Mains electricity by country

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Mains electricity by country includes a list of countries and territories, with the plugs, voltages and frequencies they use for providing electrical power to small appliances and some major appliances. Every country has differing rules regarding distribution of electricity for portable appliances and lighting. Voltage, frequency, and plug type vary widely, but large regions may use common standards. Physical compatibility of receptacles may not ensure compatibility of voltage, frequency, or connection to earth ground.

This article lists the plug type, voltage and frequency commonly expected for many territories. In some areas, older standards may still exist. Foreign enclaves or buildings frequented by tourists may support plugs not otherwise used in a country, for the convenience of travellers.

Main reference source—IEC World Plugs[edit]

The International Electrotechnical Commission publishes a web microsite World Plugs[1] which provides the main source for this page, except where other sources are indicated. World Plugs includes some history, a description of plug types, and a list of countries giving the type(s) used and the mains voltage and frequency.

Although useful for quick reference, especially for travellers, IEC World Plugs may not be regarded as totally accurate, as illustrated by the examples in the plugs section below, and errors may exist, such as Indonesia being listed as using both 220 V and 110 V when the Indonesian Standard SPLN 1[2] clearly states the voltage as 230 V.


A plug is defined in IEC 60050 as an accessory having pins designed to engage with the contacts of a socket-outlet, also incorporating means for the electrical connection and mechanical retention of flexible cables or cords; a plug does not contain components which modify the electrical output from the electrical input (except where a switch or fuse is provided as a means of disconnecting the output from input). Informally, power conversion devices with incorporated plug pins may be also called "plugs", but IEC 60050 refers to these as 'direct plug-in equipment' defined as equipment in which the mains plug forms an integral part of the equipment enclosure so that the equipment is supported by the mains socket-outlet. In this article, the term 'plug' is used in the sense defined by IEC 60050.

The types used in each country are set by national standards, some of which are listed in the IEC technical report TR 60083, Plugs and socket-outlets for domestic and similar general use standardized in member countries of IEC.[3]

The international standard IEC 60884-1 defines the general requirements for plugs and sockets intended for household and similar purposes, IEC 60884-1 does not define specific plug and socket types, which are the subject of national standards in each country. IEC 60884-1 para 9.2 does stipulate that: it shall not be possible, within a given system, to engage a plug with a socket-outlet having a higher voltage rating or a lower current rating. IEC 60884-1 para 6.1 defines the preferred voltage ratings for single phase plugs and sockets as 130 V or 250 V. In the foreword of IEC 60884-1 it states: in order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.[4]

The lettering system used here is from World Plugs, which defines the letter names and gives a (not always correct) list of what plug types are used where. Type A makes specific reference to American and Japanese plugs, as does Type B, which is specifically rated at 15 A. Type C is specifically identified as the Europlug (which is defined in EN 50075) and described as a plug which fits into any socket that accepts 4.0–4.8 mm round contacts on 19 mm centres. Type D is specifically rated at 5 A. Type E (grounding pin in socket) and Type F (grounding clips on both sides) are specifically rated at 16 A and defined as having 4.8 mm pins on 19 mm centres. Type G is identified as the fused British plug. The Type H plug is described as unique to Israel. Type I (Australian) is described as having both 10 A and 15 A ratings. Type J (Swiss) is rated at 10 A and is differentiated from Type N. The Type K rating is not shown. The Type L (Italian) description includes both ratings and pin sizes. Type M is described as looking similar to Type D, but with much larger pins. The Type N description is of the two variations of Brazilian plug (Brazilian national standard NBR 14136); however, the original plug and socket is defined in IEC 60906-1 and has been adopted as a South African national Standard (SANS 164-2). The Brazilian version is non-compliant with the IEC standard. Not all plugs are included in the letter system; for example, there is no designation for the plug defined by the Thai National Standard TIS116-2549.

IEC World Plugs is ambiguous in some areas: it does not reference national technical standards that define the dimensions and tolerances of devices. Plugs will usually mate with sockets which are intended to accept plugs classified under the same letter type, but there is no guarantee of this. There is also an issue relating to Type C, the EN 50075 Europlug, which has no dedicated socket in the standard and is designed to fit sockets accepting "4.0–4.8 mm round contacts on 19 mm centres", implying that there must be usage of such sockets in the territories listed as using Type C plugs. Despite this, World Plugs lists seven territories as using only Type C (i.e., no mention of specific plug types whose mating sockets also accept Type C) and twenty-one territories using Type C with no compatible types.[5] This may be for a number of reasons; for instance, the Thai standard TIS 166-2549 includes a socket which will also accept Types A, B and C plugs as well as the Thai plug (which does not have an IEC classification letter). Another possible reason is the use of so-called "universal sockets" in use in some countries; these accept multiple plug types but meet no standards and are not classified by the IEC.

