List of coups d'état and coup attempts by country

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a list by country of coups d'état and coup attempts, in chronological order.



  1. February 20, 1919: Nasrullah Khan overthrows Habibullah Khan
  2. February 28, 1919: Amanullah Khan overthrows Nasrullah Khan
  3. January 17, 1929: Habibullah Kalakani overthrows Inayatullah Khan
  4. October 16, 1929: Mohammed Nadir Shah overthrows Habibullāh Kalakāni
  5. July 17, 1973: Mohammed Daoud Khan overthrows Mohammed Zahir Shah
  6. December 9, 1976: Qiyam-i Islami (Islamic Uprising) attempts and fails to overthrow Mohammed Daoud Khan
  7. April 30, 1978: Abdul Qadir overthrows Mohammed Daoud Khan
  8. September 16, 1979: Hafizullah Amin overthrows Nur Muhammad Taraki
  9. December 27, 1979: Babrak Karmal overthrows Hafizullah Amin
  10. March 6, 1990: Shahnawaz Tanai attempts and fails to overthrow Mohammad Najibullah


  1. September 14, 1998: The funeral of MP Azem Hajdari turns violent as the office of the Albanian Prime Minister Fatos Nano is attacked, obliging the latter to hastily flee and step down shortly after. His party remains in power.


  1. July 3, 1962: Houari Boumédiène and Ahmed Ben Bella overthrow Benyoucef Benkhedda
  2. June 19, 1965: Houari Boumédiène overthrows Ahmed Ben Bella[1]
  3. January 11, 1992: Khaled Nezzar overthrows Chadli Bendjedid[2]


  1. 6 September 1930: General José Félix Uriburu overthrows president Hipólito Yrigoyen
  2. 18 December 1932: failed military uprising against Agustín Pedro Justo by Atilio Cattáneo [es] and the Radical Civic Union
  3. 4 June 1943: the military overthrows president Ramón Castillo
  4. 28 September 1951: failed military revolt against President Juan Perón by Benjamín Menéndez
  5. 16–23 September 1955: the military led by General Eduardo Lonardi overthrows president Juan Perón
  6. 6 June 1956: failed military uprising, led by General Juan José Valle, against de facto President Pedro Eugenio Aramburu
  7. 19 June 1959: failed military uprising against Arturo Frondizi by Arturo Ossorio Arana [es]
  8. 29 March 1962: the military, led by General Raúl Poggi [es], overthrows president Arturo Frondizi
  9. 28 June 1966: a military uprising led by General Juan Carlos Onganía overthrows president Arturo Umberto Illia
  10. 18–22 December 1975: failed military uprising against Isabel Martínez de Perón by Jesús Orlando Cappellini [es]
  11. 24 March 1976: a military uprising overthrew the president Isabel Martínez de Perón


  1. July 25, 1934: 25 July failed coup attempt in the First Austrian Republic by Austrian Nazis, the so-called July Putsch (German: Juliputsch), resulting in the assassination of the chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss


  1. June 9, 1993: Heydar Aliyev overthrows Abulfaz Elchibey[3]
  2. March 13, 1995: Colonel Rovshan Javadov and his unit of troops fail to seize power from president Heydar Aliyev and reinstate his predecessor Abulfaz Elchibey.


  1. August 15, 1975: Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad overthrows Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.[4]
  2. November 3, 1975: Khaled Mosharraf overthrows the government set up by the August coup.[5]
  3. November 7, 1975: Soldiers from the Bangladesh Army overthrow and kill Khaled Mosharraf just a few days after he took power[6]
  4. May 30, 1981: Soldiers led by Major General Mohammad Abdul Monjur assassinate President Ziaur Rahman; they fail to seize power and are rounded up.[citation needed]
  5. March 24, 1982: Hussain Muhammad Ershad overthrows A. F. M. Ahsanuddin Chowdhury.[7]
  6. May 1996: Abu Saleh Mohammad Nasim attempts and fails to overthrow Abdur Rahman Biswas.[8]
  7. January 11, 2007: General Moeen U Ahmed pressures President Iajuddin Ahmed into declaring a state of emergency, postponing elections, and appointing a new Chief Advisor to head the caretaker government.[9]
  8. December 2011: Rebel army officers attempt and fail to overthrow Sheikh Hasina[10]


  1. October 28, 1963: Christophe Soglo overthrows Hubert Maga
  2. November 27, 1965: Christophe Soglo overthrows Sourou-Migan Apithy
  3. December 16, 1967: Maurice Kouandété overthrows Christophe Soglo
  4. October 26, 1972: Mathieu Kérékou overthrows Justin Ahomadégbé-Tomêtin
  5. January 17, 1977: French-led mercenaries attempt to overthrow Mathieu Kérékou
  6. March 4, 2013: Failed coup attempt by Colonel Pamphile Zomahoun against President Thomas Boni Yayi


  1. April 12, 1899: José Manuel Pando overthrows Severo Fernández
  2. August 12, 1920: Bautista Saavedra overthrows José Gutiérrez
  3. June 28, 1930: Carlos Blanco Galindo overthrows Hernando Siles Reyes
  4. December 1, 1934: José Luis Tejada Sorzano overthrows Daniel Salamanca Urey
  5. May 20, 1936: David Toro overthrows José Luis Tejada Sorzano
  6. July 13, 1937: Germán Busch overthrows David Toro
  7. December 20, 1943: Gualberto Villarroel overthrows Enrique Peñaranda
  8. July 21, 1946: Néstor Guillén and Tomás Monje overthrows Gualberto Villarroel
  9. May 16, 1951: Hugo Ballivián overthrows Mamerto Urriolagoitía
  10. April 16, 1952: Víctor Paz Estenssoro overthrows Hugo Ballivián
  11. November 5, 1964: René Barrientos overthrows Víctor Paz Estenssoro[11]
  12. October 7, 1970: Juan José Torres overthrows Alfredo Ovando Candía
  13. August 21, 1971: Hugo Banzer overthrows Juan José Torres[12]
  14. July 17, 1980: Luis García Meza overthrows Lidia Gueiler Tejada[13]


  1. March 11, 1994: Lucas Mangope is overthrown by mutinying security forces. Bophuthatswana is reincorporated into South Africa.


  1. November 15, 1889: Deodoro da Fonseca overthrows Pedro II of Brazil.[14]
  2. November 3, 1891: Deodoro da Fonseca dissolves the National Congress.
  3. November 23, 1891: Floriano Peixoto takes power without calling for new elections, like the Constitution determined.
  4. November 15, 1905: Attempted military coup during the Vaccine Revolt
  5. November 3, 1930: Getúlio Vargas overthrows Washington Luís.[15]
  6. November 10, 1937: Getúlio Vargas dissolves the National Congress, installing a dictatorship.
  7. October 29, 1945: A military coup d'état deposes Getúlio Vargas, installing the Second Brazilian Republic
  8. August 24, 1954: Possible coup d'état is averted after Getúlio Vargas commits suicide
  9. November 11, 1955: A coup d'état to prevent Juscelino Kubitschek from assuming the presidency fails after general Henrique Lott carries a countercoup
  10. February 10, 1956: Air Force military revolts against Juscelino Kubitschek in the Jacareacanga Revolt
  11. December 2, 1959: Air Force military hijack a civil airplane and attempt a coup against Juscelino Kubitschek, in the Aragarças Revolt.
  12. August 25 – September 7, 1961: Military tries to prevent João Goulart from being sworn into presidency after resignation of Jânio Quadros. After a civil campaign and support from legalist members of the military, it is averted when a parliamentary regime is adopted, curbing presidential powers (later reverted)
  13. September 12, 1963: Displeased lower-ranking military personnel make a rebellion in Brasília after the Supreme Federal Court reaffirms their ineligibility for legislative posts, in the Sergeants' Revolt
  14. March 31, 1964: Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco overthrows João Goulart, establishing the 21-year-long dictatorship[16]
  15. August 31, 1969: The military prevents Pedro Aleixo, civilian vice-president and legal successor according to the military dictatorship recently enabled constitution, from assuming power after Costa e Silva suffers a stroke


  1. August 9, 1886: An attempted dethronement of Knyaz Alexander of Battenberg.
  2. June 9, 1923: The Military Union [bg; he; pl] overthrows Aleksandar Stamboliyski and installs coup leader Aleksandar Tsankov in power.
  3. May 19, 1934: Zveno, led by Kimon Georgiev with the help of the Military Union [bg; he; pl] overthrows the coalition government led by the Democratic Party.
  4. September 9, 1944: Zveno, led by Kimon Georgiev overthrows Konstantin Muraviev.[17]
  5. April, 1965: A plot to overthrow Todor Zhivkov was foiled.

