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List of transcontinental countries

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A map of transcontinental countries, and countries that control territory in more than one continent.
  Contiguous transcontinental countries.
  Non-contiguous transcontinental countries.
  Countries that may be considered transcontinental, depending on the legal status of their claims or the definition of continental boundaries used.

This is a list of countries located on more than one continent, known as transcontinental countries or intercontinental countries. While there are many countries with non-contiguous overseas territories fitting this definition, only a limited number of countries have territory straddling an overland continental boundary, most commonly the line that separates Europe and Asia.

The boundary between Europe and Asia is purely conventional, and several conventions remained in use well into the 20th century. However, the now-prevalent convention, used for the purposes of this list, follows the Caucasus northern chain, the Ural River and the Ural Mountains. It has been in use by some cartographers since about 1850.[1] This convention results in several countries finding themselves almost entirely in "Asia", with a few small enclaves or districts technically in "Europe". Notwithstanding these anomalies, this list of transcontinental or intercontinental states respects the convention that Europe and Asia are full continents rather than subcontinents or component landmasses of the larger Eurasian continent.

Listed further below, separately, are countries with distant non-contiguous parts (overseas territories) on separate continents.

Criteria for inclusion

The lists within this article include entries that meet the following criteria:

  • Transcontinental states are sovereign states that are divided between one geographical continent and another.[2]
  • In this article, states are classed as Contiguous or Non-contiguous transcontinental states.[3]
    • Contiguous transcontinental states are states that contain a portion of their territory on one continent and a portion of their territory on another continent, while having these two portions connected via a natural geological land connection (e.g. Russia) or the two portions being immediately adjacent to one another (e.g. Turkey).[4][5]
    • Non-contiguous transcontinental states are states that contain a portion of their territory on one continent and a portion of their territory on another continent, while having these two portions separated by a significant enough distance, or body of water, to not be considered adjacent.[4][5]
  • For the purposes of the lists within this article, a seven-continent model is assumed.[6]
  • Debate exists on the degree to which many non-contiguous transcontinental states can be considered 'transcontinental', due to portions of their territory often lying on distant islands that could be considered a part of another nearby continent. The boundaries between the continents can be vague and subject to interpretation. For the purposes of the lists in this article, a state that has such a situation where this could be applicable is to nevertheless be included in the lists (e.g. Socotra Archipelago, Yemen and Madeira, Portugal).
  • Debate exists on the degree to which states that only have uninhabited island territory as a part of another continent can be considered transcontinental. They are nevertheless included in these lists (e.g. Aves Island, Venezuela).
  • Debate exists on the degree to which states that have claimed territory within the Antarctic Treaty System can have actual control of that claimed territory. They are included in these lists (e.g. Chilean Antarctic Territory, Chile).
  • Debate exists on the degree to which states that have territory on another continent that is an autonomous region, and is not constitutionally an indistinguishable part of the parent state (a dependent territory), can be considered to be transcontinental. They are nevertheless included in these lists (e.g. British Overseas Territories, the United Kingdom).

Exceptions:

  • Micronations, autonomous regions, and sub-national entities of sovereign states, if they are in themselves transcontinental, are to be excluded from the lists in this article as a separate entry from a controlling state.
  • States that have territory across sub-continental boundaries, and plate boundaries internal to continents, are excluded from these lists as these do not constitute being transcontinental in the seven-continent model.
  • States with limited recognition are excluded from the lists in this article, and any entry must be a UN member state or a part of the United Nations System.

Contiguous boundary

The Americas

Map of the Darién Gap at the border between Colombia and Panama

The conventional boundary between North America and South America is at some point on the Colombia–Panama border, with the most common demarcation in atlases and other sources following the Darién Mountains watershed where the Isthmus of Panama meets the South American continent (see Darién Gap). This area encompasses a large watershed, forest and mountains in the northern portion of Colombia's Chocó Department and Panama's Darién Province.

Since the political boundary between Panama and Colombia is not entirely determined by natural features, some geographers prefer to use the Panama Canal[7] as the physical boundary between North America and South America instead.[8] Under this convention, Panama would be classified as a transcontinental country while its capital Panama City would be classified as a South American city.

Asia and Africa

  African land part of Egypt
  Asian land part of Egypt
  The rest of Africa
  The rest of Asia

The modern convention for the land boundary between Asia and Africa runs along the Isthmus of Suez and the Suez Canal in Egypt. The border continues through the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. In antiquity, Egypt had been considered part of Asia, with the Catabathmus Magnus escarpment taken as the boundary with Africa (Libya).