The United States Department of Commerce published an earlier guide,[6] which is now obsolescent and which has known inaccuracies. (See History of similar guides section below.)

Safety considerations[edit]

Multi-standard sockets and adapters[edit]

Multi-standard sockets are sometimes used in China and some other Asian countries; these are intended to accommodate plugs conforming to various different standards. They do not normally have earthing (grounding) connections for either CEE 7/4 "Schuko", or CEE 7/5 (French), or their combination CEE 7/7. In multi-standard sockets, the aperture size for NEMA plugs is often the same for both Line (Hot) and Neutral, which allows a polarized plug to be inserted in either orientation, thus defeating the safety feature. Also, in a socket designed to accept both NEMA and BS 1363 plugs, the polarization can only be correct for one type of plug, so only appliances which do not require specific polarization should be connected.[7] Multi-standard sockets made by Lengon are amongst those classified as serious safety risks, because they allow the user to come into contact with live parts.[8]

Adapters that allow insertion of otherwise mechanically incompatible plugs into sockets are useful for travellers, but, as with multi-standard sockets, may not ensure the grounding and polarization intended by a compatible system of plugs and sockets.

Voltage rating of plugs and power cords[edit]

NEMA 5-15 (type B) plugs with current and voltage ratings shown (left) on label (7 A 125 V) and (centre) on engagement face (10 A 125 V). Also shown (right) is the rating on the C13 connector at the other end of the 10 A 125 V appliance cord.

Plugs and power cords have a rated voltage (V) and rated current (A) assigned to them by the manufacturer, and these values are required to be marked on the plug.[9] For a plug, the values are normally those specified in the relevant standard sheet. The international preferred rating for household plugs and sockets is either 130 V or 250 V; these are the values for normal use, and at which they are tested. (Plugs and power cords are also required to be tested at higher voltage for a brief period of 1 minute to test their electrical strength in case of fault conditions.)[9] The NEMA 1–15 U.S. 2 pin (Type A) and NEMA 5–15 U.S. 3 pin (Type B) plugs are rated at 125 V.[10] Similar plugs used in countries with higher mains voltages in the range 220–250 V are rated at 250 V.[11] Using an appliance, plug or power cord which is not appropriate for the territory (e.g. one rated for 125 V with a 230 V supply) may constitute a safety hazard.

Differences in standards for those plugs classified as Type I[edit]

Type I plugs also have differences in characteristics such as pin length. This means that the uninsulated pins of a Chinese plug may become live while there is still a large enough gap between the faces of the plug and socket to allow a finger to touch the pin. Argentinean connectors have the opposite polarity to those of other Type I countries.

Shaver sockets[edit]

National wiring regulations sometimes prohibit the use of sockets within certain areas adjacent to water taps etc. In such cases shaver supply units meeting IEC 61558-2-5 may be permissible. These include an isolation transformer and usually accept multiple two-pin plug types including Europlug (Type C), Australian (Type I) and BS 4573. The isolation transformer often includes a 115 V output accepting two-pin US plugs (Type A). Shaver supply units must also be current limited, IEC 61558-2-5 specifies a minimum rating of 20 VA and maximum of 50 VA.[12] IEC 61558-2-5 requires sockets to be marked with the shaver symbol defined in IEC 60417-5225, the words "shavers only" are also often used but not required. IEC 61558-2-5 has been adopted as a European CENELEC standard EN 61558-2-5 and also as a national standard in some countries, e.g. UK (BS EN 61558-2-5) and Malaysia (MS IEC 61558-2-5).


Voltages in this article are the nominal single-phase supply voltages. Three-phase and industrial loads may have other voltages.

All voltages are root mean square voltage; the peak AC voltage is greater by a factor of 2, and the peak-to-peak voltage greater by a factor of 22.