Burkina Faso[edit]

  1. January 3, 1966: Lieutenant Colonel Sangoulé Lamizana overthrows President Maurice Yaméogo.
  2. November 25, 1980: Colonel Saye Zerbo overthrows President Sangoulé Lamizana.
  3. November 7, 1982: Major Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo overthrows President Saye Zerbo.
  4. February 28, 1983: Failed coup attempt against President Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo.
  5. August 4, 1983: Captain Blaise Compaoré overthrows President Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo, replacing him with Captain Thomas Sankara.[18]
  6. October 15, 1987: Blaise Compaoré overthrows Thomas Sankara
  7. September 18, 1989: Alleged failed coup attempt by senior officers against President Compaoré.
  8. October 30, 2014: Lt. Colonel Yacouba Isaac Zida overthrows current President Blaise Compaoré and briefly serves as head of state before selecting Michel Kafando as the new President. Days later, Kafando appointed Zida as acting Prime Minister.
  9. September 17, 2015: The presidential guard headed by Gilbert Diendéré overthrows Interim President Michel Kafando, one month before elections are due in the nation. However, the coup collapses one week later and Kafando is reinstalled.
  10. October 8, 2016: Blaise Compaore loyalists and former presidential guards failed to overthrow President Roch Marc Christian Kaboré[19][20][21]


  1. 1930–1934: The Saya San Rebellion in British Burma, led by Saya San, against British colonialism.[citation needed]
  2. March 1, 1962: Ne Win overthrows U Nu[22]
  3. September 18, 1988: Saw Maung overthrows Maung Maung Kha[23]


  1. July 8, 1966: Ntare V overthrows Mwambutsa IV[24]
  2. November 28, 1966: Michel Micombero overthrows Ntare V[24]
  3. November 10, 1976: Jean-Baptiste Bagaza overthrows Michel Micombero
  4. September 3, 1987: Pierre Buyoya overthrows Jean-Baptiste Bagaza
  5. July 25, 1996: Pierre Buyoya overthrows Sylvestre Ntibantunganya[25]
  6. May 13–15, 2015: Failed coup d'état led by General Godefroid Niyombare against President Pierre Nkurunziza.[26]


  1. March 18, 1970: Lon Nol overthrows Norodom Sihanouk[27]
  2. July 5, 1997: Hun Sen overthrows Norodom Ranariddh


  1. April 6, 1984: Presidential palace guards failed to overthrow president Paul Biya.

Central African Republic[edit]

  1. January 1, 1966: Jean-Bédel Bokassa overthrows David Dacko[28]
  2. September 21, 1979: David Dacko overthrows Jean-Bédel Bokassa by French military support
  3. September 1, 1981: André Kolingba overthrows David Dacko
  4. March 15, 2003: François Bozizé overthrows Ange-Félix Patassé
  5. March 24, 2013: Michel Djotodia overthrows François Bozizé


  1. April 13, 1975: Noël Milarew Odingar overthrows François Tombalbaye
  2. June 7, 1982: Hissène Habré overthrows Goukouni Oueddei
  3. December 1, 1990: Idriss Déby overthrows Hissène Habré
  4. May 16, 2004: Failed coup against President Idriss Déby
  5. March 14, 2006: Failed coup against President Idriss Déby
  6. May 1, 2013: Failed coup against Idriss Déby.[29][30]



  1. 249: Incident at Gaoping Tombs Sima Yi threw a coup against the Cao Wei regent Cao Shuang
  2. July 2, 626: During the Xuanwu Gate Incident, Prince Li Shimin and his close followers killed Crown Prince Li Jiancheng and Prince Li Yuanji before taking complete control of the Tang government from Emperor Gaozu.[31]
  3. 1856: Tianjing incident: The Taiping rebellion East King Yang Xiuqing attempts to take control of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom from Heavenly King Hong Xiuquan but he and his followers are killed
  4. 1861: Xinyou Coup: With the help of Prince Gong, Empress Dowager Cixi ousted eight regents (led by Sushun) whom the Xianfeng Emperor had appointed on his deathbed to rule for the child Tongzhi Emperor.
  5. September 21, 1898: Wuxu Coup: In response to the Hundred Days' Reform, Empress Dowager Cixi takes power from the Guangxu Emperor.
  6. February 12, 1912: Qing general Yuan Shikai (by agreement with Sun Yat-sen) forced abdication of the last Qing dynasty emperor Puyi.
  7. Late 1913 – January 1914: Yuan Shikai crackdown the parliament of the Republic of China (self coup).
  8. December 22, 1915: Yuan Shikai launches a self-coup by establishing the Empire of China, with himself as the Emperor of China.
  9. June 14, 1917: Qing-loyalist general Zhang Xun overthrow Li Yuanhong and later proclaim the restoration of the Qing Empire with Puyi as emperor.
  10. July 12, 1917: Brief restoration attempt was crushed by Duan Qirui troops.
  11. July 19, 1920: Cao Kun and Zhang Zuolin overthrow Duan Qirui.
  12. January 25, 1922: Wu Peifu overthrow Liang Shiyi causing First Zhili-Fengtian War.
  13. October 23, 1924: Feng Yuxiang overthrow Cao Kun and establish Guominjun.
  14. April 18, 1926: Zhang Xueliang and Wu Peifu capture the capital Beijing and then sack city leading to the collapse of Beiyang government and nearly destruction of Guominjun fraction.
  15. April 12, 1927: Chiang Kai-shek order to purge communists in his Kuomintang party to ensure right wing dominance in the party.[citation needed]
  16. June 2, 1928: Yan Xishan (allied with Chiang Kai-shek) overthrow Zhang Zuolin.
  17. April 1930: Yan Xishan expels Chiang Kai-shek's supporters from Beijing, starting the Central Plains War.
  18. 12 December 1936 – 25 December 1936: During the Xi'an Incident, Zhang Xueliang kidnaps Chiang Kai-shek in an attempt to seize power and establish a united Anti-Japanese front.


  1. March 4, 1990: Oupa Gqozo overthrows Lennox Sebe[32]


  1. June 13, 1953: Gustavo Rojas Pinilla overthrows Laureano Gómez[33]


  1. August 3, 1975: Said Mohamed Jaffar and Bob Denard overthrow Ahmed Abdallah
  2. May 23, 1978: Ahmed Abdallah and Bob Denard overthrow Ali Soilih
  3. November 26, 1989: Said Mohamed Djohar and Bob Denard overthrow Ahmed Abdallah
  4. September 28, 1995: Bob Denard overthrows Said Mohamed Djohar for 7 days. (see Operation Azalee)
  5. April 30, 1999: Azali Assoumani overthrows Tadjidine Ben Said Massounde[34]
  6. April 20, 2013 A failed coup against President Ikililou Dhoinine[35]

Republic of the Congo[edit]

  1. August 15, 1963: Alphonse Massamba-Débat overthrows Fulbert Youlou
  2. September 4, 1968: Marien Ngouabi overthrows Alphonse Massamba-Débat[36]
  3. February 8, 1979: Denis Sassou Nguesso overthrows Joachim Yhombi-Opango
  4. October 25, 1997: Denis Sassou Nguesso overthrows Pascal Lissouba

Democratic Republic of the Congo[edit]

  1. September 14, 1960: Mobutu Sese Seko overthrows Patrice Lumumba
  2. November 25, 1965: Mobutu Sese Seko overthrows Joseph Kasa-Vubu
  3. May 16, 1997: Laurent-Désiré Kabila overthrows Mobutu Sese Seko[citation needed]

Costa Rica[edit]

  1. April 27, 1870: Bruno Carranza overthrows Jesús Jiménez Zamora
  2. July 30, 1876: Vicente Herrera Zeledón overthrows Aniceto Esquivel Sáenz
  3. January 27, 1917: Federico Tinoco Granados overthrows Alfredo González Flores


  1. September 3, 1933: Fulgencio Batista ousts Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Quesada in the Sergeants' Revolt.
  2. March 10, 1952: Batista overthrows Carlos Prío Socarrás
  3. January 1, 1959 Fidel Castro overthrows Fulgencio Batista{{citation needed}]


  1. 1972–1973: Ecclesiastical coup
  2. July 15, 1974: Nikos Sampson overthrows Makarios III


  1. February 25, 1948: the Communist government of Klement Gottwald eliminates all democratic elements from power.


  1. 1660 by Frederick III of Denmark
  2. 1772 by Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and her son Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Denmark.
  3. 1784 by Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark.

Dominican Republic[edit]

  1. May 30, 1849: Pedro Santana overthrows Manuel Jiménes
  2. June 13, 1858: José Desiderio Valverde overthrows Buenaventura Báez
  3. September 25, 1963: Elías Wessin y Wessin overthrows Juan Bosch


  1. April 27, 1981; Failed coup attempt by American and Canadian Neo-Nazi white supremacist and Ku Klux Klan leaders James Alexander McQuirter and Don Black against Prime Minister Eugenia Charles


  1. 1925 by Luis Telmo Paz y Miño
  2. 1935 by Federico Páez
  3. 1963 by Ramón Castro Jijón
  4. 1972 by Guillermo Rodríguez
  5. 2000 by Lucio Gutiérrez


  1. 1952: Muhammad Naguib overthrows Farouk of Egypt
  2. February 27, 1954: Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrows Muhammad Naguib
  3. February 11, 2011: Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces Mohamed Hussein Tantawi overthrows and succeeds President Hosni Mubarak following mass protests instead of the speaker of the People's Assembly Sorour
  4. July 3, 2013: Abdel Fattah el-Sisi overthrows Mohamed Morsi after massive protests

El Salvador[edit]

  1. 1931 by Maximiliano Hernández Martínez
  2. 1948 by Manuel de Jesús Córdova
  3. October 26, 1960: A bloodless coup overthrows President José María Lemus
  4. January 25, 1961: A coup overthrows the junta established just a few months before.
  5. 1979: A coup d'état brought the Revolutionary Government Junta of El Salvador to power.


