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List of coups and coup attempts

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General Bonaparte during the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire in Saint-Cloud, detail of painting by François Bouchot, 1840

A coup d'état, often abbreviated to coup, is the overthrow of a government by non-democratic means. This is a chronological list of coups and coup attempts, from ancient times to the present.

BC

AD 1–999

Nero was the target of many plots. Here a plaster bust conserved at the Pushkin Museum, Moscow.
As-Saffah is proclaimed as the first Abbasid caliph, from Balami's Tarikhnama

1000–1699

General Yi Seong-gye, later crowned Taejo of Joseon.

1700–1799

1800–1899

Benito Juárez, after whom Benito Mussolini was named, took part himself in a coup.

1900–1909

1903

1908

1909

1910–1919

The front page of the Le Petit Journal magazine in February 1913 depicting the assassination of Minister of War Nazım Pasha during the coup.

1910

1913

Citizens throng around The Citadel (La ciudadela) building during La decena tragica in 1913.

1916

  • While touring the city of Harar, Lij Iyasu V was deposed by a cabal of aristocrats in favor of his aunt Zewditu I. Forces loyal to him are defeated at Segale, and Lij Iyasu wanders northwestern Ethiopia with a small band of loyal followers until captured five years later.
  • Yuan Shikai launches a self-coup by proclaiming himself emperor of the Chinese Empire.

1917

1918

1919

1920–1929

Defendants in the Beer Hall Putsch trial. Ludendorff is fifth from the left, with Hitler to the right. Ernst Röhm is to the right and in front of Hitler. Note that only two of the defendants, Hitler and Frick, were dressed in civilian clothing.

1920

1921

1922

Benito Mussolini and Fascist Blackshirts during the March on Rome in 1922. Mussolini stayed out of most of the march.

1923

1924

1925

1926

Józef Piłsudski and other leaders of the May Coup (1926) on Poniatowski Bridge in Warsaw.

1928

1929

1930–1939

1930

1931

1932

March in support of the proclamation of the Socialist Republic of Chile, in front of La Moneda Palace (June 12, 1932).

1933

1934

1935

1936

1st Lt. Niu Yoshitada and his rebel troops in the February 26th Incident of 1936.

1937

  • The Cagoulard plot to install a pro-Nazi government in France was foiled by French police.
  • Brazilian president Getúlio Vargas, governing democratically since 1934, launches a self-coup and becomes the Dictator of Brazilian Estado Novo ("New State").

1938

  • King Carol II of Romania launches a self-coup, abolishing parliamentary democracy in favor of a royal dictatorship.
  • Vargas forces detected the attempted Integralista coup in Brazil. Vargas and guards shoot it out with insurgents at the Guanabara Palace.

1939

1940–1949

1940

1941

1942

  • French resistance coup in Algiers, by which 400 Civil French patriots neutralized Vichyst XIXth Army Corps in Algiers during 15 hours, arrested vichyst generals (Juin, Darlan, etc.), and so allowed the immediate success of Operation Torch.

1943

1944

The conference room where Hitler survived the 20 July plot of 1944 after the explosion.

1945

1947

1948

1949

1950–1959

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

1960–1969

1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970–1979

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

1980–1989

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990–1999

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

  • In Albania, the funeral of Azem Hajdari turns violent as the Prime Minister's Office is attacked, obliging Fatos Nano to hastily flee and step down shortly after. His party remains in power.

1999

2000–2009

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Tanks in Bangkok's street in 2006

2007

2008

2009

  • In an attempted coup in Madagascar the army seized one of the presidential palaces on March 16, 2009, at which president Marc Ravalomanana was not present. The proposal offered by the president for a referendum to solve the crisis was rejected. On March 17, 2009, Marc Ravalomanana resigned under pressure from the military.
  • In Honduras, the army seized one of the presidential palaces on June 28, 2009, kidnapped president Manuel Zelaya Rosales due to his endeavor for an unconstitutional reelection and extradited him from the country. The 23-nation Rio Group & the United Nations General Assembly condemned the coup d'état.[36][37]
  • On 24 April 2009, the Ethiopian government claimed, through the Ethiopian News Agency, that it had foiled a coup attempt led by members of Ginbot 7 to overthrow the government.[38] Ginbot 7 described the allegation that it had attempted a coup as a "baseless accusation" that fitted a pattern of distraction and scapegoating by the government.[39]

