TV will not debut in Eurovision 2018". esctoday.com. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
- "Liechtenstein: 1FLTV plans Eurovision debut in 2019". eurovoix.com. 4 November 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- "'Liechtenstein have not applied' confirms EBU". EscXtra. 20 July 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- "Scotland heading for 2009 bid?". eurovision.tv. Retrieved 12 February 2008.
- Granger, Anthony (26 November 2013). "Scotland would participate in Eurovision". Eurovoix.com. BBC. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "Scotland's Referendum 2014 – What will happen to the BBC following independence?". Scottish Government. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "Scotland's Referendum 2014 – Would the Scottish Broadcasting Service (SBS) join the European Broadcasting Union (EBU)?". Scottish Government. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Holehouse, Matthew (19 September 2014). "Scottish independence referendum results as it happened". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- "EBU – Eurovision Choir". www.ebu.ch. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
- "Archived copy" Невероятно! Леонтьев должен был представлять СССР на Евровидение-87! (in Russian). nnm.ru. Archived from the original on 28 May 2012. Retrieved 1 January 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Eurovision.tv. Eurovision Song Contest 1977. Retrieved on 2 February 2008.
- "Tunisia will not participate "in the forseeable future"". ESCToday. Retrieved 18 June 2007.
- Granger, Anthony (3 April 2017). "Wales confirms participation in Eurovision Choir of the Year 2017". eurovoix.com. Eurovoix. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
- "Chwilio am Seren". junioreurovision.cymru. S4C. 9 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- "Eurovision Song Contest 1972 – Eurovision Song Contest". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
- "Eurovision Song Contest 1978 – Eurovision Song Contest". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
- Granger, Anthony. "Canada: OMNI Television to Broadcast Eurovision 2019". Eurovoix. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "Recalling Sweden's first staging of the contest in 1975". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
- "Eurovision Song Contest 1981 – Eurovision Song Contest". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
- "Eurovision trivia" (PDF). BBC. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
- Granger, Anthony (29 March 2017). "New Zealand: UKTV Will Not Broadcast Eurovision 2017". eurovoix. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
- Barak, Itamar (22 May 2003). "EBU press conference about the contest's future". ESCToday.com. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
- "Eurovision Song Contest 2004". EBU. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
- Toor, Amar (3 May 2016). "Eurovision is coming to US television for the first time ever". The Verge.
- Andreeva, Nellie (27 April 2017). "Eurovision 2017 To Air in the US On Logo". Deadline.
- O'Connor, John Kennedy (2005). The Eurovision Song Contest 50 Years The Official History. London: Carlton Books Limited. ISBN 1-84442-586-X.