List of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level

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List of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level. List based on Fearon's analysis

This page contains lists of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level.

Methodology[edit]

The lists are commonly used in Economics literature to compare the levels of ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious fractionalization in different countries.[1][2] Fractionalization measures are computing the probability that two randomly drawn individuals (from a country) are not from the same group (ethnic, religious, or whatever the criterion is). The two lists have been described by Alesina and Ferrara as follows:[1]

"Fearon[3] and Alesina et al.[4] have compiled various measures of ethnic heterogeneity which try to tackle the fact that the difference amongst groups manifests itself in different ways in different places. The two classifications are constructed differently. Alesina et al.[4] do not take a stand on what ethnicity (or language or religion) are more salient than others and adopt the country breakdown suggested by original sources, mainly the Encyclopædia Britannica. Fearon[3] instead is trying to construct the ”right list” of ethnic groups which ”depends on what people in the country identify as the most socially relevant ethnic groupings”. This approach has the advantage of being closer to what the theory would want and the disadvantage of having to make judgement calls (or adopt others’ judgement calls) about what is the ”right list”."

List based on Fearon's analysis[edit]

In the Fearon list, cultural fractionalization is approximated by a measure of similarity between languages, varying from 1 = the population speaks two or more unrelated languages to 0 = the entire population speaks the same language.[3] This index of cultural diversity is biased towards linguistic variations as opposed to genetic diversity and other variations.