2010–2019

2010

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

  • A right-wing coup d'état plot was foiled in Austria in April. The leader Monika Unger and others were arrested after they tried to organise an army-led coup.[52]
  • 2017 Zimbabwean coup d'état: Harare, Zimbabwe. In the early hours of 15 November 2017, an army spokesman announced the military takeover of government. This was after the army had seized control of the state run television broadcasting station. During the night before they had stormed the president's private residence and placed the head of state, President Robert Gabriel Mugabe under house arrest. The military police also captured and detained some cabinet ministers whom they labelled criminals around the president. It would succeed with the resignation of Mugabe on 21 November 2017.[53]
  • In December an attempted coup against the government in Equatorial Guinea.[54]

2019

2020–2029

2020

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Birth of the Roman Republic". UNRV History. Retrieved 2008-10-02.
  3. ^ "100-50 BC". History Central. Retrieved 2008-10-02.
  4. ^ "50-0 BC". History Central. Retrieved 2008-10-02.
  5. ^ [1] p. 331
  6. ^ Bingham, Woodbridge (1950). "Li Shih-min's coup in A. D. 626. I: The climax of princely rivalry". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 70 (2): 89–95. doi:10.2307/595537. JSTOR 595537.
  7. ^ "Elizabethan England - The Age of Treason". The Gunpowder Plot Society. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008.
  8. ^ "History of England: In the name of God, go". HistoryWorld. Retrieved 2016-03-18.
  9. ^ Hudson, Rex A.; Hanratty, Dennis M., eds. (1989). "Political Instability and Economic Decline, 1839-79". Bolivia: A Country Study. countrystudies.us (Report). Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office for the Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 5 November 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  10. ^ "New Finnish Dictator Is Dubbed 'Kosolini' Because of Resemblance to Italian Duce". The New York Times. August 10, 1930. Retrieved January 23, 2020.
  11. ^ "1932 Colonial Building riot". June 27, 2019 – via Wikipedia.
  12. ^ Roudometof, Victor (2002). Collective Memory, National Identity, and Ethnic Conflict. Praeger/Greenwood. p. 115. ISBN 0-275-97648-3.
  13. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2014/05/20/thailands-army-says-this-definitely-isnt-a-coup-heres-11-times-it-definitely-was/
  14. ^ https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/thailand-coup-a-brief-history-of-past-military-coups-0
  15. ^ Dehghan, Saeed Kamali; Norton-Taylor, Richard (August 8, 2013). "CIA admits role in 1953 Iranian coup". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  16. ^ "A Creeping Coup d'Etat in Pakistan". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  17. ^ Cullather, Nick (1999). Secret History: The CIA's classified account of its operations in Guatemala, 1952–1954. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3311-2.
  18. ^ DePalma, Anthony (2008-03-06). "Ramón Barquín, Cuban Colonel, Dies at 93". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-31.
  19. ^ Sullivan, Patricia (2008-03-06). "Ramón M. Barquín, 93; Led Failed '56 Coup in Cuba". Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-03-31.
  20. ^ Szulc, pg. 78
  21. ^ Szulc, pg. 81
  22. ^ Szulc, pgs. 80-81
  23. ^ The Middle East and North Africa, 2004. Regional surveys of the world (50th ed.). London: Europa. 2004. ISBN 1-85743-184-7.
  24. ^ Szulc, pg. 75
  25. ^ Szulc, pgs. 82-83
  26. ^ Caesar, Judith (24 August 1990). "Dissent in Saudi Arabia". Christian Science Monitor.
  27. ^ Falcoff, Mark (November 2003). "Kissinger & Chile: The Myth That Will Not Die". Commentary.
  28. ^ "Como se dio el tercer Golpe de Estado, en contra del Gobierno del doctor Ramón Ernesto Cruz Ucles". StuDocu (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-07-28.
  29. ^ Pilger, John (2014-10-23). "The British-American coup that ended Australian independence | John Pilger". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  30. ^ "In the 1970s, a Soft Coup Removed Australia's Left-Wing Prime Minister". jacobinmag.com. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  31. ^ "A Secret Country". johnpilger.com. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  32. ^ Nina J. Fitzgerald, Somalia: issues, history, and bibliography, (Nova Publishers: 2002), p.25.