History of similar guides[edit]

In 1948 the US Government Printing Office published World electric current characteristics.[13] This contained information on voltages used in the cities of many countries, but no information on plugs. The guide was republished by the US Department of Commerce in 1954 as Electric Current Abroad. This was updated from time to time and the 1967 version includes some information on plugs,[14] but only three types were designated: Type A, illustrated by a US style 2-pin plug, Type B, illustrated by a sketch of a BS 546 type, and Type C, illustrated by a sketch of a BS 1363 type. The 1984 edition[15] uses the letters A to G in the same manner as they are used today. The last printed edition (listing plugs from A to H) was that of 1998, reprinted in 2002;[6] it includes brief textual descriptions of each type illustrated by a sketch, with only Type F (described as a Schuko) specifically linked to a generally recognized type. The International Trade Administration of the US Department of Commerce now publishes a web version: Electric Current Worldwide, which still does not include the full list of plug types; it does not describe Type M or type N. There are sketches and photographs of each type, but no textual description or references to actual standards. Examples of errors in the website include the failure to mention that Brazil uses Type N, although that has been the national standard in that country since 1998; stating that the UK uses type C, which is not permitted there; and claiming that China uses Type H (the Israeli plug) when the main Chinese plug is actually type I.

There are many web sites from unofficial sources which also purport to offer lists of voltages and plug types.

Table of mains voltages and frequencies[edit]

Except where other sources are indicated, the plug type, voltage and frequency in this table are sourced from an official web page of the IEC:World Plugs[1]

Entries in the plug standard column refer to the national standards pertaining to the relevant territory, and unless otherwise stated are sourced from IEC Technical Report 60083.[3]

