List of countries with multiple capitals
Some countries have multiple capitals. In some cases, one city is the capital for some purposes, and one or more others are capital for other purposes, without any being considered an official capital in preference to the others.
There are also cases where there is a single legally defined capital, but one or more other cities operate as the seat of government of some or all parts of the national government. While such cases are arguably not technically multiple capitals, the situation is similar; so they are included in this list.
More than one capital at present
|Benin||Porto-Novo||Official capital; seat of legislature|
|Cotonou||De facto seat of government; seat of judicial bodies|
|Bolivia||Sucre||Official (constitutional) capital; seat of national judiciary|
|La Paz||Seat of national executive, legislative, and electoral bodies|
|Burundi||Gitega||Official (constitutional) capital|
|Bujumbura||Seat of national executive|
|Chile||Santiago||Official capital; seat of national administrative and judicial bodies|
|Valparaíso||Seat of national legislature|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Yamoussoukro||Official capital|
|Abidjan||De facto seat of government|
|Lobamba||Legislative and royal capital|
|Honduras||Tegucigalpa||De facto capital and, with Comayagüela, one of two cities constituting the Municipality of the Central District, which is the official constitutional capital|
|Comayagüela||With Tegucigalpa, one of two cities constituting the Municipality of the Central District, which is the official constitutional capital|
|Malaysia||Kuala Lumpur||Official and royal capital; seat of national legislature|
|Putrajaya||Administrative centre and seat of national judiciary|
|Cetinje||Seat of President of Montenegro|
|Netherlands||Amsterdam||De jure capital under the Constitution of the Netherlands|
|The Hague||Seat of government|
|South Africa||Pretoria||Administrative and executive capital|
|Cape Town||Legislative capital|
|Sri Lanka||Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte||Official capital and seat of national legislature|
|Colombo||De facto seat of national executive and judicial bodies|
|Tanzania||Dodoma||Official and legislative capital|
|Dar es Salaam||De facto seat of government; seat of judicial bodies|
|Western Sahara (SADR)||Laayoune||Declared capital|
|Yemen||Sana'a||Internationally recognized capital, occupied by the Houthis|
Israel designates Jerusalem as its capital, and seats its government in that city. However, as Jerusalem's political status has not reached a final settlement, most countries locate their embassy in Tel Aviv. Tel Aviv and Jerusalem served as de facto joint capitals of Israel from May to December 1948. The Israeli parliament and the Supreme Court are both located in Jerusalem, which makes it the legislative capital and judicial capital of Israel. The State of Palestine also claims Jerusalem as its capital, but the current de facto seat of the internationally recognized Palestinian government is in Ramallah, while the seat of the Hamas-led government is in Gaza City.
In Germany, the highest judiciary organs (Federal Court of Justice and Federal Constitutional Court) are located in Karlsruhe, whereas the nation's political capital is Berlin. Some ministries are still mainly located in Bonn, the former West German capital, which is still called "federal city" (Bundesstadt).
The Honduran constitution statutes that Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela are both capitals in this country. However, all the branches of government are in Tegucigalpa. Comayagüela currently is part of Tegucigalpa Metropolitan Aera.
Republika Srpska, a sub-national entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina, has a constitutional capital of Sarajevo, the same as the capital of the country, by the Dayton Accords; but in fact, their government is located in Banja Luka.
Cetinje is a historical, the traditional, and the secondary capital of Montenegro. The city's status is specifically recognized by the constitution. While the official residence of the President of Montenegro is located in the city, the rest of the government is in Podgorica.
Saint Petersburg, the former capital of the Russian Empire, is unofficially recognized as the Northern Russian capital. In 2009, the Constitutional Court of Russia moved from Moscow to Saint Petersburg, giving the latter city some of the expected functions of a capital.
While Manila is the official capital of the Philippines, the administrative and political centers of the Philippine government is spread across Metro Manila. The Malacañang Palace, the executive seat of the government and the Supreme Court building the judicial center are located in Manila proper while legislative branch hosted in two other cities in the metropolis the House of Representatives in Quezon City and the Senate in Pasay.
In South Africa, Bloemfontein is considered the de facto judicial capital, as it houses the Supreme Court of Appeal. The Constitutional Court is housed in Johannesburg, and is a higher appeal court in the case of constitutional matters.
Although there is only one capital, London, of the United Kingdom, there are also three other cities which serve as capitals of their respective countries. Belfast, Cardiff and Edinburgh are the capital cities of Northern Ireland, Wales and Scotland respectively, while London is also the capital of England. The government, parliament, royal residence and supreme court are actually located in the City of Westminster, Greater London rather than the City of London.
Although not a sovereign country on its own, the Portuguese autonomous region of the Azores has three designated regional capital cities: Ponta Delgada at São Miguel Island (seat of the Autonomous Government); Horta at Faial Island (seat of the Legislative Assembly); and Angra do Heroísmo at Terceira Island (seat of the judiciary and the historical capital of the Azores, in addition to being the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Angra).
More than one capital in the past
Many nations that have maintained only one capital at any given time have, nevertheless, over time, conferred capital status on more than one city.
These current countries have had two cities that served as administrative capitals at the same time, for various reasons such as war, weather or partition. In some cases, the second capital is considered a temporary capital.
|Republic of China||1937–1945||Nanjing||Capital of puppet state|
|Chongqing||Provisional capital of the Kuomintang|
|1945–1991||Nanjing||Administrative, legislative, and judicial capital (claimed after 1949)|
|Taipei||Provisional capital of the Kuomintang-ruled Republic of China in Taiwan|
|Georgia||2012–2019||Tbilisi||Official and administrative capital|
|Kutaisi||Seat of parliament|
|Bonn||Seat of government|
|North Korea||1948–1972||Pyongyang||Seat of administration|
|Seoul||Official and constitutional de jure capital|
|British India||1858–1947||Calcutta (1858–1911)||Winter capital|
|Luang Prabang||Royal capital|
|Libya||1951–1969||Tripoli||One of two official capitals of the Kingdom of Libya|
|Benghazi||One of two official capitals of the Kingdom of Libya|
|Malawi||1974–1994||Lilongwe||Administrative and judiciary capital|
|Philippines||1948–1976||Quezon City||Official capital|
|Manila||De facto seat of government|
|1901–1976||Baguio||Summer capital (still known as summer capital, outside of political use)|
|Serbia and Montenegro||2003–2006||Belgrade||Administrative and legislative|
- List of historical capitals of China
- List of national capitals
- List of former national capitals
- List of purpose-built national capitals
- List of countries by national capital, largest and second-largest cities