Ethnic and Cultural diversity (2003)[3]
Rank Country Ethnic Fractionalization Index Cultural Diversity Index
1  Papua New Guinea 1.000000
2  Tanzania 0.953000 0.564000
3  Democratic Republic of Congo 0.933000 0.628000
4  Uganda 0.930000 0.647000
5  Liberia 0.899000 0.644000
6  Cameroon 0.887000 0.733000
7  Togo 0.883000 0.602000
8  South Africa 0.880000 0.530000
9  Congo 0.878000 0.562000
10  Madagascar 0.861000 0.192000
11  Gabon 0.857000 0.382000
12  Kenya 0.852000 0.601000
13  Ghana 0.846000 0.388000
14  Malawi 0.829000 0.294000
15  Guinea-Bissau 0.818000 0.568000
16  Somalia 0.812000 0.290000
17  India 0.811000 0.667000
18  Nigeria 0.805000 0.660000
19  Yugoslavia (1943–1992) 0.801000 0.385000
20  Central African Republic 0.791000 0.511000
21  Ivory Coast 0.784000 0.557000
22  Lebanon 0.780000 0.195000
23  Chad 0.772000 0.727000
24  Indonesia 0.766000 0.522000
25  Mozambique 0.765000 0.285000
26  Gambia 0.764000 0.548000
27  Sierra Leone 0.764000 0.534000
28  Ethiopia 0.760000 0.562000
29  Angola 0.756000 0.242000
30  Mali 0.754000 0.590000
31  Afghanistan 0.751000 0.679000
32  Bolivia 0.743000 0.662000
33  United Arab Emirates 0.737000 0.650000
34  Senegal 0.727000 0.402000
35  Zambia 0.726000 0.189000
36  Namibia 0.724000 0.589000
37  Soviet Union (1922–1991) 0.711000 0.596000
38  Sudan (1955–2011) 0.708000 0.698000
39  Kuwait 0.708000 0.540000
40  Burkina Faso 0.704000 0.354000
41  Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.681000 0.146000
42  Kyrgyzstan 0.679000 0.624000
43    Nepal 0.677000 0.542000
44  Iran 0.669000 0.542000
45  Guinea 0.669000 0.490000
46  Kazakhstan 0.664000 0.620000
47  Colombia 0.656000 0.020000
48  Ecuador 0.655000 0.480000
49  Eritrea 0.647000 0.398000
50  Trinidad and Tobago 0.647000 0.380000
51  Peru 0.638000 0.506000
52  Niger 0.637000 0.600000
53  Mauritius 0.632000 0.448000
54  Mauritania 0.625000 0.272000
55  Benin 0.622000 0.400000
56  Guyana 0.620000 0.460000
57  Djibouti 0.606000 0.404000
58  Bhutan 0.605000 0.518000
59  Malaysia 0.596000 0.564000
60  Canada 0.596000 0.499000
61  Latvia 0.585000 0.441000
62  Syria 0.581000 0.235000
63   Switzerland 0.575000 0.418000
64  Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918–1943) 0.575000 0.392000
65  Belgium 0.567000 0.462000
66  Fiji 0.566000 0.553000
67  Saudi Arabia 0.553000 0.413000
68  Bahrain 0.551000 0.460000
69  Iraq 0.549000 0.355000
70  Brazil 0.549000 0.020000
71  Mexico 0.542000 0.434000
72  Macedonia 0.535000 0.432000
73  Pakistan 0.532000 0.289000
74  Tunisia 0.526000 0.246000
75  Burma 0.522000 0.419000
76  Tajikistan 0.513000 0.492000
77  Estonia 0.511000 0.492000
78  Moldova 0.510000 0.401000
79  Jordan 0.509000 0.049000
80  Panama 0.507000 0.168000
81  Czechoslovakia (1918–1992) 0.505000 0.290000
82  Spain 0.502000 0.263000
83  Chile 0.497000 0.167000
84  Guatemala 0.493000 0.493000
85  United States 0.491000 0.271000
86  Georgia 0.490000 0.404000
87  Uzbekistan 0.485000 0.442000
88  Venezuela 0.483000 0.020000
89  Laos 0.481000 0.020000
90  Morocco 0.479000 0.360000
91  Oman 0.439000 0.404000
92  Thailand 0.431000 0.431000
93  Sri Lanka 0.428000 0.386000
94  Ukraine 0.419000 0.258000
95  Nicaragua 0.402000 0.095000
96  Turkmenistan 0.392000 0.328000
97  Singapore 0.388000 0.388000
98  Dominican Republic 0.387000 0.000000
99  Croatia 0.375000 0.185000
100  Belarus 0.372000 0.228000
101  Zimbabwe 0.366000 0.141000
102  New Zealand 0.363000 0.363000
103  Cyprus 0.359000 0.359000
104  Botswana 0.351000 0.161000
105  Lithuania 0.338000 0.259000
106  Russia 0.333000 0.311000
107  Slovakia 0.332000 0.293000
108  Burundi 0.328000 0.040000
109  United Kingdom 0.324000 0.184000
110  Czech Republic 0.322000 0.064000
111  Algeria 0.320000 0.237000
112  Romania 0.300000 0.265000
113  Turkey 0.299000 0.299000
114  Bulgaria 0.299000 0.250000
115  Swaziland 0.280000 0.143000
116  Taiwan 0.274000 0.169000
117  France 0.272000 0.251000
118  Mongolia 0.272000 0.227000
119  Lesotho 0.255000 0.057000
120  Argentina 0.255000 0.000000
121  Costa Rica 0.238000 0.078000
122  Vietnam 0.233000 0.210000
123  Slovenia 0.231000 0.170000
124  Bangladesh 0.223000 0.141000
125  Uruguay 0.218000 0.000000
126  Cuba 0.213000 0.020000
127  El Salvador 0.198000 0.180000
128  Sweden 0.189000 0.189000
129  Azerbaijan 0.188000 0.187000
130  Hungary 0.186000 0.185000
131  Cambodia 0.186000 0.150000
132  Honduras 0.185000 0.167000
133  Rwanda 0.180000 0.000000
134  Ireland 0.171000 0.157000
135  Jamaica 0.166000 0.027000
136  Egypt 0.164000 0.000000
137  Philippines 0.161000 0.116000
138  China 0.154000 0.154000
139  Libya 0.151000 0.127000
140  Australia 0.149000 0.147000
141  Armenia 0.134000 0.124000
142  Finland 0.132000 0.132000
143  Paraguay 0.132000 0.039000
144  Denmark 0.128000 0.128000
145  Austria 0.126000 0.100000
146  Norway 0.098000 0.098000
147  Albania 0.097000 0.082000
148  Germany 0.095000 0.090000
149  Haiti 0.095000 0.000000
150  Yemen 0.078000 0.078000
151  Netherlands 0.077000 0.077000
152  Greece 0.059000 0.050000
153  Poland 0.047000 0.041000
154  Portugal 0.040000 0.040000
155  Italy 0.040000 0.040000
156  Israel 0.039000 0.033000
157  Japan 0.012000 0.012000
158  South Korea 0.004000 0.004000
159  North Korea 0.002000 0.002000

List based on Alesina et al's analysis[edit]

This list is based on the analysis of Alesina and others,[4] they develop fractionalization scores based on ethnicity, religious and linguistic data directly from the Encyclopædia Britannica lists. This list is biased by how the Britannica chooses to list ethnic groups, but it does not make a judgement call on which identities are more salient than others. According to Patsiurko et al.