  1. 5 November 1605: Gunpowder Plot: Failed plot by a group of provincial English Catholics, including Guy Fawkes, who attempted to kill King James I and much of the Protestant aristocracy by blowing up the Houses of Parliament during the State Opening of Parliament.
  2. 1648: Pride's Purge: Parliamentarian troops under Colonel Thomas Pride purge the Long Parliament of those opposed to trying the King for treason, turning it into the republican Rump Parliament and leading directly to the abolition of the monarchy.
  3. 20 April 1653: Dissolution of the Rump Parliament: Oliver Cromwell, with forty musketeers under the command of Charles Worsley, entered the House of Commons and forcibly dissolved the Rump Parliament leading to Cromwell becoming Lord Protector and instigating military rule.
  4. 1688–1689: The Glorious Revolution: William III of Orange's invasion of England at the invitation of the country's powerful Protestants, deposing the Catholic James II of England.

Equatorial Guinea[edit]

  1. September 29, 1979: Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo overthrows Francisco Macías Nguema
  2. March 7, 2004: A coup attempt is stopped before the plotters can arrive in country


  1. December 1, 1924: failed Communist coup attempt
  2. March 12, 1934: Konstantin Päts (self coup)


  1. 1910: Ras Tessema Nadew and Fitawrawi Habte Giyorgis against Empress Taytu, regent of the incapacitated Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia
  2. 1916: a group of aristocrats, including Fitawrawi Habte Giyorgis and Ras Tafari Makonnen, against Emperor Iyasu V.
  3. September 12, 1974: Aman Mikael Andom overthrows Emperor Haile Selassie I
  4. November 17, 1974: Tafari Benti overthrows Aman Mikael Andom
  5. February 3, 1977: Mengistu Haile Mariam overthrows Tafari Benti
  6. June 22, 2019: Failed coup against the regional government


  1. May 14, 1987: Sitiveni Rabuka overthrows Prime Minister Timoci Bavadra
  2. September 28, 1987: Sitiveni Rabuka overthrows Governor General Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau and Queen Elizabeth II. Republic is proclaimed
  3. May 19, 2000: George Speight overthrows Mahendra Chaudhry
  4. December 5, 2006: Frank Bainimarama overthrows Laisenia Qarase


  1. 27 January 1918: The radical left wing Labour Movement failed to overthrow the Finnish Senate.
  2. February 27 – March 6, 1932: The radical nationalist Lapua Movement failed to overthrow the Finnish government.
  3. Pro-Soviet Finnish Communist plot to overthrow the Finnish government in 1948 (cancelled).


  1. 10 August 1792 – Insurrection of 10 August 1792: The Paris Commune rallied National Guard troops to storm the Tuileries Palace, effectively deposing king Louis XVI and imprisoning him
  2. 31 May – 2 June 1793 – Insurrection of 31 May – 2 June 1793: – Montagnard-aligned sans-culottes arrest all leading Girondin ministers and deputies and execute them
  3. 26–28 July 1794 – Thermidorian Reaction: A conspiracy of anti-Robespierrist Montagnards form an alliance to have de facto dictator Robespierre and his associates arrested and executed; they escape but are arrested again and executed
  4. 1 April 1795 – Insurrection of 12 Germinal, Year III: Unarmed citizens occupied the National Convention, but were driven out by the National Guard without bloodshed
  5. 5 October 1795 – 13 Vendémiaire: A royalist attempt to seize power in Paris is crushed by Napoleon
  6. 4 September 1797 – Coup of 18 Fructidor: The French Directory, with the support of the military, deposes the royalists
  7. 11 May 1798 – Law of 22 Floréal Year VI: The French Directory dismisses 106 Jacobin, deputies
  8. 18 June 1799 – Coup of 30 Prairial VII: The Councils obtain the removal of three out of the five members of the French Directory through military pressure
  9. 9 November 1799 – Coup of 18 Brumaire : Napoleon Bonaparte overthrows the French Directory and installs the French Consulate
  10. February 1804 – Pichegru Conspiracy: A foiled royalist plot to overthrow the Napoleonic Consulate
  11. 23 October 1812 – Malet coup of 1812: General Claude François de Malet fails to remove Napoleon from power while he was campaigning in Russia
  12. 2 December 1851 – French coup d'état of 1851: Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, then president of France, dissolves the Assembly and becomes the sole ruler of the country. In the following year, he would restore the French Empire after a referendum.
  13. 23 February 1899 – French coup attempt of 1899 [fr]: Paul Déroulède attempts to overthrow the French Third Republic
  14. 13 May 1958 – May 1958 crisis in France: A partial coup d'état led by Pierre Lagaillarde, after which Charles de Gaulle is brought back to power
  15. 21–26 April 1961 – Algiers putsch of 1961: A failed coup d'état against president Charles de Gaulle


  1. February 17–18, 1964: A group of Gabonese officers overthrows President Leon Mba
  2. January 7, 2019: Gabonese soldiers seizing the national radio in an attempted coup against Ali Bongo


  1. July 22, 1994: Yahya Jammeh overthrows Dawda Jawara
  2. December 30, 2014: a failed coup against Yahya Jammeh led by Former head of the presidential guards Lamin Sanneh


  1. 3 May 1920: 1920 Georgian coup attempt, a failed Bolshevik coup against the Democratic Republic of Georgia.
  2. Jan 6, 1992: Tengiz Kitovani and Jaba Ioseliani overthrow Zviad Gamsakhurdia


  1. 1919: German Communist Party attempts and fails to overthrow the government.
  2. March 1920: A failed right-wing coup against the Weimar Republic.
  3. November 8, 1923: failed attempt by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler with Erich Ludendorff to seize power in Bavaria.
  4. March 23, 1933: The Chancellor Adolf Hitler assumes full powers in a self-coup.[citation needed]
  5. July 20, 1944: Members of the German resistance failed to assassinate Adolf Hitler and seize control.


  1. February 24, 1966: Joseph Arthur Ankrah overthrows Kwame Nkrumah
  2. April 17, 1967: Failed military coup
  3. January 13, 1972: Ignatius Kutu Acheampong overthrows Kofi Abrefa Busia
  4. July 5, 1978: Fred Akuffo overthrows Ignatius Kutu Acheampong
  5. June 4, 1979: Jerry John Rawlings overthrows Fred Akuffo
  6. December 31, 1981: Jerry John Rawlings overthrows Hilla Limann



  1. March 13, 1979: Maurice Bishop overthrows Eric Gairy
  2. October 14, 1983: Bernard Coard overthrows Maurice Bishop[citation needed]
  3. October 19, 1983: Hudson Austin overthrows Bernard Coard


  1. 1898 by José Sisto against Francisco Portusach Martínez
  2. 1898 by Venancio Roberto against José Sisto


  1. July 8 1954 by Carlos Castillo Armas who overthrew president Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán with the help of CIA
  2. 1963 under Enrique Peralta Azurdia
  3. 1982 under Efraín Ríos Montt


  1. April 3, 1984: Lansana Conté overthrows Louis Lansana Beavogui
  2. December 24, 2008: Moussa Dadis Camara overthrows Aboubacar Somparé


  1. November 14, 1980: João Bernardo Vieira overthrows Luís Cabral
  2. May 7, 1999: Ansumane Mané overthrows João Bernardo Vieira
  3. September 14, 2003: Veríssimo Correia Seabra overthrows Kumba Ialá
  4. April 12, 2012: Army overthrows the government.


  1. 1791–1804: The Haitian Revolution: A successful slave rebellion, led by Toussaint Louverture, establishes Haiti as the first free, black republic.[citation needed]
  2. October 17, 1806: Henri Christophe and Alexandre Pétion overthrow Emperor Jacques I
  3. Feb 13, 1843: Charles Rivière-Hérard overthrows Jean-Pierre Boyer
  4. May 3, 1844: Philippe Guerrier overthrows Charles Rivière-Hérard
  5. March 24, 1846: Jean-Baptiste Riché overthrows Jean-Louis Pierrot
  6. January 15, 1859: Fabre Geffrard overthrows Emperor Faustin I
  7. August 26, 1867: Sylvain Salnave overthrows Fabre Geffrard
  8. December 27, 1869: Nissage Saget overthrows Sylvain Salnave
  9. April 16, 1876: Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal overthrows Michel Domingue
  10. October 19, 1888: François Denys Légitime overthrows Lysius Salomon
  11. October 17, 1889: Florvil Hyppolite overthrows François Denys Légitime
  12. December 21, 1902: Pierre Nord Alexis overthrows Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal
  13. December 2, 1908: François C. Antoine Simon overthrows Pierre Nord Alexis
  14. August 3, 1911: Cincinnatus Leconte overthrows Antoine Simon
  15. January, 1914: Oreste Zamor overthrows Michel Oreste
  16. November 7, 1914: Joseph Davilmar Théodore overthrows Oreste Zamor
  17. February 25, 1915: Vilbrun Guillaume Sam overthrows Joseph Davilmar Théodore
  18. July 28, 1915: Mulatto uprising overthrows and kills Jean Vilbrun Guillaume Sam
  19. January 11, 1946: Military junta overthrows Élie Lescot
  20. May 10, 1950: Paul Eugène Magloire against Dumarsais Estimé
  21. April 4, 1957: Leon Cantave overthrows Franck Sylvain
  22. June 14, 1957: Antonio Thrasybule Kébreau overthrows Daniel Fignolé
  23. July 28–29, 1958: Pasquet, Dominique, Perpignan failed attempt Francois Duvalier
  24. 6 Fevrier 1986 Jean Claude Duvalier part en exile. Remplacé par le Conseil National de Gouvernement (CNG)
  25. June 20, 1988: Henri Namphy overthrows Leslie Manigat
  26. September 17, 1988: Prosper Avril overthrows Henri Namphy
  27. September 30, 1991: Raoul Cédras overthrows Jean-Bertrand Aristide
  28. 5–29 February 2004: ousted president Jean-Bertrand Aristide during his second term


