List of countries with multiple capitals

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Some countries have multiple capitals. In some cases, one city is the capital for some purposes, and one or more others are capital for other purposes, without any being considered an official capital in preference to the others.

There are also cases where there is a single legally defined capital, but one or more other cities operate as the seat of government of some or all parts of the national government.

More than one capital at present[edit]

Country Capitals Details
 Bolivia Sucre Constitutional capital
La Paz Executive capital
 Eswatini Mbabane Administrative capital
Lobamba Legislative (Parliament) and royal capital
 South Africa Pretoria Administrative and executive capital
Cape Town Legislative capital (Parliament)
Bloemfontein Judicial capital
 Malaysia Putrajaya Administrative capital
Kuala Lumpur Executive capital (Parliament)

More than one capital in the past[edit]

These countries have had two cities that served as administrative capitals at the same time, for various reasons such as war, weather or partition. In some cases, the second capital is considered a temporary capital.

Country Years Capitals Details
Afghanistan 1776–1818 Kabul Summer capital
Peshawar Winter capital
 Republic of China 1937–1945 Nanjing Capital of Japanese-controlled puppet state
Chongqing Provisional capital of the Kuomintang-controlled Republic of China
1945–1991 Nanjing Administrative, legislative, and judicial capital (claimed between the 1949 evacuation and the 1992 Consensus)
Taipei Provisional capital of the Kuomintang-ruled Republic of China in Taiwan
 British India 1858–1947 Calcutta (1858–1911) Administrative capital
Delhi (1911–1947)
Simla Summer capital
 France 1940-1944 Vichy de facto administrative capital
Paris de jure constitutional capital, also capital for the German military administration
 Kingdom of Italy 1943-1944 Brindisi (1943–Feb 1944) de facto provisional capital
Salerno (Feb-Jun 1944)
Rome de jure capital until 1944 when it got Liberated by the Allies
 Italian Social Republic 1943-1944 Salò de facto capital until 1944 when it became the Primary Capital
Rome de jure capital until 1944 when it got Liberated by the Allies
 Laos 1947–1975 Vientiane Administrative capital
Luang Prabang Royal capital
 Libya 1951–1969 Tripoli One of two official capitals of the Kingdom of Libya
 Malawi 1974–1994 Lilongwe Administrative and judiciary capital
Zomba Legislative capital
 Norway 1940 Oslo Official capital
Hamar Temporarily one-day capital that seated the parliament[1]
 Philippines 1948–1976 Quezon City Official capital
Manila De facto seat of government
1901–1976 Baguio Summer capital (still known as summer capital, outside of political use)
 Serbia and Montenegro 2003–2006 Belgrade Administrative and legislative
Podgorica Judicial

^A Bonn had been the de facto capital of West Germany before. With the German reunification Berlin became capital of the united Germany. The government moved to Berlin 9 years later.

See also[edit]