  • After the Yom Kippur War of October 1973, Israel briefly became a transcontinental country as it occupied territory on the African side of the Suez Canal, in addition to the entirety of Sinai. The land was returned in 1975 per the Sinai Interim Agreement.

Asia and Europe

Conventions used for the boundary between Europe and Asia during the 18th and 19th centuries. The red line shows the most common modern convention, in use since c. 1850.
  Europe
  Asia
  historically placed in either continent

The conventional Europe-Asia boundary was subject to considerable variation during the 18th and 19th centuries, indicated anywhere between the Don River and the Caucasus to the south or the Ural Mountains to the east. Since the later 19th century, the Caucasus–Urals boundary has become almost universally accepted. According to this now-standard convention, the boundary follows the Aegean Sea, the Turkish Straits, the Black Sea, along the watershed of the Greater Caucasus, the northwestern portion of the Caspian Sea and along the Ural River and Ural Mountains to the Arctic Ocean.[9][10]

According to this convention, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Turkey, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Georgia have territory both in Europe and in Asia.

  • The Russian Federation includes substantial territory in Northern Asia, historically incorporated into the Tsardom of Russia in the 17th century. European Russia has a population of around 110 million, which is about 78% of the country's total population, though more than 75% of Russia's territory is in Asia.
  • The territory of the Republic of Turkey is predominantly in Asia, with European Turkey (East Thrace) accounting for about 11 million people, or some 14% of the country's population. The territory of Turkey is a remnant of that of the Ottoman Empire, which had replaced the transcontinental Byzantine Empire with the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. The Turkish city Istanbul (ancient Constantinople) lies on both sides of the Bosporus, making it a "transcontinental city".
  • Kazakhstan's physical, cultural, and geographic characteristics are Central Asian,[11] but its West Kazakhstan and Atyrau regions extend on either side of the Ural River,[12] placing a population of less than one million (out of 15 million) geographically in Europe.
  • Azerbaijan's Qusar, Shabran, Siazan, Khachmaz and Quba districts are north of the Greater Caucasus watershed and thus geographically in Europe, placing a population of about half a million (or ca. 5% of the country's total population) in Europe.
  • Georgia's Kazbegi Municipality, Khevsureti and Tusheti districts are north of the Greater Caucasus watershed and thus geographically in Europe, placing around 5% of the country's total territory in Europe according to the common modern definition.

Non-contiguous

The Americas

  • Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao and Trinidad and Tobago: The sea islands division of South America and North America is complicated. All Caribbean islands are often labeled as North American, but the Kingdom of the Netherlands countries of Aruba and Curaçao and the Dutch special municipality of Bonaire lie on the continental shelf of South America, and can be considered South American as well. What complicates it even further is that the islands of Trinidad and Tobago lie on two continental shelves. The southern half of Trinidad lies on the South American plate, and the northern half of Trinidad, and the island of Tobago, lie on the Caribbean plate. All these islands have closer cultural ties with North America.
  • Colombia: Mainland Colombia is located within northern South America (see explanation in "The Americas", under "Contiguous boundary" above) and the Malpelo Island in the Pacific Ocean is also associated with South America, but the nation also controls the San Andrés and Providencia archipelago, 640 kilometres (400 mi) WNW of Colombia's Caribbean coast, in North America.

North American Caribbean islands belonging to South American countries:

South American Caribbean islands:

Asia and Europe

Europe and North America

  • Greenland: Greenland is a country within the Kingdom of Denmark, fully located on the North American tectonic plate and close to the mainland, and is considered to be geographically part of North America. Although it is politically associated with Europe and internationally represented by a European country (including in the Council of Europe), it is autonomous. Historically and ethnically, its native population is of North American tradition, although it also shares cultural links with other native peoples bordering the Arctic Sea in Northern Europe and Asia (today in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia), as well as in North America (Alaska in the U.S., Northwest Territories, Nunavut and northern parts of Quebec and Labrador in Canada). Greenland was part of Danish territory and within the territory of the European Union, but voted for more autonomy and is now excluded from the EU.