  1. 1956[clarification needed][citation needed]
  2. 1963 under Oswaldo López Arellano
  3. 1972 under Oswaldo López Arellano
  4. 1975 under Juan Alberto Melgar Castro
  5. 1978 under Policarpo Paz García
  6. 2009


  1. 1919 under István Friedrich against Gyula Peidl
  2. 1944 under Ferenc Szálasi against Regent Miklós Horthy


  1. 1950 Indonesian Coup:
  2. Sep 30, 1965: Soeharto overthrows Soekarno (see Transition to the New Order)


  1. 552 BC: Persian Revolt led by Cyrus the Great
  2. 522 BC: Darius I's revolt against Bardiya
  3. 338 BC: Assassination of Artaxerxes III and his family by Bagoas. Artaxerxes IV becomes the new king of kings.
  4. 336 BC: Bagoas kills Artaxerxes IV by poison. Rise of Darius III to the throne.
  5. 309: Assassination of Adur Narseh by the nobles; His infant brother, Shapur II, becomes the new king of kings.
  6. 420: Assassination and deposition of Yazdegerd I by the nobles.
  7. 488: Deposition of Balash by Sukhra, in favor of the shah's nephew, Kavad I.
  8. 496: The nobles depose Kavad I and install Jamasp as the new shah of shahs of Iran and Aniran.
  9. 590: Coup d'état by Vistahm and Vinduyih against Hormizd IV, in favor of his son, Khosrow II.
  10. 590: General Bahram Chobin revolts against the Sassanian government and captures Ctesiphon. Khosrow II flees to Constantinople.
  11. 628: Overthrow of Khosrow II by his son Kavad II.
  12. 630: Siege of Ctesiphon by the military commander Shahrbaraz. Execution of king Ardashir III.
  13. 631: Rostam Farrokhzad captures Ctesiphon, kills Azarmidokht and installs Boran as the queen of queens of Iran and Aniran.
  14. 1732: Nader Shah overthrows Tahmasp II
  15. 1733: Governor of the Kuhgiluyeh's rebellion against Safavid Empire
  16. 1736: Deposition of Abbas III, the nominal ruler of Iran, by Nader Shah. The official end of the Safavid dynasty of Iran.
  17. 1744: Beylerbey of Fars province's rebellion against Nader Shah
  18. 1747: Assassination of Nader Shah in support of Adil Shah.
  19. 1748: Ebrahim Afshar (brother of Adil Shah) defeated and blinded him and took the throne.
  20. 1748: Assassination of Ebrahim Afshar by command of Shahrukh Afshar
  21. 1798: Assassination of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar in support of Sadiq Khan Shaqaqi
  22. 1908: Bombardment of the Majlis by Vladimir Liakhov in support of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar.
  23. 1921: Coup d'état by Reza Khan Mirpanj (later Reza Shah Pahlavi) and Zia'eddin Tabatabaee during the reign of Ahmad Shah Qajar.
  24. 1953: by the US and the UK against Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh in support of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
  25. 1980: Failed coup d'état by a group of army officers against the newly established Islamic regime.


  1. October 20, 1936: Bakr Sidqi overthrows Yasin al-Hashimi
  2. April 1, 1941: Rashid Ali al-Gaylani overthrows 'Abd al-Ilah
  3. July 14, 1958: Abdul Karim Qassim against King Faisal II
  4. February 8, 1963: Abdul Salam Arif and Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr overthrow Abdul Karim Qassim
  5. November 11, 1963: Pro-Nasserist officers oust the Ba'ath Party from government
  6. July 17, 1968: Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr overthrows Abdul Rahman Arif


  1. 1922: Fascist coup d'état, Benito Mussolini overthrows Luigi Facta.
  2. 1943: The 24 July coup to remove Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini as Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy and replace him with Marshal Pietro Badoglio; Count Dino Grandi and the Grand Council of Fascism voted overwhelmingly to ask King Victor Emmanuel to resume his full constitutional powers and, on the following day, the King summoned Mussolini to his palace and dismissed him.
  3. 1964: Coup attempted by military groups.
  4. 1970: Coup attempt by fascist groups.

Ivory Coast[edit]

  1. December 24, 1999: Robert Guéï overthrows Henri Konan Bédie


  1. Lunar August, 456 AD: Historical texts state that Mayuwa no Ōkimi (ja:眉輪王) assassinated reigning Ōkimi Emperor Ankō (安康天皇) over the alleged killing of his father. According to Nihonshiki, the influential Ōomi Katsuragi no Tsubura was also killed by arson, whereas the Kojiki says he took his own life. This potentially could have been a coup attempt as the two most senior statesmen were targeted and eliminated, nevertheless the plotter is not indicated to have wanted to assume the throne, instead Emperor Yuryaku ascended 3 months later.
  2. 479 AD – Prince Hoshikawa Rebellion: Failed attempt by Prince Hoshikawa to gain the throne
  3. 498 AD: Ōomi Heguri no Matori briefly takes over Yamato Japan's government in a briefly successful coup upon the death of the Ōkimi (ja) (Great Chieftain), now known as Emperor Ninken, before being defeated and killed by Otomo no Kanamura.

Over a century later, in 632 A.D. the title Ōkimi was posthumously reassigned to the term Tenno. This term is currently equated with Emperor.

  1. 645 AD – Isshi Incident: Soga no Iruka was assassinated in a successful coup, with one of the coup plotters becoming the next Emperor. (Taika Reform)
  2. 764 AD – Fujiwara no Nakamaro Rebellion: Failed coup by Fujiwara no Nakamaro to overthrow Retired Empress Kōken and the monk Dōkyō.
  3. 1156 – Hōgen rebellion: Emperor Go-Shirakawa successfully defeats his rival Jōkō Emperor Sutoku.
  4. 1160 – Heiji rebellion: The Minamoto clan took up arms against the Taira clan, the Taira clan emerges victorious.
  5. 1184 – Siege of Hōjūjidono: Amidst the Genpei War, Kiso Yoshinaka ambushes Hōjūjidono, confining Emperor Go-Toba and Cloistered Emperor Go-Shirakawa.
  6. 1864–65: The Mito Rebellion of Takeda Kōunsai
  7. 1866–68: The Meiji Restoration and modernization revolution in Japan. Samurai uprising leads to overthrow of shogunate and establishment of "modern" parliamentary, Western-style system.
  8. March 1931: An aborted coup by the Sakurakai
  9. October 21, 1931: An aborted coup also by the Sakurakai
  10. May 15, 1932: A failed coup by members of the Imperial Japanese Navy
  11. November 1934: A failed coup by members of the Imperial Japanese Army
  12. February 26, 1936: A failed coup by the Imperial Japanese Army
  13. August 14–15, 1945: A failed coup by army members opposed to surrender
  14. August 24, 1945: A failed coup by dissidents opposed to surrender
  15. December 12, 1961: An aborted coup by retired right wing members of the Imperial Japanese Army
  16. November 25, 1970: An aborted coup by author Yukio Mishima


  1. 1970: Failed PLO coup attempt against King Hussain.[citation needed]


  1. 1st August 1982: attempted coup by Kenyan airforce personnel to overthrow the Daniel arap Moi government.

South Korea[edit]

  1. October 19, 1948 under Syngman Rhee
  2. July 2, 1952 under Syngman Rhee: A militarily forced constitutional revision.
  3. May 16, 1961 under Park Chung Hee
  4. October 17, 1972 under Park Chung Hee: A restoration of total presidential authority.
  5. December 12, 1979 under Chun Doo-hwan
  6. June 17, 1980 under Chun Doo-hwan: An extension of martial law.


