List of countries with multiple capitals
Some countries have multiple capitals. In some cases, one city is the capital for some purposes, and one or more others are capital for other purposes, without any being considered an official capital in preference to the others.
There are also cases where there is a single legally defined capital, but one or more other cities operate as the seat of government of some or all parts of the national government. While such cases are arguably not technically multiple capitals, the situation is similar; so they are included in this list.
More than one capital at present
|Benin||Porto-Novo||Official capital; seat of legislature|
|Cotonou||De facto seat of government; seat of judicial bodies|
|Bolivia||Sucre||Official (constitutional) capital; seat of national judiciary|
|La Paz||Seat of national executive, legislative, and electoral bodies|
|Burundi||Gitega||Official (constitutional) capital|
|Bujumbura||Seat of national executive|
|Chile||Santiago||Official capital; seat of national administrative and judicial bodies|
|Valparaíso||Seat of national legislature|
|Ivory Coast||Yamoussoukro||Official capital|
|Abidjan||De facto seat of government|
|Dominican Republic||Santo Domingo||Official capital, seat of all national administrative and legislative bodies and some judiciary bodies|
|Santo Domingo Oeste||Seat of the Constitutional Court and the Central Electoral Board|
|Lobamba||Legislative and royal capital|
|Honduras||Tegucigalpa||De facto capital and, with Comayagüela, one of two cities constituting the Municipality of the Central District, which is the official constitutional capital|
|Comayagüela||With Tegucigalpa, one of two cities constituting the Municipality of the Central District, which is the official constitutional capital|
|Malaysia||Kuala Lumpur||Official and royal capital; seat of national legislature|
|Putrajaya||Administrative centre and seat of national judiciary|
|Cetinje||Seat of President of Montenegro|
|Netherlands||Amsterdam||De jure capital under the Constitution of the Netherlands|
|The Hague||Seat of government|
|South Africa||Pretoria||Administrative and executive capital|
|Cape Town||Legislative capital|
|Sri Lanka||Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte||Seat of national legislature|
|Colombo||Seat of national executive and judicial bodies|
|Tanzania||Dodoma||Official and legislative capital|
|Dar es Salaam||De facto seat of government; seat of judicial bodies|
|Western Sahara (SADR)||Laayoune||Declared capital|
|Yemen||Sana'a||Internationally recognized capital, controlled by the Houthis|
|Aden||Temporary capital, controlled by the pro-Hadi forces.|
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Israel designates Jerusalem as its capital, and its government, parliament and Supreme Court are located in the city. However, as Jerusalem's political status has not reached a final settlement, most countries locate their embassy in Tel Aviv. Tel Aviv and Jerusalem served as de facto joint capitals of Israel from May to December 1948. The State of Palestine also claims Jerusalem as its capital, but the current de facto seat of the internationally recognized Palestinian government is in Ramallah, while the seat of the Hamas-led government is in Gaza City.
In Germany, the highest judiciary organs (Federal Court of Justice and Federal Constitutional Court) are located in Karlsruhe, whereas the nation's political capital is Berlin. Some ministries are still mainly located in Bonn, the former West German capital, which is still called "federal city" (Bundesstadt).
The Honduran constitution statutes that Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela are both capitals in this country. However, all the branches of government are in Tegucigalpa. Comayagüela currently is part of Tegucigalpa Metropolitan Area.
Serbian Republic, a sub-national entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina, has a constitutional capital of Sarajevo, the same as the capital of the country, by the Dayton Accords; but in fact, their government is located in Banja Luka.
Cetinje is a historical, the traditional, and the secondary capital of Montenegro. The city's status is specifically recognized by the constitution. While the official residence of the President of Montenegro is located in the city, the rest of the government is in Podgorica.
Saint Petersburg, the former capital of the Russian Empire, is unofficially recognized as the Northern Russian capital. In 2009, the Constitutional Court of Russia moved from Moscow to Saint Petersburg, giving the latter city some of the expected functions of a capital.
While Manila is the official capital of the Philippines, the administrative and political centers of the Philippine government is spread across Metro Manila. The Malacañang Palace, the executive seat of the government and the Supreme Court building the judicial center are located in Manila proper while legislative branch hosted in two other cities in the metropolis the House of Representatives in Quezon City and the Senate in Pasay.
More than one capital in the past
Many nations that have maintained only one capital at any given time have, nevertheless, over time, conferred capital status on more than one city.
These current countries have had two cities that served as administrative capitals at the same time, for various reasons such as war, weather or partition. In some cases, the second capital is considered a temporary capital.
|Republic of China||1937–1945||Nanjing||Capital of Japanese-controlled puppet state|
|Chongqing||Provisional capital of the Kuomintang-controlled Republic of China|
|1945–1991||Nanjing||Administrative, legislative, and judicial capital (claimed between the 1949 evacuation and the 1992 Consensus)|
|Taipei||Provisional capital of the Kuomintang-ruled Republic of China in Taiwan|
|Georgia||2012–2018||Tbilisi||Official and administrative capital|
|Kutaisi||Seat of parliament|
|Bonn||Seat of government|
|North Korea||1948–1972||Pyongyang||Seat of administration|
|Seoul||Official and constitutional de jure capital|
|British India||1858–1947||Calcutta (1858–1911)||Winter capital|
|Luang Prabang||Royal capital|
|Libya||1951–1969||Tripoli||One of two official capitals of the Kingdom of Libya|
|Malawi||1974–1994||Lilongwe||Administrative and judiciary capital|
|Hamar||Temporarily one-day capital that seated the parliament|
|Philippines||1948–1976||Quezon City||Official capital|
|Manila||De facto seat of government|
|1901–1976||Baguio||Summer capital (still known as summer capital, outside of political use)|
|Serbia and Montenegro||2003–2006||Belgrade||Administrative and legislative|
Subnational and supernational capitals
At the subnational level, the Canary Islands of Spain have had two co-capitals since 1927, viz. Las Palmas and Santa Cruz. Also, the Azores of Portugal have three co-capitals: Ponta Delgada, Angra do Heroísmo and Horta.
At the supernational level, Brussels is informally considered the de facto capital of the European Union. However, this informal title is shared with the cities of Frankfurt, Luxembourg and Strasbourg.
- List of capitals outside the territories they serve
- List of historical capitals of China
- List of national capitals
- List of former national capitals
- List of purpose-built national capitals
- List of countries whose capital is not their largest city
- "Field Listing::Capital". The World Factbook. Retrieved 2014-04-27.
- "The Evolution of Manila". Presidential Museum and Librar. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
- Eberstadt, Nick (1999). The End of North Korea. Washington: American Enterprise Institute. pp. 26, 32. ISBN 978-0-8447-4087-4.
- Kongens nei - 9. april (Norwegian)