  33. ^ http://educ.ar/educar/site/educar/Alzamientos%20militares%20despu%E9s%20de%201983.html?uri%3Durn%3Akbee%3A38e173e0-0ae9-11dd-888e-00163e000043%26page-uri%3Durn%3Akbee%3Aff9221c0-13a9-11dc-b8c4-0013d43e5fae. Retrieved November 12, 2008. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  34. ^ Association of Former Intelligence Officers (19 May 2003), US Coup Plotting in Iraq, Weekly Intelligence Notes 19-03
  35. ^ "Second South Pacific Coup". The Guardian. 2 June 2000. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
  36. ^ "Coup In Honduras: Army Expels President". CBS/AP. June 29, 2009. Retrieved Oct 7, 2010.
  37. ^ "General Assembly condemns coup in Honduras". UN News. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 7 Oct 2010.
  38. ^ "Woyanne claims it has foiled Ginbot 7 activities in Ethiopia", Ethiopian Review
  39. ^ "Official Web Site of GINBOT 7". April 18, 2012. Archived from the original on April 18, 2012.
  40. ^ "Mali junta says "strangers" behind counter-coup". Reuters. 1 May 2012.
  41. ^ Adama Diarra; Tiemoko Diallo (1 May 2012). "Gunfire erupts in Mali's Bamako, junta claims control". Reuters. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  42. ^ Straziuso, Jason (22 January 2013). "A day after unrest reported in Eritrea, calm returns. Ambassador denied coup attempt". AP. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  43. ^ "BBC News - Benin foils 'coup attempt' against President Yayi". Bbc.co.uk. 4 March 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  44. ^ "Libyan forces foil coup attempt". Middleeastmonitor.com. 15 April 2013. Archived from the original on 24 April 2013.
  45. ^ "Comores: coup d'État déjoué (autorités)". Lefigaro.fr. 22 April 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  46. ^ "At least 4 dead in Chad coup attempt: security sources". Reuters. 2 May 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  47. ^ "Two generals, pro-Deby MP arrested for Chad coup plot: prosecutor". Reuters. 2 May 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  48. ^ "BBC News - Libya PM Zeidan's brief kidnap was 'attempted coup'". Bbc.co.uk. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  49. ^ "Burkina Faso 'foils coup plot by forces loyal to Compaore'". BBC News.
  50. ^ "Burkina Faso foiled coup attempt in early October, minister says". Reuters.
  51. ^ "Au Burkina Faso, le pouvoir affirme avoir déjoué une tentative de coup d'Etat". Le Monde.
  52. ^ "Jail Terms for Austrian Far-Right Group Trying to Incite Coup". DW News. 2019-01-25. Retrieved 2020-10-25.
  53. ^ "Zimbabwe's President Mugabe resigns". Bbc.co.uk. 21 November 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  54. ^ "Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea reopen border after four months". Cameroon Intelligence Report. 23 April 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  55. ^ "AP Explains: Did a coup force Bolivia's Evo Morales out?". AP NEWS. 2019-11-11. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  56. ^ Greenwald, Glenn (2020-06-08). "The New York Times Admits Key Falsehoods That Drove Last Year's Coup in Bolivia: Falsehoods Peddled by the U.S., Its Media, and the Times". The Intercept. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  57. ^ Kurmanaev, Anatoly; Trigo, María Silvia (2020-06-07). "A Bitter Election. Accusations of Fraud. And Now Second Thoughts". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  58. ^ "Evo Morales Condemns 'Coup' After Lawmaker Assumes Bolivia's Interim Presidency". NPR.org. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  59. ^ "El Salvador Parliament Denounces President's 'Attempted Coup'". BBC News. 2020-02-11. Retrieved 2020-11-06.
  60. ^ "Mali Coup: President Quits After Soldiers Mutiny". BBC News. 2020-08-19. Retrieved 2020-11-06.
  61. ^ "Mali Colonel Assimi Goita Declares Himself Junta Leader as Opposition Pledges Support". France 24. 2020-08-19. Retrieved 2020-11-06.
  62. ^ "Sudan: Army Foils Coup Attempt by Retired Officers". Middle East Monitor. 2020-10-21. Retrieved 2020-11-03.

Further reading

  • Szulc, Tad (1965). "Latin America", The New York Times Company, Library of Congress 65-27528

External links