  1. 2010: against Kurmanbek Bakiyev


  1. 25 December 1959: Coup by Captain Kong Le established General Phoumi Nosavan in charge
  2. 9 August 1960: Captain Kong Le overthrew General Phoumi
  3. 16 December 1960: General Phoumi won counter-coup in Battle of Vientiane
  4. 18 April 1964: Police General Siho Lamphouthacoul seized power for five days
  5. 4 August 1964: General Phoumi's attempt fails
  6. 31 January 1965: Colonel Bounleut Saycocie's and General Phoumi's independent attempts both fail
  7. 1966 Laotian coup: General Thao Ma's coup by air strike fails
  8. 1973 Laotian coup: General Thao Ma's coup via air strike fails
  9. 2007 Laotian coup failed coup by General Vang Pao


  1. May 15, 1934: Kārlis Ulmanis dissolved the Saeima (Parliament) and established an authoritarian rule.


  1. January 18, 1986: Justin Metsing Lekhanya overthrows Leabua Jonathan
  2. November 12, 1990: Justin Metsing Lekhanya overthrows King Moshoeshoe II of Lesotho
  3. May 2, 1991: Elias Phisoana Ramaema overthrows Justin Metsing Lekhanya
  4. August 30, 2014: A failed coup attempt


  1. April 12, 1980: Master Sergeant Samuel K. Doe overthrows President William R. Tolbert, Jr.
  2. September 9, 1990: Prince Johnson overthrows President Samuel K. Doe[citation needed]


  1. September 1, 1969: Muammar al-Gaddafi overthrows King Idris I of Libya and establishes a republic.
  2. April 17, 2013: an attempt Libyan coup against Prime Minister Ali Zeidan by Muammar Gaddafi loyalists.|[37]
  3. October 10, 2013: a second attempt Libyan coup led by Abdel-Moneim al-Hour against Prime Minister Ali Zeidan.[38]
  4. April and October 2014: a failed coups against Prime Minister Ali Zeidan in first coup and Prime Minister Abdullah al-Thani in second coup by Maj. Gen.Khalifa Belqasim Haftar.
  5. 14 October 2016: a failed coup against Prime Minister Fayez al-Sarraj by ex-Prime Minister Khalifa al-Ghawil.


There are estimated to be over 10 unsuccessful coups during the period of 1919–1940 in Lithuania.

  1. December 17, 1926, overthrowing President Kazys Grinius and Antanas Smetona becoming the head of state.
  2. September 9, 1927, known as Tauragė Uprising, a failed attempt to overthrow Lithuanian Nationalist Union and to re-establish previous Govt.
  3. June 6–7, 1934 failed coup d'état led by fascist Iron Wolf


  1. October 11, 1972: Gabriel Ramanantsoa overthrows Philibert Tsiranana
  2. February 5, 1975: Richard Ratsimandrava overthrows Gabriel Ramanantsoa
  3. March 17, 2009: Andry Rajoelina overthrows Marc Ravalomanana (see 2009 Malagasy political crisis)


  1. November 19, 1968: Moussa Traoré overthrows Modibo Keïta
  2. March 26, 1991: Amadou Toumani Touré overthrows Moussa Traoré
  3. March 22, 2012: Military overthrows Amadou Toumani Touré


  1. July 10, 1978: Mustafa Ould Salek overthrows Moktar Ould Daddah
  2. April 6, 1979: Ahmad Ould Bouceif and Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla overthrow Mustafa Ould Salek
  3. January 4, 1980: Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla overthrows Mohamed Mahmoud Ould Louly
  4. December 12, 1984: Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya overthrows Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla
  5. August 3, 2005: Ely Ould Mohamed Vall overthrows Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya
  6. August 6, 2008: Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz overthrows Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi (see 2008 Mauritanian coup d'état)


  1. 1829 by Anastasio Bustamante against Vicente Guerrero
  2. 1845 by Mariano Paredes against José Joaquín de Herrera
  3. 1876 by Porfirio Díaz against Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada
  4. 1911 by Francisco I. Madero against Porfirio Díaz (and Francisco León de la Barra)
  5. 1913 by Victoriano Huerta (and Pedro Lascuráin) against Francisco I. Madero
  6. 1920 by Adolfo de la Huerta against Venustiano Carranza


  1. October 2016: attempted by opposition and Russian agents against the government of Milo Đukanović on the day of parliamentary election


  1. July 10, 1971 failed coup attempt by M'hamed Ababou and Mohamed Medbouh against Hassan II of Morocco
  2. August 16, 1972 failed coup by Mohamed Oufkir against Hassan II of Morocco


  1. Jan 22, 1798: Uitvoerend Bewind against the National Assembly of the Batavian Republic
  2. Jun 12, 1798: Herman Willem Daendels against Pieter Vreede
  3. Sep 19, 1801: Napoleon Bonaparte against Uitvoerend Bewind
  4. Nov 9–14 1918: a failed coup attempt by Troelstra against the Dutch government


  1. 1856 under William Walker
  2. 1944 by Anastasio Somoza García for Benjamín Lacayo Sacasa against Leonardo Argüello Barreto


  1. April 15, 1974: Seyni Kountché overthrows Hamani Diori.
  2. January 27, 1996: Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara overthrows Mahamane Ousmane.
  3. April 9, 1999: Daouda Malam Wanké overthrows Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara.
  4. February 18, 2010: Salou Djibo overthrows Mamadou Tandja.


  1. January 15–16, 1966: Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu overthrows Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
  2. July 29, 1966: Yakubu Gowon overthrows Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi
  3. July 29, 1975: Murtala Mohammed overthrows Yakubu Gowon
  4. February 13, 1976: Buka Suka Dimka led a failed coup that resulted the death of the head of state Murtala Mohammed
  5. December 31, 1983: Muhammadu Buhari overthrows Shehu Shagari
  6. August 27, 1985: Ibrahim Babangida overthrows Muhammadu Buhari
  7. April 22, 1990: Gideon Orkar failed to topple president Ibrahim Babangida
  8. November 17, 1993: Sani Abacha overthrows Ernest Shonekan


  1. 1940: April 9 Vidkun Quisling announced a fascist government by radio broadcast in an attempt to overthrow the legally elected government while Nazi Germany invaded the country.


  1. July 23, 1970 Qaboos bin Said overthrew his father Said bin Taimur


  1. 1931 by Arnulfo Arias Madrid and Harmodio Arias Madrid against Florencio Harmodio Arosemena
  2. 1941 by Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia Arango against Arnulfo Arias Madrid
  3. 1951 by Colonel José Antonio Remón Cantera against Arnulfo Arias Madrid
  4. 1968 by Omar Torrijos against President Arnulfo Arias Madrid
  5. 1989 coup attempt by Moises Giroldi against Manuel Antonio Noriega


  1. March 9, 1951 failed coup attempt by Major General Akbar Khan against the government of Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan. This was the first attempted military coup in Pakistan's history.
  2. October 27, 1958 by Field Marshal Ayub Khan against Iskander Mirza
  3. March 25, 1969 by General Yahya Khan, Ayub Khan resigned.
  4. July 4, 1977 by General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq against Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
  5. 1995: Failed coup against Benazir Bhutto
  6. October 12, 1999 by General Pervez Musharraf against Nawaz Sharif


  1. September 4, 1880: Bernardino Caballero is appointed as interim president by the Congress after the death of the president Cándido Bareiro, and forced resignation by a coup of vice president Adolfo Saguier.
  2. June 9, 1894: Juan Bautista Egusquiza overthrows Juan Gualberto González. Marcos Morínigo is appointed as interim president by the Congress.
  3. January 9, 1902: Bernardino Caballero overthrows Emilio Aceval. Andrés Héctor Carvallo is appointed as interim president by the Congress.
  4. December 19, 1904: Juan Antonio Escurra is deposed. Juan Bautista Gaona is appointed as interim president by the Congress.
  5. December 9, 1905: Juan Bautista Gaona is deposed. Cecilio Báez is appointed as interim president by the Congress.
  6. July 4, 1908: Benigno Ferreira is deposed.
  7. January 17, 1911: Albino Jara overthrows Manuel Gondra.
  8. January 14, 1912: Marcos Caballero Codas, Mario Uscher and Alfredo Aponte overthrow Liberato Marcial Rojas.
  9. February 28, 1912: Liberato Marcial Rojas is deposed. Pedro Pablo Peña is appointed as interim president by the Congress.
  10. March 22, 1912: Pedro Pablo Peña is deposed. Emiliano González Navero is appointed as interim president by the Congress.
  11. February 17, 1936: Rafael Franco overthrows Eusebio Ayala.
  12. August 13, 1937: Félix Paiva overthrows Rafael Franco.
  13. February 18, 1940: Self-coup by José Félix Estigarribia.
  14. June 3, 1948: Higinio Morínigo is deposed. Juan Manuel Frutos is appointed as interim president by the Congress.
  15. January 30, 1949: Juan Natalicio González is deposed. Raimundo Rolón is appointed as interim president by the Congress.
  16. February 26, 1949: Felipe Molas López overthrows Raimundo Rolón.
  17. September 11, 1949: Felipe Molas López is deposed. Federico Chaves is appointed as interim president by the Congress.
  18. May 4, 1954: Alfredo Stroessner overthrows Federico Chaves. Tomás Romero Pereira is appointed as interim president by the Congress.
  19. February 3, 1989: Andrés Rodríguez and the Paraguayan Army overthrow Alfredo Stroessner.