Plug type Plug standard Residential voltage Frequency Comments
Afghanistan C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Albania C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Algeria C, F 230 V 50 Hz
American Samoa A, B, F, I 120 V 60 Hz
Andorra C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Angola C ?[5] 220 V 50 Hz
Anguilla A 110 V 60 Hz
Antigua and Barbuda A, B 230 V 60 Hz
Argentina C ?,[5] I 220 V 50 Hz Line/neutral reversed compared to Chinese and Australian/NZ Type I
Armenia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Aruba A, B, F 127 V 60 Hz
Australia I AS/NZS 3112 230 V[16][17] 50 Hz Bathrooms may have shaver sockets
Line/neutral reversed compared to Argentinian Type I
Austria C
ÖVE-IG/EN 50075
230 V 50 Hz
Azerbaijan C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Bahamas A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Bahrain G 230 V 50 Hz
Bangladesh C, D, G, K 220 V 50 Hz
Barbados A, B 115 V 50 Hz
Belarus C, F 230 V[18] 50 Hz
Belgium C, E NBN C 61 112-1 230 V 50 Hz
Belize A, B, G 110 V
220 V
60 Hz
Benin C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Bermuda A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Bhutan C, D, F, G, M 230 V 50 Hz
Bolivia A, C ?[5] 115 V
230 V
50 Hz
Bosnia and Herzegovina C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Botswana D, G, M 230 V 50 Hz
Brazil C, N NBR 14136 127 V
220 V [19]
60 Hz [20]
British Virgin Islands A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Brunei G 240 V 50 Hz
Bulgaria C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Burkina Faso C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Burundi C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Cambodia A, C ?,[5] G 230 V 50 Hz
Cameroon C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Canada A, B CSA C22.2 No. 42[21] 120 V 60 Hz
Cape Verde C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Caribbean Netherlands
[citation needed]
A, B, C 127 V
220 V
60 Hz
50 Hz
No reliable source found
Cayman Islands A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Central African Republic C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Chad C, D, E, F 220 V 50 Hz
Chile C, L 220 V 50 Hz
China A, I
GB 1002
220 V 50 Hz .
Line/neutral reversed compared to Argentinian Type I
Colombia A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Comoros C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Congo, Republic of the C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
[citation needed]
C, D, E 220 V 50 Hz
Cook Islands I 240 V 50 Hz
Costa Rica A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Côte d'Ivoire C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Croatia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Cuba A, B, C 110 V 60 Hz
Curaçao A, B,[22] 127 V 50 Hz
Cyprus G 240 V 50 Hz
Czech Republic C, E ČSN 35 4516 230 V 50 Hz
Denmark C
E, F, K
DS/EN 50075
DS 60884-2-D1[23]
230 V 50 Hz
Djibouti C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Dominica D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Dominican Republic A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Ecuador A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Egypt C, F 220 V 50 Hz
El Salvador A, B 115 V 60 Hz
Equatorial Guinea C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Eritrea C, L 230 V 50 Hz
Estonia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Ethiopia C, E, F, L 220 V 50 Hz
Falkland Islands G 240 V 50 Hz
Faroe Islands C, E, F, K 230 V 50 Hz
Fiji I 240 V 50 Hz
Finland C
SFS-EN 50075
SFS 5610
230 V 50 Hz
France C
NF EN 50075
NF C 61-314
230 V 50 Hz
French Guiana C, D, E 220 V 50 Hz
French Polynesia A, B, C, E, F 110 V
220 V
60 Hz
60 Hz[24]
Gabon C 220 V 50 Hz
Gambia G 230 V 50 Hz