Europe, North America and South America

Europe, North America, South America, Oceania, Africa and the Antarctic

Europe, North America, South America, Oceania, Africa, Asia and Antarctica

Africa and Europe

  • Italy: Italy has a number of small islands south of Sicily which, geographically can be considered part of the African continent, due to their proximity to Tunisia. The closest land to Pantelleria and the Pelagie Islands (Lampedusa, Linosa and Lampione) is Tunisia on the African mainland. Nevertheless, Pantelleria and Linosa are considered part of Europe, Lampedusa and Lampione part of Africa.
  • Portugal: Continental Portugal is in Europe, while the archipelago of Madeira, an Autonomous Region (including Porto Santo Island, the Desertas Islands and the Savage Islands), is associated with Africa. If we consider that the Azores Autonomous Region has two islands (Flores and Corvo) that are part of North American tectonic plate (see Europe and North America section above), Portugal would be a transcontinental country geologically except for the fact these plates are not defined as continents.
  • Spain: Although its mainland is in Europe, Spain has territory including two provinces and two autonomous cities in Africa. Close to 5% of Spain's population live on the African continent. Territories include the Canary Islands in the Atlantic, the cities of Ceuta and Melilla on mainland North Africa and its plazas de soberanía close to those cities that are geographically part of Africa. The Canary Islands, Ceuta and Melilla are three of the 19 autonomous communities and cities that form Spain, while the plazas de soberanía are under different military status. The African Mediterranean island of Alboran belongs to the transcontinental city of Almería and the transcontinental province of Almería.

Asia and Africa

Asia and Oceania

North America, Oceania, and Asia

South America and Oceania

Antarctica

Seven countries claim portions (some overlapping)[note 1] of the continent of Antarctica: Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom. Some, including Argentina and Chile, consider the Antarctic land they claim to be integral parts of their national territory. However, none of these claims are recognized by other states.[note 2] Since 1961, the Antarctic Treaty System has held in abeyance land claims south of 60°S latitude, including Antarctica’s ice shelves and Antarctic islands.

Four countries have Antarctic or Subantarctic island possessions that are north of 60°S latitude but south of the Antarctic Convergence, which are recognized by international law: Australia (Heard Island and McDonald Islands), France (Kerguelen Islands), Norway (Bouvet Island), and the United Kingdom (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).[note 3]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Antarctic claims of Argentina, Chile and the United Kingdom overlap to some degree.
  2. ^ Australia, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom recognize each other’s Antarctic claims (which do not overlap).[citation needed]
  3. ^ The South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which straddles tectonic plates, form a British Overseas Territory but are claimed by Argentina.

References

  1. ^ The question was treated as a "controversy" in British geographical literature until at least the 1860s, with Douglas Freshfield advocating the Caucasus crest boundary as the "best possible", citing support from various "modern geographers" (Journey in the Caucasus, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, Volumes 13–14, 1869). In 1958, the Soviet Geographical Society formally recommended that the boundary between Europe and Asia be drawn in textbooks from Baydaratskaya Bay, on the Kara Sea, along the eastern foot of the Ural Mountains, then the Ural River to the Mugodzhar Hills, the Emba River, and the Kuma–Manych Depression (i.e. passing well north of the Caucasus); "Do we live in Europe or in Asia?" (in Russian).; Orlenok V. (1998). "Physical Geography" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2011-10-16.. Nevertheless, most Soviet-era geographers continued to favour the boundary along the Caucasus crest. (E. M. Moores, R. W. Fairbridge, Encyclopedia of European and Asian regional geology, Springer, 1997, ISBN 978-0-412-74040-4, p. 34: "most Soviet geographers took the watershed of the Main Range of the Greater Caucasus as the boundary between Europe and Asia.")
  2. ^ "transcontinental". OxfordDictionaries.com. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  3. ^ "contiguous". Dictionary.Cambridge.org. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  4. ^ a b Misachi, John (25 April 2017). "Which Countries Span More Than One Continent?". WorldAtlas.com. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  5. ^ a b Ramos, Juan (19 March 2018). "What Continent Is Egypt Officially In?". ScienceTrends.com. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  6. ^ "Continent". NationalGeographic.org. National Geographic. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  7. ^ Panama Canal
  8. ^ North America
  9. ^ National Geographic Atlas of the World (9th ed.). Washington, DC: National Geographic. 2011. ISBN 978-1-4262-0634-4. "Europe" (plate 59); "Asia" (plate 74): "A commonly accepted division between Asia and Europe ... is formed by the Ural Mountains, Ural River, Caspian Sea, Caucasus Mountains, and the Black Sea with its outlets, the Bosporus and Dardanelles."
  10. ^ World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency.
  11. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Kazakhstan, Retrieved: 8 May 2016
  12. ^ World Factbook. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency. Kazakhstan: Geography
  13. ^ "Socotra". Britannica.com. 6 May 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  14. ^ Evans, Mike. "Islands east of the Horn of Africa and south of Yemen". WorldWildlife.org. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  15. ^ "Papua New Guinea asks RP support for Asean membership bid". GMA News. Retrieved 15 July 2014.

External links