"One of the most ambitious and widely used of these new [fractionalization] indices was created by Alesina et al. (2003) who developed measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization in 190 countries using more current data from the Encyclopædia Britannica Book of the Year (2001) ... and other sources. But again scholars offered criticisms (e.g. Fearon 2003; Posner 2004). First, there is inconsistency in terms of the years covered. For instance, the Encyclopædia Britannica provides ethnicity data for only 124 of 190 countries, so Alesina had to resort to other sources for the rest. Hence, his ethnicity data covered years ranging from 1979 to 2001, depending on the country. Second, he offered one-time measures of fractionalization, thereby being unable to say anything about change over time"[2]
Ethnic, Linguistic and Religious Fractionalization[4]
Country Ethnic Fractionalization Linguistic Fractionalization Religious Fractionalization
 Afghanistan 0.769300 0.614100 0.271700
 Albania 0.220400 0.039900 0.471900
 Algeria 0.339400 0.442700 0.009100
 American Samoa 0.000000 0.173300 0.639500
 Andorra 0.713900 0.684800 0.232600
 Angola 0.786700 0.787000 0.627600
 Antigua and Barbuda 0.164300 0.106300 0.684000
 Argentina 0.255000 0.061800 0.223600
 Armenia 0.127200 0.129100 0.457600
 Aruba 0.000000 0.388900 0.410700
 Australia 0.092900 0.334900 0.821100
 Austria 0.106800 0.152200 0.414600
 Azerbaijan 0.204700 0.205400 0.489900
 Bahamas 0.422800 0.185500 0.681500
 Bahrain 0.502100 0.434400 0.552800
 Bangladesh 0.045400 0.092500 0.209000
 Barbados 0.142300 0.092600 0.693400
 Belarus 0.322200 0.466600 0.611600
 Belgium 0.555400 0.540900 0.212700
 Belize 0.701500 0.630300 0.581300
 Benin 0.787200 0.790500 0.554400
 Bermuda 0.000000 0.000000 0.711200
 Bhutan 0.605000 0.605600 0.378700
 Bolivia 0.739600 0.224000 0.208500
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.630000 0.675100 0.685100
 Botswana 0.410200 0.411000 0.598600
 Brazil 0.540800 0.046800 0.605400
 Brunei 0.541600 0.343800 0.440400
 Bulgaria 0.402100 0.303100 0.596500
 Burkina Faso 0.737700 0.722800 0.579800
 Burundi 0.295100 0.297700 0.515800
 Cambodia 0.210500 0.210400 0.096500
 Cameroon 0.863500 0.889800 0.733800
 Canada 0.712400 0.577200 0.695800
 Cape Verde 0.417400 0.000000 0.076600
 Central African Republic 0.829500 0.833400 0.791600
 Chad 0.862000 0.863500 0.641100
 Chile 0.186100 0.187100 0.384100
 China 0.153800 0.132700 0.664300
 Colombia 0.601400 0.019300 0.147800
 Comoros 0.000000 0.010300 0.013700
 Democratic Republic of Congo 0.874700 0.870500 0.702100
 Congo 0.874700 0.687100 0.664200
 Costa Rica 0.236800 0.048900 0.241000
 Ivory Coast 0.820400 0.784200 0.755100
 Croatia 0.369000 0.076300 0.444700
 Cuba 0.590800 0.000000 0.505900
 Cyprus 0.093900 0.396200 0.396200
 Czech Republic 0.322200 0.323300 0.659100
 Denmark 0.081900 0.104900 0.233300
 Djibouti 0.796200 0.655800 0.043500
 Dominica 0.200300 0.000000 0.462800
 Dominican Republic 0.429400 0.039500 0.311800
 East Timor 0.000000 0.526100 0.425400
 Ecuador 0.655000 0.130800 0.141700
 Egypt 0.183600 0.023700 0.197900
 El Salvador 0.197800 0.000000 0.355900
 Equatorial Guinea 0.346700 0.322000 0.119500
 Eritrea 0.652400 0.653000 0.425300
 Estonia 0.506200 0.494400 0.498500
 Ethiopia 0.723500 0.807300 0.624900
 Faroe Islands 0.000000 0.000000 0.314700