Georgia C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Germany C
DIN VDE 0620
DIN 49441
230 V 50 Hz
Ghana D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Gibraltar C ?,[5] G 240 V 50 Hz
Greece C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Greenland C, E, F, K 220 V 50 Hz
Grenada G 230 V 50 Hz
Guadeloupe C, D, E 230 V 50 Hz
Guam A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Guatemala A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Guernsey G 230 V 50 Hz
Guinea C, F, K 220 V 50 Hz
Guinea-Bissau C ?[5] 220 V 50 Hz
Guyana A, B, D, G 110 V
220 V[25]
60 Hz
50 Hz[25]
Conversion of 50 Hz distribution to 60 Hz is ongoing[26]
Haiti A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Honduras A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Hong Kong G
D, M[27]
BS 1363
BS 546
220 V 50 Hz Type G is most common.
Hungary C
MSZ EN 50075
MSZ 9781-2
230 V 50 Hz
Iceland C, F 230 V 50 Hz
India C, D, M IS 1293[28] 230 V 50 Hz
Indonesia C, F 220 V[2] 50 Hz
Iran C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Iraq C ?,[5] D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Ireland G I.S. 401[29] 230 V 50 Hz
Isle of Man G 240 V 50 Hz
Israel C, H, M 230 V 50 Hz Several territories controlled by the PNA also share the same type as the State of Israel.
Italy C
F, L
CEI 23-34
CEI 23-50
230 V 50 Hz
Jamaica A, B 110 V 50 Hz
Japan A, B JIS C 8303 100 V 60 Hz
50 Hz
East Japan 50 Hz (Tokyo, Kawasaki, Sapporo, Yokohama, and Sendai); West Japan 60 Hz (Okinawa, Osaka, Kyoto, Kobe, Nagoya, Hiroshima). 120 V in military facilities in Okinawa.[citation needed] See Energy in Japan for more.
Jersey G 230 V 50 Hz
Jordan B, C, D, F, G, J 230 V 50 Hz
Kazakhstan C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Kenya G 240 V 50 Hz
Kiribati I 240 V 50 Hz
[citation needed]
C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Kuwait C ?[5] G 240 V 50 Hz
Kyrgyzstan C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Laos C, E, F 230 V 50 Hz
Latvia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Lebanon A, B, C ?[5] D, G 220 V 50 Hz
Lesotho M 220 V 50 Hz
Liberia A, B, C, E, F 120 V
240 V
60 Hz
50 Hz
Libya C, D, F, L 127 V 50 Hz Barca, Benghazi, Derna, Sabha & Tobruk 230 V.[citation needed]
Lithuania C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Liechtenstein C, J 230 V 50 Hz
Luxembourg C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Macau D, F, G, M 230 V[30] 50 Hz
Macedonia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Madagascar C, D, E, J, K 127 V
220 V
50 Hz
Malawi G 230 V 50 Hz
Malaysia C[5][31]
G [31]
MS 1578:2003[31]
MS 589:PT.1:1997[31]
MS 1577:2003[31]
230 V[33] 50 Hz Type C requires adaptor[34]
Bathrooms may have shaver sockets[34]
Maldives D, G, J, K, L 230 V 50 Hz
Mali C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Malta G 230 V 50 Hz
Martinique C, D, E 220 V 50 Hz
Mauritania C ?[5] 220 V 50 Hz
Mauritius C?[5] G 230 V 50 Hz
Mexico A, B NMX-J-163-ANCE 127 V 60 Hz
Micronesia A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Moldova C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Monaco C, D, E, F 230 V 50 Hz
Mongolia C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Montenegro C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Montserrat A, B 120 V
230 V
60 Hz
Morocco C, E 127 V
220 V
50 Hz
Mozambique C, F, M 220 V 50 Hz
Myanmar C, D, F, G 230 V 50 Hz
Namibia D, M 220 V 50 Hz
Nauru I 240 V 50 Hz
Nepal C?[5] D, M 230 V 50 Hz
Netherlands C
EN 50075
NEN 1020
230 V 50 Hz
New Caledonia C, F 220 V 50 Hz
New Zealand I AS/NZS 3112 230 V 50 Hz Line/neutral reversed compared to Argentinian Type I
Nicaragua A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Niger A, B, C, D, E, F 220 V 50 Hz
Nigeria D, G 240 V 50 Hz
