List of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level

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List of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level. List based on Fearon's analysis

This page contains lists of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level.

Methodology[edit]

The lists are commonly used in economics literature to compare the levels of ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious fractionalization in different countries.[1][2] Fractionalization measures are computing the probability that two randomly drawn individuals (from a country) are not from the same group (ethnic, religious, or whatever the criterion is). The two lists have been described by Alesina and Ferrara as follows:[1]

"Fearon[3] and Alesina et al.[4] have compiled various measures of ethnic heterogeneity which try to tackle the fact that the difference amongst groups manifests itself in different ways in different places. The two classifications are constructed differently. Alesina et al.[4] do not take a stand on what ethnicity (or language or religion) are more salient than others and adopt the country breakdown suggested by original sources, mainly the Encyclopædia Britannica. Fearon[3] instead is trying to construct the 'right list' of ethnic groups which 'depends on what people in the country identify as the most socially relevant ethnic groupings'. This approach has the advantage of being closer to what the theory would want and the disadvantage of having to make judgement calls (or adopt others' judgement calls) about what is the 'right list'."

List based on Fearon's analysis[edit]

In the Fearon list, cultural fractionalization is approximated by a measure of similarity between languages, varying from 1 = the population speaks two or more unrelated languages to 0 = the entire population speaks the same language.[3] This index of cultural diversity is biased towards linguistic variations as opposed to genetic diversity and other variations.