 Fiji 0.547900 0.547900 0.568200
 Finland 0.131500 0.141200 0.253100
 France 0.103200 0.122100 0.402900
 French Guiana 0.000000 0.115400 0.495900
 French Polynesia 0.000000 0.607800 0.581300
 Gabon 0.769000 0.782100 0.667400
 Gambia, The 0.786400 0.807600 0.097000
 Gaza Strip 0.000000 0.010400 0.034200
 Georgia 0.492300 0.474900 0.654300
 Germany 0.168200 0.164200 0.657100
 Ghana 0.673300 0.673100 0.798700
 Greece 0.157600 0.030000 0.153000
 Greenland 0.000000 0.218800 0.459200
 Grenada 0.266100 0.000000 0.589800
 Guadeloupe 0.000000 0.093300 0.306900
 Guam 0.000000 0.732000 0.408200
 Guatemala 0.512200 0.458600 0.375300
 Guinea 0.738900 0.772500 0.264900
 Guinea-Bissau 0.808200 0.814100 0.612800
 Guyana 0.619500 0.068800 0.787600
 Haiti 0.095000 0.000000 0.470400
 Honduras 0.186700 0.055300 0.235700
 Hong Kong 0.062000 0.212800 0.419100
 Hungary 0.152200 0.029700 0.524400
 Iceland 0.079800 0.082000 0.191300
 India 0.418200 0.806900 0.326000
 Indonesia 0.735100 0.768000 0.234000
 Iran 0.668400 0.746200 0.115200
 Iraq 0.368900 0.369400 0.484400
 Ireland 0.120600 0.031200 0.155000
 Isle of Man 0.000000 0.000000 0.472900
 Israel 0.343600 0.552500 0.346900
 Italy 0.114500 0.114700 0.302700
 Jamaica 0.412900 0.109800 0.616000
 Japan 0.011900 0.017800 0.540600
 Jersey 0.000000 0.000000 0.547900
 Jordan 0.592600 0.039600 0.065900
 Kazakhstan 0.617100 0.662100 0.589800
 Kenya 0.858800 0.886000 0.776500
 Kiribati 0.051100 0.023700 0.554100
 Korea, South 0.039200 0.002800 0.489100
 Korea, North 0.002000 0.002100 0.660400
 Kyrgyzstan 0.675200 0.594900 0.447000
 Kuwait 0.660400 0.344400 0.674500
 Laos 0.513900 0.638200 0.545300
 Latvia 0.586700 0.579500 0.555600
 Lebanon 0.131400 0.131200 0.788600
 Lesotho 0.255000 0.254300 0.721100
 Liberia 0.908400 0.903800 0.488300
 Libya 0.792000 0.075800 0.057000
 Liechtenstein 0.572600 0.224600 0.334300
 Lithuania 0.322300 0.321900 0.414100
 Luxembourg 0.530200 0.644000 0.091100
 Macau 0.000000 0.251900 0.551100
 Macedonia 0.502300 0.502100 0.589900
 Madagascar 0.879100 0.020400 0.519100
 Malawi 0.674400 0.602300 0.819200
 Malaysia 0.588000 0.597000 0.665700
 Mali 0.690600 0.838800 0.182000
 Malta 0.041400 0.090700 0.122300
 Marshall Islands 0.060300 0.073400 0.520700
 Martinique 0.000000 0.000000 0.233600
 Mauritania 0.615000 0.326000 0.014900
 Mauritius 0.463400 0.454700 0.638500
 Mayotte 0.000000 0.721200 0.062000
 Mexico 0.541800 0.151100 0.179600
 Micronesia 0.700500 0.748300 0.646900
 Moldova 0.553500 0.553300 0.560300
 Monaco 0.683800 0.730500 0.304700
 Mongolia 0.368200 0.373400 0.079900
 Morocco 0.484100 0.468300 0.003500
 Mozambique 0.693200 0.812500 0.675900
 Burma 0.506200 0.507200 0.197400
 Namibia 0.632900 0.700500 0.662600
 Nauru 0.583200 0.616100 0.619400
   Nepal 0.663200 0.716700 0.141700
 Netherlands Antilles 0.000000 0.250800 0.386600
 Netherlands 0.105400 0.514300 0.722200
 New Caledonia 0.000000 0.663300 0.546200
 New Zealand 0.396900 0.165700 0.811000
 Nicaragua 0.484400 0.047300 0.429000
 Niger 0.651800 0.651900 0.201300
 Nigeria 0.850500 0.831600 0.742100
 Northern Mariana Islands 0.000000 0.775400 0.481100
 Norway 0.058600 0.067300 0.204800
 Oman 0.437300 0.356700 0.432200
 Pakistan 0.709800 0.719000 0.384800
 Palau 0.431200 0.315700 0.714700
 Panama 0.552800 0.387300 0.333800
 Papua New Guinea 0.271800 0.352600 0.552300
 Paraguay 0.168900 0.597500 0.212300