North Korea A, C, F 110 V
220 V
60 Hz
50 Hz
Norway C
NEK EN 50075
NEK 502
230 V
50 Hz
Oman C?[5] G 240 V 50 Hz
Pakistan C, D, G, M 230 V 50 Hz
Palau A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Panama A, B 110 V
120 V
60 Hz
Papua New Guinea I 240 V 50 Hz
Paraguay C ?[5] 220 V 50 Hz
Peru A, B, C ?[5] 220 V 60 Hz Talara 110/220 V; some areas 50 Hz[35][unreliable source?]
Philippines A, B, C 230 V[36] 60 Hz
Poland C, E BN-88/3064 230 V 50 Hz
Portugal C, F NP 1260 230 V 50 Hz
Puerto Rico A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Qatar D, G 240 V 50 Hz
Réunion E 220 V 50 Hz
Romania C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Russia C, F 230 V[18] 50 Hz USSR (along with much of Eastern Europe) used GOST sockets with 4.0 mm pins similar to Type C plugs and the 4.8 mm standard used by Type E & F.[37]
Rwanda C, J 230 V 50 Hz
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
[citation needed]
G 220-240 V 50 Hz
Saint Martin (French) C, F 220 V 60 Hz
Sint Maarten (Dutch) A, B 120 V 60 Hz
St. Kitts and Nevis A, B, D, G 110 V
230 V
60 Hz
St. Lucia G 240 V 50 Hz
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
[citation needed]
E 230 V 50 Hz
St. Vincent and the Grenadines C, E, G, I, K 230 V 50 Hz
Samoa I 230 V 50 Hz
San Marino C, F, L 230 V 50 Hz
São Tomé and Príncipe C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Saudi Arabia G SASO 2203 220 V 60 Hz
Senegal C, D, E, K 230 V 50 Hz
Serbia C
JUS N.E3.552
JUS N.E3.553
230 V 50 Hz
Seychelles G 240 V 50 Hz
Sierra Leone D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Singapore C ?[5]
SS 145
SS 472
230 V 50 Hz
Slovakia C, E STN 34 4516 230 V 50 Hz
Slovenia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Solomon Islands I, G 220 V 50 Hz
Somalia C ?[5] 220 V 50 Hz
South Africa C, M, N SANS 164 230 V 50 Hz
South Korea C, F KSC 8305 220 V 60 Hz
Spain C, F UNE 20315 230 V 50 Hz
Sri Lanka D, G, M 230 V 50 Hz
Sudan C ?[5] D 230 V 50 Hz
Suriname C, F 127 V 60 Hz
Swaziland M 230 V 50 Hz
Sweden C
SS-EN 50075
SS 428 08 34
230 V 50 Hz Bathrooms may have shaver sockets.
Switzerland C, J SN SEV 1011:2009[38][39] 230 V 50 Hz
Syria C, E, L 220 V 50 Hz
Taiwan A, B 110 V 60 Hz Sockets in older buildings are often unearthed and accept only Type A plugs.
Tajikistan C, F, I 220 V 50 Hz
Tanzania D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Thailand A, B, C, F - 220 V 50 Hz There is also a Thai national standard, TIS166-2549, which may not yet be in common use.[40][41]
Timor-Leste (East Timor) C, E, F, I 220 V 50 Hz
Togo C ?[5] 220 V 50 Hz
Tonga I 240 V 50 Hz
Trinidad & Tobago A, B 115 V 60 Hz
Tunisia C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Turkey C, F 220 V[42] 50 Hz
Turkmenistan B, C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Tuvalu I 220 V 50 Hz
Uganda G 240 V 50 Hz
Ukraine C, F 230 V[43] 50 Hz
United Arab Emirates C,[5] G 220 V 50 Hz Type G is most common.
United Kingdom G[44] BS 1363 230 V[45] 50 Hz Bathrooms may have shaver sockets
United States A
NEMA 1-15 P
NEMA 5-15 P
120 V 60 Hz
US Virgin Islands A
NEMA 1-15 P
NEMA 5-15 P
110 V 60 Hz
Uruguay C, F, I, L 230 V 50 Hz
Uzbekistan C ?[5] I 220 V 50 Hz
Vanuatu C ?[5] G, I 220 V 50 Hz
Venezuela A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Vietnam A, C ?[5] G TCVN 6188-1 220 V 50 Hz
Yemen A, D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Zambia C ?[5] D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Zimbabwe D, G 220 V 50 Hz
Type A (NEMA 1–15 U.S. 2 pin)
rated 125 V AC
Type B (NEMA 5–15 U.S. 3 pin)
rated 125 V AC
Standardized by IEC as IEC 60906-2
Type C (CEE 7/16 Europlug)
CEE 7/17 2-pin plug & CEE 7/1 socket
Type D (BS 546 5 A)
Type E (French) CEE 7/6 plug & CEE 7/5 socket
Type F ("Schuko") CEE 7/4 plug & CEE 7/3 socket