  1. 1914 under Óscar Benavides
  2. 1919 under Augusto B. Leguía y Salcedo
  3. 1930 under Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro
  4. 1948 under Manuel A. Odría
  5. 1962 under Ricardo Pérez Godoy
  6. 1968 under Juan Velasco Alvarado
  7. 1992 under Alberto Fujimori (self-coup)


  1. 1744–1829: The Dagohoy rebellion in the Philippines that lasted for 85 years.
  2. Pre-1800–1872: Philippines revolts against Spain
  3. 1896: Manila mutiny
  4. 1896–98: The Philippine Revolution, a war of independence against Spanish rule directed by the Katipunan society.[citation needed]
  5. 1972: Ferdinand Marcos (self-coup)
  6. 1986: Juan Ponce Enrile and Fidel Ramos against Ferdinand Marcos
  7. 28 August 1987: Failed coup attempt, known as the August 1987 Coup, in the Philippines led by Col. Gregorio Honasan.
  8. 1 December 1989: Failed coup attempt in the Philippines, by Col. Gregorio Honasan. This coup is sometimes called the December 1989 Coup.
  9. 4 March 1990: government troops under Brigadier General Oscar Florendo against rebel forces led by suspended Cagayan Governor Rodolfo "Agi" Aguinaldo.
  10. 4 October 1990: mutinying soldiers staged a dawn raid on an army base in Mindanao.
  11. 17–20 January 2001: A four-day political protest from 17–20 January 2001 that peacefully overthrew the government of Joseph Estrada[39]
  12. 30 April–1 May 2001: A two-day political protest from 30 April–1 May 2001 in attempt to bring back Joseph Estrada to power by his loyalist.
  13. 27 July 2003: The Oakwood Mutiny refers to a short-lived event which occurred when members of the Philippine Marine Corps and Army took hold of the Glorietta Mall and the Oakwood Premier Condominium in Makati City. See Oakwood Mutiny
  14. 24 February 2006: state of emergency in the Philippines The Armed Forces of the Philippines allegedly attempted a military coup in the Philippines targeting President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, which led to a state of emergency in the country.[40]
  15. 29 November 2007: Philippines rebel forces led by opposition politician Sen. Antonio Trillanes from the Magdalo Group, storm the Peninsula hotel in an attempted coup.


  1. May 1926: Józef Piłsudski overthrew the government of President Stanisław Wojciechowski and Prime Minister Wincenty Witos


  1. 147–139 BC: The Lusitanian Rebellion against the Roman forces in modern-day Portugal, led by Lusitanian leader named Viriatus.[citation needed]
  2. 1820: Liberal Revolution
  3. 1824: April Revolt
  4. 1846: Revolution of Maria da Fonte[citation needed]
  5. 1910: A republican coup d'état deposes King Manuel II of Portugal and establishes the Portuguese First Republic.
  6. 1925: failed Military coup the Generals on 18 April 1925
  7. 1925: failed Revolt Mendes Cabecadas on 19 July 1925
  8. 1926: General Manuel Gomes da Costa overthrows the First Portuguese Republic
  9. 1974: The Movimento das Forças Armadas overthrows the Estado Novo
  10. 1975: Failed coup after the Carnation Revolution.


  1. 1866 by the "monstrous coalition" of Liberals and Conservatives against prince Alexander John Cuza
  2. 1938 by King Carol II of Romania against Corneliu Zelea Codreanu and the Iron Guard
  3. 1940 by Ion Antonescu against King Carol II of Romania
  4. 1944 by King Michael I of Romania and Constantin Sănătescu against Ion Antonescu
  5. 1947 by Petru Groza against King Michael I of Romania
  6. 1989 – Romanian revolution:Ion Iliescu and his National Salvation Front (Romania),alongside with the civil unrest and uprisings against Ceauşescu regime


  1. March 15, 1917: abdication of Nicholas II of Russia in favor of the Russian Provisional Government
  2. November 7, 1917: RSDLP(b) (Communist Party) overthrows Russian Provisional Government
  3. August 19 to 21, 1991: Gang of Eight attempted to overthrow Mikhail Gorbachev and lasted for three days. This event marked the beginning of the end of the Soviet Union.
  4. September 21 to October 4, 1993: President Boris Yeltsin, aided by the military, extralegally dissolves parliament and suspends the constitution. (Self-coup)


  1. July 5, 1973: Juvénal Habyarimana overthrows Grégoire Kayibanda

São Tomé and Príncipe[edit]

  1. August 15, 1995: Manuel Quintas de Almeida overthrows Miguel Trovoada for 6 days
  2. July 16, 2003: Fernando Pereira (major) overthrows Fradique de Menezes for 7 days


  1. July 24, 1567 Protestant rebels arrested Mary Queen of Scots forcing her to abdicate in favour of the infant James VI and to appoint her illegitimate half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, as regent.
  2. 1688: The Glorious Revolution: William III of Orange's invasion of England and Scotland at the invitation of the country's powerful Protestants, deposing the Catholic James II of England and VII of Scotland


  1. 1804–1813: First Serbian Uprising
  2. mid–September – 1814: Hadži Prodan's Revolt
  3. 28 September 1883: Timok Rebellion
  4. May 28–29, 1903: May Coup
  5. 1917: Toplica Uprising


  1. June 5, 1977: France-Albert René overthrows James Mancham

Sierra Leone[edit]

  1. March 21, 1967: David Lansana overthrows Siaka Stevens
  2. April 19, 1968: John Amadu Bangura overthrows Andrew Juxon-Smith
  3. April 29, 1992: Valentine Strasser overthrows Joseph Saidu Momoh
  4. January 16, 1996: Julius Maada Bio overthrows Valentine Strasser
  5. May 25, 1997: Johnny Paul Koroma overthrows Ahmed Tejan Kabbah

Solomon Islands[edit]

  1. 2000 by the Malaita Eagle Force


  1. October 21, 1969: Muhammad Siad Barre overthrows Sheikh Mukhtar Mohamed Hussein
  2. January 26, 1991: Mohammed Farrah Aidid overthrows Muhammad Siad Barre


  1. 603 by General Witerico against king Liuva II
  2. 631 by Duke Sisenando against king Suintila
  3. 642 : Tulga was overthrown by Chindasvinto
  4. 692 : Égica was briefly overthrown by Suniefredo
  5. 1814 : Absolutist pronunciamiento of Fernando VII and Francisco Javier de Elío
  6. 1815 : failed liberal pronunciamiento of Juan Díaz Porlier at A Coruña
  7. 1820 : successful liberal pronunciamiento of Rafael del Riego, start of the Trienio Liberal
  8. 1822 : failed absolutist coup by the Royal Guard of Fernando VII
  9. 1831 : failed liberal pronunciamiento of Manuel de Torrijos
  10. 1835 : liberal pronunciamiento of Cordero y de Quesada
  11. 1836 : successful liberal mutiny of La Granja de San Ildefonso
  12. 1841 : failed Moderate pronunciamiento
  13. 1843 : successful Moderate pronunciamiento of Narváez and Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, end of the Baldomero Espartero regency
  14. 1844 : failed liberal and Esparterist coup, led by Martín Zurbano
  15. 1846 : failed progressive liberal military and civic revolt in Galicia, led by Miguel Solís Cuetos
  16. 1848 : failed progressive liberal military and civic revolt in Madrid, led by colonel Manuel Buceta
  17. 1854 : successful revolutionary coup in Madrid, led by general Leopoldo O'Donnell
  18. 1860 : failed carlist military uprising at Sant Carles de la Ràpita, led by general Jaime Ortega y Olleta
  19. 1866 : failed Progressive and Democrat coup in Madrid
  20. 1866 : failed pronunciamiento of Villarejo de Salvanés, led by general Juan Prim
  21. 1868 : successful Glorious Revolution, started by the pronunciamiento of Juan Bautista Topete in Cádiz
  22. 1874 : successful coup of Manuel Pavía y Rodríguez de Alburquerque
  23. 1874 : successful "Pronunciamiento de Sagunto", that ends the Spanish First Republic and restores monarchy and the Borbón family at the throne
  24. 1883 : failed 5 August republican pronunciamiento in Badajoz
  25. 1886 : failed republican coup in Madrid, led by Manuel Villacampa del Castillo and Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla
  26. 1923 by Miguel Primo de Rivera against Manuel García Prieto
  27. 1926 : failed "Sanjuanada", a coup against the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera
  28. 1929 : failed coup against the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera, led by José Sánchez-Guerra y Martínez
  29. 1930 : failed republican pronunciamiento of the Jaca uprising
  30. 1932 by José Sanjurjo failed to overthrow Manuel Azaña
  31. 1936 by Francisco Franco against Manuel Azaña and the Second Spanish Republic, starting the Spanish Civil War
  32. 1939 by Segismundo Casado against the republican government of Juan Negrín
  33. November 17, 1978: An aborted coup led by Antonio Tejero to stop the Spanish transition to democracy.
  34. February 23, 1981: A group led by Tejero broke into the Congress of Deputies while they were preparing to elect Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo as the new prime minister. King Juan Carlos denounced the coup in a nationally televised address, and the coup collapsed the next day with no casualties.
  35. October 27, 1982: A group of far-right colonels failed to overthrow Calvo Sotelo.
  36. June 2, 1985: a group of far-right soldiers and officers (along with some civilians) planned to take power following a false flag attack, but the conspiracy was later aborted.[citation needed]


  1. November 16, 1958: Ibrahim Abboud overthrows Abdallah Khalil
  2. 1964: The October Revolution in Sudan, driven by a general strike and rioting, forced President Ibrahim Abboud to transfer executive power to a transitional civilian government, and eventually to resign.
  3. May 25, 1969: Gaafar al-Nimeiry overthrows Ismail al-Azhari
  4. July 19–22, 1971: Failed communist coup
  5. 2 February 1977: Failed coup attempt in Juba
  6. April 6, 1985: Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab overthrows Gaafar al-Nimeiry
  7. June 30, 1989: Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir overthrows Ahmed al-Mirghani
  8. 10 April 2019: Sudanese Armed Forces overthrow Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir


  1. February 25, 1980: military coup led by Dési Bouterse ousts Prime Minister Henck Arron.
  2. August 13, 1980: the military led by Dési Bouterse ousts President Johan Ferrier.
  3. December 24, 1990: President Ramsewak Shankar dismissed by Suriname's military.