 Peru 0.656600 0.335800 0.198800
 Philippines 0.238500 0.836000 0.305600
 Poland 0.118300 0.046800 0.171200
 Portugal 0.046800 0.019800 0.143800
 Puerto Rico 0.000000 0.035200 0.495200
 Qatar 0.745600 0.480000 0.095000
 Reunion 0.000000 0.157800 0.195200
 Romania 0.306900 0.172300 0.237300
 Russian Federation 0.245200 0.248500 0.439800
 Rwanda 0.323800 0.000000 0.506600
 Saint Lucia 0.176900 0.316900 0.332000
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.306600 0.017500 0.702800
 Western Samoa 0.137600 0.011100 0.787100
 San Marino 0.292700 0.000000 0.197500
 Sao Tome and Principe 0.000000 0.232200 0.186600
 Saudi Arabia 0.180000 0.094900 0.127000
 Senegal 0.693900 0.708100 0.149700
 Serbia 0.573600 0.000000 0.000000
 Seychelles 0.202500 0.160600 0.232300
 Sierra Leone 0.819100 0.763400 0.539500
 Singapore 0.385700 0.383500 0.656100
 Slovak Republic 0.253900 0.255100 0.565500
 Slovenia 0.221600 0.220100 0.286800
 Solomon Islands 0.111000 0.525400 0.670800
 Somalia 0.811700 0.032600 0.002800
 South Africa 0.751700 0.865200 0.860300
 Spain 0.416500 0.413200 0.451400
 Sri Lanka 0.415000 0.464500 0.485300
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.184200 0.000000 0.661400
 Sudan 0.714700 0.719000 0.430700
 Suriname 0.733200 0.331000 0.791000
 Swaziland 0.058200 0.172200 0.444400
 Sweden 0.060000 0.196800 0.234200
  Switzerland 0.531400 0.544100 0.608300
 Syria 0.539900 0.181700 0.431000
 Taiwan 0.274400 0.502800 0.684500
 Tajikistan 0.510700 0.547300 0.338600
 Tanzania 0.735300 0.898300 0.633400
 Thailand 0.633800 0.634400 0.099400
 Togo 0.709900 0.898000 0.659600
 Tonga 0.086900 0.378200 0.621400
 Trinidad and Tobago 0.647500 0.125100 0.793600
 Tunisia 0.039400 0.012400 0.010400
 Turkey 0.320000 0.221600 0.004900
 Turkmenistan 0.391800 0.398400 0.232700
 Tuvalu 0.162900 0.137200 0.252400
 Uganda 0.930200 0.922700 0.633200
 Ukraine 0.473700 0.474100 0.615700
 United Arab Emirates 0.625200 0.487400 0.331000
 United Kingdom 0.121100 0.053200 0.694400
 United States 0.490100 0.564700 0.824100
 Uruguay 0.250400 0.081700 0.354800
 Uzbekistan 0.412500 0.412000 0.213300
 Vanuatu 0.041300 0.579400 0.704400
 Venezuela 0.496600 0.068600 0.135000
 Vietnam 0.238300 0.237700 0.508000
 United States Virgin Islands 0.000000 0.314000 0.635900
 West Bank 0.000000 0.143800 0.309500
 Yemen 0.000000 0.008000 0.002300
 Yugoslavia 0.809200 0.606400 0.553000
 Zambia 0.780800 0.873400 0.735900
 Zimbabwe 0.387400 0.447200 0.736300

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b A. Alesina, E. La Ferrara (2005). "Ethnic Diversity and Economic Performance" (PDF). Journal of Economic Literature: 762–800. Retrieved December 15, 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Natalka Patsiurko, John L. Campbell and John A. Hall (2012). "Measuring cultural diversity: ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization in the OECD" (PDF). Ethnic and Racial Studies. 35 (2): 195–217. doi:10.1080/01419870.2011.579136. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d James Fearon (2003). "Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country". Journal of Economic Growth. 8: 195–222. doi:10.1023/A:1024419522867. 
  4. ^ a b c d Alberto Alesina; et al. (2003). "Fractionalization" (PDF). Journal of Economic Growth. 8: 155–194. doi:10.1023/a:1024471506938. Retrieved September 13, 2012.