List of crewed lunar landers

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This is a list of designs for crewed lunar landers, spacecraft intended to land on the Moon. A key aspect is achieving a soft landing, and for an ascent stage to successfully escape the Moon's gravity.[1] Another aspect is how many stages the design has to undergo to achieve its objective, and the number of passengers and amount of payload it can carry.[1]

Name Manufacturer Operator (program and operational timeline) Stages Crew Payload Mass Status Image
Altair Northrop Grumman NASA (Constellation, 2005-2009) Descent, Ascent 4 14,500 kg (32,000 lb) Canceled Altair-Lander (latest).jpg
Apollo Lunar Module Grumman NASA (Apollo, 1969–1972) Descent, Ascent 2 Retired Apollo16LM.jpg
Boeing Lunar Lander Boeing Boeing, NASA (Artemis, 2017–present) Descent, Ascent Rejected [1]
Dynetics HLS Dynetics Dynetics, NASA (Artemis, 2017–present) Single-stage with drop tanks 2-4 Rejected [2]
Integrated Lander Vehicle Blue Origin, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, Draper Laboratory Blue Origin, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, Draper Laboratory, NASA Transfer, Descent, Ascent 2 Rejected [3]
LK RSC Energia/Yuzhnoye Design Office Soviet Union (N1-L3, 1969-1974) Descent, Ascent 1 Canceled LK-3 lunar lander engineering test unit.jpg
Lockheed Martin Lunar Lander Lockheed Martin Lockheed Martin, NASA (Artemis, 2017–present) Single-stage 4 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) Proposed [4]
Starship SpaceX SpaceX Single-stage Planned Starship SN9 Open Rear Flap.jpg [5]
Starship HLS SpaceX NASA (Artemis, 2017–present), SpaceX Single-stage 4 100–200 t (220,000–440,000 lb) Planned [6]
BIS Lunar Lander[2] British Interplanetary Society Single-stage 3 Studies (1939, 1947)
Von Braun Lunar Lander[3] US (1977) Single-stage with drop tanks 20 259 metric tons (with a crew of 10) Study (1952)
Horizon LERV[4] US Army (Project Horizon, 1966) Descent, Ascent 10 - 16 2,700 - 22,000 kg Study (1959) Horizon LERV.png
Lunex Lunar Lander[5] US Air Force (Lunex Project, 1967) Descent, Ascent 3 20,500 kg Study (1958-1961) LunexSpacecraft.png
Gemini lunar lander NASA Langley Research Center, (Project Gemini, 1963) Single 1 Canceled Gemini LOR lander.svg
LEK[6] Soviet Union, (Zvezda Moon base, 1974) Descent, Ascent, Reentry 3 Canceled
FLO Eagle lander NASA (Space Exploration Initiative, 1992–93) Descent, Ascent 4 5,000 kg Canceled FLO Eagle lander.jpg

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "NASA studying three-stage approach to human-class lunar landers". 2018-11-20. Retrieved 2019-11-08.
  2. ^ "BIS Lunar Lander". Archived from the original on August 20, 2016.
  3. ^ "Von Braun Lunar Lander". Archived from the original on August 20, 2016.
  4. ^ "Horizon LERV". Archived from the original on December 28, 2016.
  5. ^ "Lunex Lunar Lander". Archived from the original on December 28, 2016.
  6. ^ "LEK". Archived from the original on 16 March 2006. Retrieved 12 January 2022.

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