  1. 1717: Wilchingen against the City of Schaffhausen[citation needed]
  2. 1719: Werdenberg against Glarus[citation needed]
  3. 1723: Military led by Major Abraham Davel (Vaud) against City of Bern[citation needed]
  4. 1726: Peasants of Jura against Bistum of Basel[citation needed]
  5. 1755: Leventina (Ticino) against Canton Uri[citation needed]
  6. 1781: Chenaux (Fribourg) against Canton Fribourg[citation needed]
  7. 1797: Peasants of Baselgebiet against the City of Basel and ousted Peter Ochs and Peter Vischer[citation needed]
  8. January 8, 1800: Republicans (Hans Konrad Escher, Paul Usteri, Albrecht Rengger, Bernhard Friedrich Kuhn.) ousting the Patriots ( Karl Albrecht von Frisching, Karl von Müller-Friedberg und Carl Heinrich Gschwend)
  9. August 7, 1800: Patriots ousting the Republicans
  10. October, 27/28 1801: Federalist (Alois Reding & Johann Rudolf von Frisching) with help of the French Raymond Verninac ousting Unitarier and Patriots
  11. April 17, 1802: Unitarier under the Lead of Bernhard Friedrich Kuhns ousting the Federalist Alois Reding
  12. September 6, 1839: Züriputsch: Radical Movement under the lead of Conrad Melchior Hirzel & Fridrich Ludwig Keller ousting the Liberals. Killing of Johannes Hegtschweiler.


  1. 1434: A Swedish peasant rebellion breaks out against the Danes.[citation needed]
  2. 1542: The Dacke War in Sweden.[citation needed]
  3. 1743: The Fourth Dalecarlian Rebellion in Sweden.[citation needed]
  4. 1756: Coup of 1756 of queen Louisa Ulrika the Riksdag of the Estates
  5. 1772: Revolution of 1772 by Gustav III of Sweden against the Privy Council of Sweden
  6. 1793: A coup by Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt, in companionship with Magdalena Rudenschöld, with the intent to depose the guardian government of Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden, is exposed.
  7. 1809: Coup of 1809 by a number of army officers against king Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden


  1. 1925–1927: The Great Syrian Revolt, a revolt initiated by the Druze and led by Sultan al-Atrash against French Mandate.[citation needed]
  2. March 29, 1949 by Husni al-Za'im against Shukri al-Quwatli
  3. August 14, 1949 by Sami al-Hinnawi against Husni al-Za'im
  4. December 3, 1951 by Adib Shishakli against Hashim al-Atassi
  5. February 25, 1954 by Maamun al-Kuzbari against Adib Shishakli
  6. September 29, 1961 by Haydar al-Kuzbari and others against Gamal Abdel Nasser
  7. March 8, 1963 by Lu'ayy al-Atasi against Nazim al-Kudsi
  8. February 21–23, 1966 by Salah Jadid against Amin Hafiz
  9. November 13, 1970 by Hafez al-Assad against Salah Jadid


The number of coups in Thailand—whether successful or unsuccessful— is uncertain, leading one academic to call for a concerted effort to make a definitive list.[41] According to Paul Chambers, a professor at Chiang Mai University's Institute for South-East Asian Affairs, there have been almost 30 coup attempts in Thailand (whether successful or unsuccessful) since 1912. Some count 11 coups since 1932.[42] Others claim there were 13 since 1932.[43]

  1. 1912: Coup planned by military officers is discovered and thwarted.
  2. 24 June 1932: The Khana Ratsadon party overthrows the absolute monarchy of King Prajadhipok.[44]
  3. 20 June 1933: Phraya Phahon Phonphayuhasena overthrows Phraya Manopakorn Nititada.[44]
  4. 11–23 October 1933: Royalist rebellion to overturn the results of the June 1933 coup d'état.
  5. 3 August 1935: The Nai Sip rebellion.[45]
  6. 29 January 1939: More a purge or internal coup, it was the work of Prime Minister Phibul to remove political enemies and rivals.[45]
  7. 7 November 1947: Phin Choonhavan overthrows Thawal Thamrong Navaswadhi.[44]
  8. Thai 1949 Coup: Attempted coup by Pridi, which saw the Grand Palace occupied by his supporters, failed.[45]
  9. 29 June 1951: Pridi supporters in the navy attempted a coup when they tried to seize Phibun.[45]
  10. 29 November 1951: Military overthrows 1949 constitution and reverts to 1932 constitution.[44]
  11. 21 September 1957: Sarit Thanarat overthrows Plaek Pibulsongkram[44]
  12. 20 October 1958: Self-coup of Sarit Thanarat[44]
  13. 18 November 1971: Self-coup of Thanom Kittikachorn[44]
  14. February 1976: An attempted military coup was defeated in February.[45]
  15. 6 October 1976: Sangad Chaloryu overthrows Seni Pramoj[44]
  16. 20 October 1977: Kriangsak Chamanan overthrows Thanin Kraivichien[44]
  17. 1981: A coup led by the deputy commander-in-chief of the army failed when forces loyal to the government suppressed the revolt. The "Young Turk" group of officers who staged the coup were dismissed from the army.[45]
  18. 1985: A coup attempt by Col. Manoonkrit Roopkachorn, a member of the Young Turks, failed and a number of senior officers were later arrested.[45]
  19. 24 February 1991: Sunthorn Kongsompong overthrows Chatichai Choonhavan[44]
  20. 19 September 2006: Sonthi Boonyaratglin overthrows Thaksin Shinawatra[44]
  21. 22 May 2014: Prayut Chan-o-cha overthrows Niwatthamrong Boonsongpaisan[44]


  1. January 13, 1963: Étienne Eyadéma and Emmanuel Bodjollé overthrow Sylvanus Olympio
  2. January 13, 1967: Étienne Eyadéma and Kléber Dadjo overthrow Nicolas Grunitzky


  1. December 30, 1987: Bantu Holomisa overthrows Stella Sigcau.


  1. July 15, 1957: Habib Bourguiba overthrows King Muhammad VIII al-Amin
  2. November 7, 1987: Zine El Abidine Ben Ali overthrows Habib Bourguiba


  1. January, 1929: Pro-Soviet, anti-Buddhist faction of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party overthrows the government of the Tuvan People's Republic, in modern Tuva.


  1. January 23, 1913: The Committee of Union and Progress overthrows Grand Vizier Kâmil Pasha.
  2. May 27, 1960: A group of mid ranking army officers, later called the National Unity Committee, overthrows the government led by Prime Minister Adnan Menderes
  3. February 22, 1962: A failed coup attempt led by Colonel Talat Aydemir due to the discontent by the election results on July 9, 1961.
  4. May 20, 1963: A second failed coup attempt led by officers loyal to Colonel Talat Aydemir who was retired after the previous coup attempt. The plotters were motivated by the purges of army officers that took part in May 27, 1960 coup. Ismet Inonu's government prevented the coup. Colonel Talat Aydemir, who was granted amnesty for the previous attempt, was executed.
  5. March 9, 1971: A coup attempt by leftist army officers was thwarted.
  6. March 12, 1971 under four force commanders of the Turkish Armed Forces overthrows Süleyman Demirel
  7. September 12, 1980: Chief of the General Staff Kenan Evren overthrows the government led by Prime Minister Süleyman Demirel
  8. February 28, 1997: the General Staff issues a memorandum demanding the reversal of several policies of the Islamist government of Necmettin Erbakan, precipitating its collapse. Due to the lack of an overt military takeover, the event is popularly known as the "postmodern coup" (Turkish: Post-modern darbe).
  9. April 27, 2007: Amidst a political deadlock concerning ongoing presidential elections, the General Staff issues a statement, later called E-memorandum, about the presidential election understood to be a criticism of the ruling AKP's candidate, Abdullah Gül. The crisis was resolved by an early election held later that year, which resulted in Gul's winning the presidency in a landslide.
  10. July 15, 2016: A faction of the military attempted to overthrow the government of President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.[46]

Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

  1. July 27 – August 1, 1990: Failed coup attempt by Islamist Jamaat al Muslimeen organization led by Yasin Abu Bakr against Prime Minister A. N. R. Robinson


  1. February 1966: Milton Obote overthrows King Mutesa II of Buganda
  2. January 21, 1971: Idi Amin overthrows Milton Obote
  3. May 12, 1980: Paulo Muwanga overthrows Godfrey Binaisa
  4. July 27, 1985: Tito Okello Lutwa overthrows Milton Obote
  5. January 26, 1986: Yoweri Museveni overthrows Tito Okello Lutwa[citation needed]