Ethnic and Cultural diversity (2003)[3]
Rank
1
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3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
Country Ethnic
Fractionalization
Index
Cultural
Diversity
Index
 Papua New Guinea 1.000
 Tanzania 0.953 0.564
 DR Congo 0.933 0.628
 Uganda 0.930 0.647
 Liberia 0.899 0.644
 Cameroon 0.887 0.733
 Togo 0.883 0.602
 South Africa 0.880 0.530
 Congo 0.878 0.562
 Madagascar 0.861 0.192
 Gabon 0.857 0.382
 Kenya 0.852 0.601
 Ghana 0.846 0.388
 Malawi 0.829 0.294
 Guinea-Bissau 0.818 0.568
 Somalia 0.812 0.290
 India 0.811 0.667
 Nigeria 0.805 0.660
 Yugoslavia (1943–1992) 0.801 0.385
 Central African Republic 0.791 0.511
 Ivory Coast 0.784 0.557
 Lebanon 0.780 0.195
 Chad 0.772 0.727
 Indonesia 0.766 0.522
 Mozambique 0.765 0.285
 Gambia 0.764 0.548
 Sierra Leone 0.764 0.534
 Ethiopia 0.760 0.562
 Angola 0.756 0.242
 Mali 0.754 0.590
 Afghanistan 0.751 0.679
 Bolivia 0.743 0.662
 United Arab Emirates 0.737 0.650
 Senegal 0.727 0.402
 Zambia 0.726 0.189
 Namibia 0.724 0.589
 Soviet Union (1922–1991) 0.711 0.596
 Sudan (1955–2011) 0.708 0.698
 Kuwait 0.708 0.540
 Burkina Faso 0.704 0.354
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.681 0.146
 Kyrgyzstan 0.679 0.624
 Nepal 0.677 0.542
 Iran 0.669 0.542
 Guinea 0.669 0.490
 Kazakhstan 0.664 0.620
 Colombia 0.656 0.020
 Ecuador 0.655 0.480
 Eritrea 0.647 0.398
 Trinidad and Tobago 0.647 0.380
 Peru 0.638 0.506
 Niger 0.637 0.600
 Mauritius 0.632 0.448
 Mauritania 0.625 0.272
 Benin 0.622 0.400
 Guyana 0.620 0.460
 Djibouti 0.606 0.404
 Bhutan 0.605 0.518
 Malaysia 0.596 0.564
 Canada 0.596 0.499
 Latvia 0.585 0.441
 Syria 0.581 0.235
 Switzerland 0.575 0.418
 Yugoslavia (1918–1943) 0.575 0.392
 Belgium 0.567 0.462
 Fiji 0.566 0.553
 Saudi Arabia 0.553 0.413
 Bahrain 0.551 0.460
 Iraq 0.549 0.355
 Brazil 0.549 0.020
 Mexico 0.542 0.434
 North Macedonia 0.535 0.432
 Pakistan 0.532 0.289
 Israel 0.526 0.246
 Burma 0.522 0.419
 Tajikistan 0.513 0.492
 Estonia 0.511 0.492
 Moldova 0.510 0.401
 Jordan 0.509 0.049
 Panama 0.507 0.168
 Czechoslovakia (1918–1992) 0.505 0.290
 Spain 0.502 0.263
 Chile 0.497 0.167
 Guatemala 0.493 0.493
 United States 0.491 0.271
 Georgia 0.490 0.404
 Uzbekistan 0.485 0.442
 Venezuela 0.483 0.020
 Laos 0.481 0.020
 Morocco 0.479 0.360
 Oman 0.439 0.404
 Thailand 0.431 0.431
 Sri Lanka 0.428 0.386
 Ukraine 0.419 0.258
 Nicaragua 0.402 0.095
 Turkmenistan 0.392 0.328
 Singapore 0.388 0.388
 Dominican Republic 0.387 0.000
 Croatia 0.375 0.185
 Belarus 0.372 0.228
 Zimbabwe 0.366 0.141
 New Zealand 0.363 0.363
 Cyprus 0.359 0.359
 Botswana 0.351 0.161
 Lithuania 0.338 0.259
 Russia 0.333 0.311
 Slovakia 0.332 0.293
 Burundi 0.328 0.040
 United Kingdom 0.324 0.184
 Czech Republic 0.322 0.064
 Algeria 0.320 0.237
 Romania 0.300 0.265
 Turkey 0.299 0.299
 Bulgaria 0.299 0.250
 Swaziland 0.280 0.143
 Taiwan 0.274 0.169
 France 0.272 0.251
 Mongolia 0.272 0.227
 Lesotho 0.255 0.057
 Argentina 0.255 0.000
 Costa Rica 0.238 0.078
 Vietnam 0.233 0.210
 Slovenia 0.231 0.170
 Bangladesh 0.223 0.141
 Uruguay 0.218 0.000
 Cuba 0.213 0.020
 El Salvador 0.198 0.180
 Sweden 0.189 0.189
 Azerbaijan 0.188 0.187
 Hungary 0.186 0.185
 Cambodia 0.186 0.150
 Honduras 0.185 0.167
 Rwanda 0.180 0.000
 Ireland 0.171 0.157
 Jamaica 0.166 0.027
 Egypt 0.164 0.000
 Philippines 0.161 0.116
 China 0.154 0.154
 Libya 0.151 0.127
 Australia 0.149 0.147
 Armenia 0.134 0.124
 Finland 0.132 0.132
 Paraguay 0.132 0.039
 Denmark 0.128 0.128
 Austria 0.126 0.100
 Norway 0.098 0.098
 Albania 0.097 0.082
 Germany 0.095 0.090
 Haiti 0.095 0.000
 Yemen 0.078 0.078
 Netherlands 0.077 0.077
 Greece 0.059 0.050
 Poland 0.047 0.041
 Portugal 0.040 0.040
 Italy 0.040 0.040
 Tunisia 0.039 0.033
 Japan 0.012 0.012
 South Korea 0.004 0.004
 North Korea 0.002 0.002

List based on Alesina et al's analysis[edit]

This list is based on the analysis of Alesina and others,[4] they develop fractionalization scores based on ethnicity, religious and linguistic data directly from the Encyclopædia Britannica lists. This list is biased by how the Britannica chooses to list ethnic groups, but it does not make a judgement call on which identities are more salient than others. According to Patsiurko et al.

"One of the most ambitious and widely used of these new [fractionalization] indices was created by Alesina et al. (2003) who developed measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization in 190 countries using more current data from the Encyclopædia Britannica Book of the Year (2001) ... and other sources. But again scholars offered criticisms (e.g. Fearon 2003; Posner 2004). First, there is inconsistency in terms of the years covered. For instance, the Encyclopædia Britannica provides ethnicity data for only 124 of 190 countries, so Alesina had to resort to other sources for the rest. Hence, his ethnicity data covered years ranging from 1979 to 2001, depending on the country. Second, he offered one-time measures of fractionalization, thereby being unable to say anything about change over time"[2]