CEE 7/7 plug, (combines earthing methods of Type E & Type F)
Type G (BS 1363 UK)
Type H (SI 32 Israel)
Type I (Australian AS/NZS 3112).
Type I, plus Chinese multiple socket
Type J (SEV-1011 Switzerland)
Type K (SRAF 1962/DB Denmark)
Type L (CEI 23-50)
Type M (15 A BS 546)
Type N (Brazilian NBR 14136)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b World Plugs. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Retrieved on 2014-01-01.
  2. ^ a b SPLN 1 : 1995, Standar PLN. "Tegangan-tegangan Standar". Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2013. 
  3. ^ a b IEC/TR 60083 ed6.0: Plugs and socket-outlets for domestic and similar general use standardized in member countries of IEC. International Electrotechnical Commission, February 2009. This 384-page technical report describes many national standards for domestic plugs and sockets. The first edition was published in January 1957. The 7th edition was approved in December 2012 and awaits publication as at 20th January 2015.
  4. ^ IEC 60884-1 ed3.2, Plugs and socket-outlets for household and similar purposes - Part 1: General requirements, CH: International Electrotechnical Commission, 2013 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z "IEC World Plugs" lists the following territories as using Type C only: Angola, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Paraguay, Somalia, Togo. It also lists the following territories as using Type C without compatible socket types: Argentina, Bolivia, Cambodia, China, Gibraltar, India, Iraq, Isle of Man, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mauritius, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Peru, Singapore, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, Zambia.
  6. ^ a b "Electric Current Abroad" (PDF). U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration. 2002. 
  7. ^ "Universal socket-outlets – friend or foe?" (PDF), SwitchedOn, United Kingdom: Electrical Safety Council (issue 29, Summer 2013): 14–15, 2013, retrieved 2015-01-23 
  8. ^ Notification Reference: A12/0135/13 (online report), Weekly overview report of RAPEX notifications Report 5 (Ref. 6 A12/0135/13), Brussels, Belgium: European Commission, 8 February 2013, retrieved 2017-12-06 
  9. ^ a b Plugs and socket-outlets for household and similar purposes – Part 1: General requirements (PDF) (Technical report) (3.2 Consol. with am1&2 ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: International Electrotechnical Commission IEC. 14 February 2013. pp. ???. IEC 60884-1. Retrieved 2015-01-23. 
  10. ^ ANSI/NEMA WD 6-2012 (Technical report). Wiring Devices—Dimensional Specifications. USA: NEMA. 31 July 2013. 100208. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 2015-01-23. Covers dimensional requirements for plugs and receptacles rated up to 60 A and 600 V, including dimensions for wall plates. 
  11. ^ Plugs and socket-outlets for domestic and similar general use standardized in member countries of IEC (PDF) (Technical report) (6.0 ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: International Electrotechnical Commission IEC. 23 February 2009. p. ?. IEC/TR 60083. Retrieved 2015-01-23. 
  12. ^ IEC 61558-2-5 includes the following definitions: (3.1.101) Shaver transformer: isolating transformer for fixed installation and with a limited output, designed to supply electric shavers, toothbrushes, and similar appliances rated 50 VA or less used in a bathroom. It supplies only one shaver, or the like, at a time and (3.1.102) Shaver supply unit: accessory embodying a shaver transformer or a power supply unit incorporating a shaver transformer, and one or more socket outlets allowing the use of only one plug at a time.
  13. ^ Hall, Guida Berrigan. (1948). World electrical current characteristics. Washington, D.C. :U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved on 2013-12-14.
  14. ^ Electric Current Abroad. United States Department of Commerce, 1967. Retrieved on 2013-12-14.
  15. ^ 'Electric Current Abroad. United States Department of Commerce, January 1984. Retrieved on 2013-12-14.
  16. ^ AS60038-2012 Standards AustraliaStandard Voltages
  17. ^ When voltage varies. Electrical connection (2012-10-22). Retrieved on 2014-05-24.
  18. ^ a b "Standard Voltages".  Document gost-29322-92
  19. ^ Brasil. Decreto n. 41.019, de 26 de fev. de 1957. Regulamenta os serviços de energia elétrica, BR: BR Government, 1957 
  20. ^ Brasil. Lei n. 4.454, de 06 de nov. de 1964. Dispõe sobre a unificação de frequência da corrente elétrica no País, BR: BR Government, 1964 
  21. ^ CSA Standard C22.2 No. 42-10: General use receptacles, attachment plugs, and similar wiring devices. Mississauga, Ontario: Canadian Standards Association. 2010. p. 1. 
  22. ^ "Curaçao Utilities". Curaçao Tourist Board. Retrieved 28 June 2017. 
  23. ^ Dansk Standard. "DS 60884-2-D1:2011 - Plugs and socket-outlets for household and similar purposes - Requirements for Danish systems". 
  24. ^ [1](PDF)(french) Page 10, Article 9
  25. ^ a b History of Guyana Power and Light. Retrieved on 2014-01-01.
  26. ^ GPL Converting Parts of the City to 60 Hz, retrieved 2009 July 31. (2009-07-10). Retrieved on 2014-01-01.
  27. ^ "Code of Practice for the Electricity (Wiring) Regulations" (PDF). Electrical and Mechanical Services Department. p. 221. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 
  29. ^ I.S. 401, "Safety requirements for rewirable and non-rewirable 13A fused plugs for normal and rough use having insulating sleeves on live and neutral pins", NSAI (National Standards Authority of Ireland), (1997), Dublin
  30. ^ Standard Conditions of Supply of Electricity. (Macau). Archived from the original 2016-06-03. Retrieved on 2016-04-14
  31. ^ a b c d e f Plug Top/Plug (15 A and below) -Energy Commission of Malaysia. Archived from the original 2015-01-07.
  33. ^ Voltan Nominal. Malaysian Energy Commission Notice (Nominal Voltage - 2008-01-01). Retrieved on 2014-07-14
  34. ^ a b Socket Outlet (15 A and below) Archived 2015-01-07 at the Wayback Machine. Energy Commission of Malaysia. (MS 1579:2003 is adaptor for Europlugs.)
  35. ^ Dilwyn Jenkins, The Rough Guide to Peru 2003 Rough Guides, ISBN 1-84353-074-0, p. 57
  36. ^ Philippine Electrical Code, section (a)
  37. ^ ГОСТ 7396.1–89 - Plugs (Electrical) and socket-outlets for domestic and similar general use. Standards. (2013-01-30). Retrieved on 2013-02-05.
  38. ^ "Information SEV 1011 – power socket/plug/connector" (PDF). (PDF). Federal Inspectorate for Heavy Current Installations ESTI, Swiss Confederation. 1 August 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 
  39. ^ "New standard for plugs in Switzerland starting from 2013" (PDF) (PDF). Federal Inspectorate for Heavy Current Installations ESTI, Swiss Confederation. 13 May 2011. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 
  40. ^ TIS 166-2549 (2006): Thai Industrial Standards for Plugs and socket-outlets for household and similar purposes : plugs and socket-outlets with rated voltage not exceeding 250 V (English translation) Archived from the original 2016-07-07.
  42. ^ Turkish Electric Plugs & Sockets. Retrieved on 2017-03-26.
  43. ^ ДСТУ ЕN 50160:2014
  44. ^ Mullins, Malcolm (Spring 2006). "The Origin of the BS 1363 Plug and Socket-Outlet System". IEE Wiring Matters. Institute of Electrical Engineers. Retrieved 2016-10-16. 
  45. ^ The Electricity Safety, Quality and Continuity Regulations 2002 PART VII Regulation 27, UK: UK Government, 2002 

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