  1. April 29, 1918: Pavlo Skoropadskyi overthrows the socialist government of the Central Council of Ukraine
  2. December 14, 1918: Directorate of Ukraine overthrows Pavlo Skoropadskyi

United Kingdom[edit]

  1. 1820 Cato Street Conspiracy (planning stages only, failed)
  2. 1968/1974 Harold Wilson conspiracies (planning stages only, failed)

United States[edit]

  1. March 1783 Newburgh Conspiracy (Gen. George Washington failed to join, failed)
  2. 1841–1842 Dorr Rebellion (Rhode Island, failed)
  3. November 10, 1898: The Wilmington, North Carolina insurrection of 1898 (successful)
  4. 1933 Business Plot (planning stages only)


  1. February 10, 1898: Self-coup by Juan Lindolfo Cuestas.
  2. March 31, 1933: Self-coup by Gabriel Terra.
  3. February 21, 1942: Self-coup by Alfredo Baldomir.
  4. June 27, 1973: Juan María Bordaberry closed parliament and established a civic-military dictatorship[47]


  1. Apr 5, 1990: Gabriel Ramushwana overthrows Frank Ravele[48]


  1. 1835: Military rebels led by Pedro Carujo and Julián Castro briefly overthrows the government of José María Vargas
  2. 1858: An uprising led by Pedro Carujo overthrows the government of José Tadeo Monagas
  3. 1899: Cipriano Castro's army overthrows the government of Ignacio Andrade
  4. 1908: Juan Vicente Gómez declares himself president after Cipriano Castro leaves for Europe to receive medical treatment
  5. 1918: A civic-military conspiracy against the government of Juan Vicente Gómez (planning stages only, failed)[49]
  6. 1928: A civic-military uprising, led by Captain Rafael Alvarado Franco, with the goal of overthrow the dictatorial government of Juan Vicente Gómez[50]
  7. 1945: President Isaías Medina Angarita was overthrown by a rebellion and a popular movement, which saw a transition to a democratic government.
  8. 1948: A military junta, led by Carlos Delgado Chalbaud overthrows the democratically elected president Rómulo Gallegos
  9. 1958: Dictator Marcos Pérez Jiménez was overthrown by a military rebellion and a popular movement
  10. 1992: A pair of failed coup attempts led by Hugo Chávez
  11. 2002: Brief coup against Hugo Chávez

South Vietnam[edit]

  1. 1960: Lieutenant-Colonel Vương Văn Đông and Colonel Nguyễn Chánh Thi of the Airborne Division of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam failed to depose of President Ngo Dinh Diem.
  2. 1963: General Dương Văn Minh led a group of army officers to oust President Ngo Dinh Diem.
  3. January 1964: General Nguyễn Khánh ousted the military junta led by General Dương Văn Minh in a bloodless coup.
  4. September 1964: Generals Lâm Văn Phát and Dương Văn Đức failed to overthrow the ruling military junta led by General Nguyễn Khánh. The attempt collapsed without any casualties.
  5. December 1964: The ruling military junta, led by General Nguyễn Khánh dissolves the High National Council.
  6. 1965: Army units commanded by General Lâm Văn Phát and Colonel Phạm Ngọc Thảo fight to a stalemate with those of the ruling military junta, led by General Nguyễn Khánh. Following this, however, General Nguyễn Cao Kỳ and Air Marshal Nguyễn Chánh Thi (hostile to both the plotters and to Khánh himself) seized power themselves with the backing of the United States. They then forced Khánh into exile.


  1. 1962 under Abdullah al-Sallal
  2. 1974 under Ibrahim al-Hamdi
  3. 2014–2015 a semi-successful coup against President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi led by the Houthis
  4. 2018 Yemeni coup d'état by the Southern Movement


  1. 6 January 1929: Alexander I of Yugoslavia suspends the constitution and introduces a personal dictatorship. (Self-coup)
  2. 1941: by King Peter II of Yugoslavia against Regent Prince Paul of Yugoslavia
  3. 1945 by Josip Broz Tito against King Peter II of Yugoslavia


  1. January 12, 1964: John Okello led the coup to overthrow Sultan Jamshid bin Abdullah Al Said


  1. July 1, 1990: Mwamba Luchembe failed to overthrow President Kenneth Kaunda
  2. October 28, 1997: Steven Kungu failed to overthrow President Frederick Chiluba


  1. 2007 Alleged coup d'état attempt in June 2007
  2. 2017 resulted in the removal of longtime President Robert Mugabe[51]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Survivor of a coup TIME magazine
  2. ^ Page 455 The Fate of Africa: From the Hopes of Freedom to the Heart of Despair
  3. ^ Page 130 Azerbaijan A Country Study
  4. ^ Riaz, Ali (2004). God Willing: The Politics of Islamism in Bangladesh. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-7425-3085-0.
  5. ^ Khan, Saleh Athar. "Ahmad, Khondakar Mostaq". Banglapedia. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  6. ^ "7th November 1975: Conflict between 'isms'". The Daily Star. 20 November 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  7. ^ McAdam, Marika (2004). Bangladesh. Ediz. Inglese. Lonely Planet. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-74059-280-2.
  8. ^ "Bangladesh's Army Chief Fired". tribunedigital-chicagotribune. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  9. ^ Butenis, Patricia A. (January 12, 2007). "Senior Military Official Discusses State of Emergency with Ambassador". WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks cable: 07DHAKA66_a. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  10. ^ Tharoor, Ishaan (19 January 2012). "Behind Bangladesh's Failed Coup Plot: A History of Violence". Time.
  11. ^ Page 175 Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press
  12. ^ Page 38 A Political and Economic Dictionary of Latin America
  13. ^ Page 80 Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda
  14. ^ Purcell, Roett. "Brazil Under Cardoso". Retrieved 2016-03-19.
  15. ^ Bakewell, Peter A history of Latin America: c. 1450 to the present Blackwell Publishing USA p. 518
  16. ^ Page 141 Industrialized Nature: Brute Force Technology and the Transformation of the Natural World
  17. ^ Page 725 The Encyclopedia of World History: ancient, medieval, and modern, chronologically arranged
  18. ^ Country profile: Burkina Faso BBC News
  19. ^ "Burkina Faso 'foils coup plot by forces loyal to Compaore'". BBC News.
  20. ^ "Burkina Faso foiled coup attempt in early October, minister says". Reuters.
  21. ^ "Au Burkina Faso, le pouvoir affirme avoir déjoué une tentative de coup d'Etat". Le Monde.
  22. ^ Obituary: Ne Win BBC News
  23. ^ Page 64 The Burmese Connection: Illegal Drugs and the Making of the Golden Triangle
  24. ^ a b Timeline: Burundi BBC News
  25. ^ Burundi: Leaders are changing but human rights abuses continue unabated Amnesty International
  26. ^ "Burundi President Pierre Nkurunziza returns to Bujumbura". BBC News. 15 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  27. ^ Who's who: Cambodia, Lon Nol PBS
  28. ^ Page 23 Central Africa
  29. ^ "At least 4 dead in Chad coup attempt: security sources". Reuters. 2 May 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  30. ^ "Two generals, pro-Deby MP arrested for Chad coup plot: prosecutor". Reuters. 2 May 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  31. ^ Bingham, Woodbridge (1950). "Li Shih-min's coup in A. D. 626. I: The climax of princely rivalry". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 70 (2).
  32. ^ Page 221 From Colonization to Democracy: A New Historical Geography of South Africa
  33. ^ Page 86 Conservative Parties, the Right, and Democracy in Latin America
  34. ^ Page 753 Time Almanac, 2004
  35. ^ "Comores: coup d'État déjoué (autorités)". 22 April 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  36. ^ Timeline: Republic of Congo BBC News
  37. ^ Libyan forces foil coup attempt (15 April 2013). "Libyan forces foil coup attempt". Archived from the original on 24 April 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  38. ^ "BBC News – Libya PM Zeidan's brief kidnap was 'attempted coup'". 11 October 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  39. ^ Mydans, Seth. 'People Power II' Doesn't Give Filipinos the Same Glow. February 5, 2001. The New York Times.
  40. ^ Conde, Carlos H. (2006-02-25). "Emergency Rule in Philippines After Failed Coup Is Cited". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-04-07.
  41. ^ Farrelly, Nicholas (8 March 2011). "Counting Thailand's coups". New Mandala. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  42. ^ Taylor, Adam; Kaphle, Anup (2014-05-23). "Thailand's army just announced a coup. Here are 11 other Thai coups since 1932". Washington Post. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  43. ^ Kamnuansilpa, Peerasit; Khan Minh, Le Anh (19 September 2019). "Thailand's 'wicked' development trap" (Opinion). Bangkok Post. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Thailand coup: A brief history of past military coups". The Straits Times. 2014-05-22. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g Tsang, Amie (2014-05-23). "Timeline: Thailand's coups". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 2015-05-20. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  46. ^
  47. ^ Page 590 The Americana Annual: An Encyclopedia of Current Events
  48. ^ Page 106 The Territorial Management of Ethnic Conflict
  49. ^ [1] 1918 - Cronología de historia de Venezuela
  50. ^ [2] Insurrección del 7 de abril de 1928
  51. ^ "Zimbabwe's President Mugabe resigns". 21 November 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2017.

External links[edit]