Ethnic, Linguistic and Religious Fractionalization[4]
Row
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
Country Ethnic
Fractionalization
Linguistic
Fractionalization
Religious
Fractionalization
 Afghanistan 0.769300 0.614100 0.271700
 Albania 0.220400 0.039900 0.471900
 Algeria 0.339400 0.442700 0.009100
 American Samoa 0.000000 0.173300 0.639500
 Andorra 0.713900 0.684800 0.232600
 Angola 0.786700 0.787000 0.627600
 Antigua and Barbuda 0.164300 0.106300 0.684000
 Argentina 0.255000 0.061800 0.223600
 Armenia 0.127200 0.129100 0.457600
 Aruba 0.000000 0.388900 0.410700
 Australia 0.092900 0.334900 0.821100
 Austria 0.106800 0.152200 0.414600
 Azerbaijan 0.204700 0.205400 0.489900
 Bahamas 0.422800 0.185500 0.681500
 Bahrain 0.502100 0.434400 0.552800
 Bangladesh 0.045400 0.092500 0.209000
 Barbados 0.142300 0.092600 0.693400
 Belarus 0.322200 0.466600 0.611600
 Belgium 0.555400 0.540900 0.212700
 Belize 0.701500 0.630300 0.581300
 Benin 0.787200 0.790500 0.554400
 Bermuda 0.000000 0.000000 0.711200
 Bhutan 0.605000 0.605600 0.378700
 Bolivia 0.739600 0.224000 0.208500
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.630000 0.675100 0.685100
 Botswana 0.410200 0.411000 0.598600
 Brazil 0.540800 0.046800 0.605400
 Brunei 0.541600 0.343800 0.440400
 Bulgaria 0.402100 0.303100 0.596500
 Burkina Faso 0.737700 0.722800 0.579800
 Burundi 0.295100 0.297700 0.515800
 Cambodia 0.210500 0.210400 0.096500
 Cameroon 0.863500 0.889800 0.733800
 Canada 0.712400 0.577200 0.695800
 Cape Verde 0.417400 0.000000 0.076600
 Central African Republic 0.829500 0.833400 0.791600
 Chad 0.862000 0.863500 0.641100
 Chile 0.186100 0.187100 0.384100
 China 0.153800 0.132700 0.664300
 Colombia 0.601400 0.019300 0.147800
 Comoros 0.000000 0.010300 0.013700
 DR Congo 0.874700 0.870500 0.702100
 Congo 0.874700 0.687100 0.664200
 Costa Rica 0.236800 0.048900 0.241000
 Ivory Coast 0.820400 0.784200 0.755100
 Croatia 0.369000 0.076300 0.444700
 Cuba 0.590800 0.000000 0.505900
 Cyprus 0.093900 0.396200 0.396200
 Czech Republic 0.322200 0.323300 0.659100
 Denmark 0.081900 0.104900 0.233300
 Djibouti 0.796200 0.655800 0.043500
 Dominica 0.200300 0.000000 0.462800
 Dominican Republic 0.429400 0.039500 0.311800
 East Timor 0.000000 0.526100 0.425400
 Ecuador 0.655000 0.130800 0.141700
 Egypt 0.183600 0.023700 0.197900
 El Salvador 0.197800 0.000000 0.355900
 Equatorial Guinea 0.346700 0.322000 0.119500
 Eritrea 0.652400 0.653000 0.425300
 Estonia 0.506200 0.494400 0.498500
 Ethiopia 0.723500 0.807300 0.624900
 Faroe Islands 0.000000 0.000000 0.314700
 Fiji 0.547900 0.547900 0.568200
 Finland 0.131500 0.141200 0.253100
 France 0.103200 0.122100 0.402900
 French Guiana 0.000000 0.115400 0.495900
 French Polynesia 0.000000 0.607800 0.581300
 Gabon 0.769000 0.782100 0.667400
 Gambia 0.786400 0.807600 0.097000
 Gaza Strip 0.000000 0.010400 0.034200
 Georgia 0.492300 0.474900 0.654300
 Germany 0.168200 0.164200 0.657100
 Ghana 0.673300 0.673100 0.798700
 Greece 0.157600 0.030000 0.153000
 Greenland 0.000000 0.218800 0.459200
 Grenada 0.266100 0.000000 0.589800
 Guadeloupe 0.000000 0.093300 0.306900
 Guam 0.000000 0.732000 0.408200
 Guatemala 0.512200 0.458600 0.375300
 Guinea 0.738900 0.772500 0.264900
 Guinea-Bissau 0.808200 0.814100 0.612800
 Guyana 0.619500 0.068800 0.787600
 Haiti 0.095000 0.000000 0.470400
 Honduras 0.186700 0.055300 0.235700
 Hong Kong 0.062000 0.212800 0.419100
 Hungary 0.152200 0.029700 0.524400
 Iceland 0.079800 0.082000 0.191300
 India 0.418200 0.806900 0.326000
 Indonesia 0.735100 0.768000 0.234000
 Iran 0.668400 0.746200 0.115200
 Iraq 0.368900 0.369400 0.484400
 Ireland 0.120600 0.031200 0.155000
 Isle of Man 0.000000 0.000000 0.472900
 Israel 0.343600 0.552500 0.346900
 Italy 0.114500 0.114700 0.302700
 Jamaica 0.412900 0.109800 0.616000
 Japan 0.011900 0.017800 0.540600
 Jersey 0.000000 0.000000 0.547900
 Jordan 0.592600 0.039600 0.065900
 Kazakhstan 0.617100 0.662100 0.589800
 Kenya 0.858800 0.886000 0.776500
 Kiribati 0.051100 0.023700 0.554100
 South Korea 0.039200 0.002800 0.489100
 North Korea 0.002000 0.002100 0.660400
 Kyrgyzstan 0.675200 0.594900 0.447000
 Kuwait 0.660400 0.344400 0.674500
 Laos 0.513900 0.638200 0.545300
 Latvia 0.586700 0.579500 0.555600
 Lebanon 0.131400 0.131200 0.788600
 Lesotho 0.255000 0.254300 0.721100
 Liberia 0.908400 0.903800 0.488300
 Libya 0.792000 0.075800 0.057000
 Liechtenstein 0.572600 0.224600 0.334300
 Lithuania 0.322300 0.321900 0.414100
 Luxembourg 0.530200 0.644000 0.091100
 Macau 0.000000 0.251900 0.551100
 Macedonia 0.502300 0.502100 0.589900
 Madagascar 0.879100 0.020400 0.519100
 Malawi 0.674400 0.602300 0.819200
 Malaysia 0.588000 0.597000 0.665700
 Mali 0.690600 0.838800 0.182000
 Malta 0.041400 0.090700 0.122300
 Marshall Islands 0.060300 0.073400 0.520700
 Martinique 0.000000 0.000000 0.233600
 Mauritania 0.615000 0.326000 0.014900
 Mauritius 0.463400 0.454700 0.638500
 Mayotte 0.000000 0.721200 0.062000
 Mexico 0.541800 0.151100 0.179600
 Micronesia 0.700500 0.748300 0.646900
 Moldova 0.553500 0.553300 0.560300
 Monaco 0.683800 0.730500 0.304700
 Mongolia 0.368200 0.373400 0.079900
 Morocco 0.484100 0.468300 0.003500
 Mozambique 0.693200 0.812500 0.675900
 Burma 0.506200 0.507200 0.197400
 Namibia 0.632900 0.700500 0.662600
 Nauru 0.583200 0.616100 0.619400
 Nepal 0.663200 0.716700 0.141700
 Netherlands Antilles 0.000000 0.250800 0.386600
 Netherlands 0.105400 0.514300 0.722200
 New Caledonia 0.000000 0.663300 0.546200
 New Zealand 0.396900 0.165700 0.811000
 Nicaragua 0.484400 0.047300 0.429000
 Niger 0.651800 0.651900 0.201300
 Nigeria 0.850500 0.831600 0.742100
 Northern Mariana Islands 0.000000 0.775400 0.481100
 Norway 0.058600 0.067300 0.204800
 Oman 0.437300 0.356700 0.432200
 Pakistan 0.709800 0.719000 0.384800
 Palau 0.431200 0.315700 0.714700
 Panama 0.552800 0.387300 0.333800
 Papua New Guinea 0.271800 0.352600 0.552300
 Paraguay 0.168900 0.597500 0.212300
 Peru 0.656600 0.335800 0.198800
 Philippines 0.238500 0.836000 0.305600
 Poland 0.118300 0.046800 0.171200
 Portugal 0.046800 0.019800 0.143800
 Puerto Rico 0.000000 0.035200 0.495200
 Qatar 0.745600 0.480000 0.095000
 Réunion 0.000000 0.157800 0.195200
 Romania 0.306900 0.172300 0.237300
 Russia 0.245200 0.248500 0.439800
 Rwanda 0.323800 0.000000 0.506600
 Saint Lucia 0.176900 0.316900 0.332000
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.306600 0.017500 0.702800
 Samoa 0.137600 0.011100 0.787100
 San Marino 0.292700 0.000000 0.197500
 São Tomé and Príncipe 0.000000 0.232200 0.186600
 Saudi Arabia 0.180000 0.094900 0.127000
 Senegal 0.693900 0.708100 0.149700
 Serbia 0.573600 0.000000 0.000000
 Seychelles 0.202500 0.160600 0.232300
 Sierra Leone 0.819100 0.763400 0.539500
 Singapore 0.385700 0.383500 0.656100
 Slovakia 0.253900 0.255100 0.565500
 Slovenia 0.221600 0.220100 0.286800
 Solomon Islands 0.111000 0.525400 0.670800
 Somalia 0.811700 0.032600 0.002800
 South Africa 0.751700 0.865200 0.860300
 Spain 0.416500 0.413200 0.451400
 Sri Lanka 0.415000 0.464500 0.485300
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.184200 0.000000 0.661400
 Sudan 0.714700 0.719000 0.430700
 Suriname 0.733200 0.331000 0.791000
 Swaziland 0.058200 0.172200 0.444400
 Sweden 0.060000 0.196800 0.234200
 Switzerland 0.531400 0.544100 0.608300
 Syria 0.539900 0.181700 0.431000
 Taiwan 0.274400 0.502800 0.684500
 Tajikistan 0.510700 0.547300 0.338600
 Tanzania 0.735300 0.898300 0.633400
 Thailand 0.633800 0.634400 0.099400
 Togo 0.709900 0.898000 0.659600
 Tonga 0.086900 0.378200 0.621400
 Trinidad and Tobago 0.647500 0.125100 0.793600
 Tunisia 0.039400 0.012400 0.010400
 Turkey 0.320000 0.221600 0.004900
 Turkmenistan 0.391800 0.398400 0.232700
 Tuvalu 0.162900 0.137200 0.252400
 Uganda 0.930200 0.922700 0.633200
 Ukraine 0.473700 0.474100 0.615700
 United Arab Emirates 0.625200 0.487400 0.331000
 United Kingdom 0.121100 0.053200 0.694400
 United States 0.490100 0.564700 0.824100
 Uruguay 0.250400 0.081700 0.354800
 Uzbekistan 0.412500 0.412000 0.213300
 Vanuatu 0.041300 0.579400 0.704400
 Venezuela 0.496600 0.068600 0.135000
 Vietnam 0.238300 0.237700 0.508000
 U.S. Virgin Islands 0.000000 0.314000 0.635900
 West Bank 0.000000 0.143800 0.309500
 Yemen 0.000000 0.008000 0.002300
 Yugoslavia 0.809200 0.606400 0.553000
 Zambia 0.780800 0.873400 0.735900
 Zimbabwe 0.387400 0.447200 0.736300

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b A. Alesina, E. La Ferrara (2005). "Ethnic Diversity and Economic Performance" (PDF). Journal of Economic Literature: 762–800. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
  2. ^ a b Natalka Patsiurko, John L. Campbell and John A. Hall (2012). "Measuring cultural diversity: ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization in the OECD" (PDF). Ethnic and Racial Studies. 35 (2): 195–217. doi:10.1080/01419870.2011.579136. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
  3. ^ a b c d James Fearon (2003). "Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country". Journal of Economic Growth. 8: 195–222. doi:10.1023/A:1024419522867.
  4. ^ a b c d Alberto Alesina; et al. (2003). "Fractionalization" (PDF). Journal of Economic Growth. 8: 155–194. doi:10.1023/a:1024471506938. Retrieved September 13, 2012.