Page semi-protected

List of cryptids

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a list of cryptids, which are animals presumed by followers of the cryptozoology pseudoscientific subculture to exist on the basis of anecdotal or other evidence considered insufficient by mainstream science. While biologists regularly identify new species following established scientific methodology, cryptozoologists focus on entities mentioned in the folklore record and rumour. Entities that may be considered cryptids by cryptozoologists include Bigfoot, Yeti, the chupacabra, the Jersey Devil, the Loch Ness Monster, or Mokele-mbembe. Related pseudosciences include young Earth creationism,[1][2] ghost hunting, and ufology. Some dictionaries and encyclopedias define the term "cryptid" as an animal whose existence is unsubstantiated.[3][4]



Aquatic or semi-aquatic

Name Other names Description Purported location Depiction
Altamaha-ha[citation needed] Altie Sturgeon or plesiosaur-like river animal Georgia, United States Altamaha-ha.jpg
Ahuizotl (mythology)[5] Ahuizotl It is the size of a small dog, with waterproof fur. Its name comes from the propensity of its fur to spike when it leaves the water. The ahuizotl has hands similar to a monkey's, both on its arms and on its tail. Mexico AhuitzotlGlyphHarvard.jpg
Bear Lake monster[citation needed] Lake monster Idaho/Utah, United States
Bessie[6] Lake Erie Monster Lake monster Lake Erie, North America
Brosno dragon[7] Brosnya Lake monster Lake Brosno, Russia
Bunyip[8] Lake and cave animal Australia Bunyip 1890.jpg
Cadborosaurus[9] Caddy Sea animal Pacific Coast of North America Cadborosaurus October 1937.jpg
Champ[7][10] Champtanystropheus americanus, Champy Lake monster Lake Champlain, North America Artistic representation of Sandra Mansi's 1977 photograph of "Champ" lake monster.jpg
Chessie[citation needed] Sea animal Atlantic Coast of the United States, especially Chesapeake Bay
Dingonek[11] Jungle walrus A tusked water-dwelling animal Western Africa
Dobhar-chú[12] Water Hound Extra-large otter-like carnivorous aquatic mammal Ireland
Giant anaconda[13] Megaconda Giant snake South America
Iemisch[14] Mapinguari A jaguar sized creature resembling an otter Patagonia
Igopogo[7] Kempenfelt Kelly Lake monster Lake Simcoe, Ontario (Canada)
Isshii[7] Issie Lake monster Japan
St. Johns River Monster[15] Johnnie; Borinkus Serpentine river monster St. Johns River, Florida, United States
Kraken Sea animal World's oceans Colossal octopus by Pierre Denys de Montfort.jpg
Kusshii[7] Kussie Lake monster Japan
Lagarfljót Worm[16] lagarfljóts ormurinn Lake monster Iceland
Lake Van Monster Van Gölü Canavarı Lake monster Lake Van, Van, Turkey
Loch Ness Monster[17] Nessie, Nessiteras rhombopteryx Lake monster Loch Ness, Scotland Loch-Ness-Monster.jpg
Mamlambo[7] Lake monster South Africa
Manipogo[7] Winnipogo Lake monster Lake Manitoba, Canada
Mokele-mbembe[9] Dinosaur Republic of the Congo Mokele-mbembe ill artlibre jnl.png
Mugwump[18] Old Tessie, Monster of Lake Timiskaming Lake monster Lake Timiskaming, Canada
Nahuelito[7] Nahuel Huapi Lake Monster Lake monster Nahuel Huapi Lake, Argentina
Ningen[19] Aquatic humanoid Subantarctic oceans Ningen.jpg
Ogopogo[7][10] N'ha•a•itk, Naitaka Lake monster Lake Okanagan, Canada
Sea serpents[20] Sea animals, dinosaurs All bodies of water Soe Orm 1555.jpg
Selma[7] Seljordsormen Lake monster Lake Seljord, Telemark, Norway
Steller's sea ape[21] Sea animal Pacific Ocean
Tahoe Tessie[citation needed] Lake Tahoe monster Lake monster Lake Tahoe, in California and Nevada, United States
Trinity Alps giant salamander Giant salamander[22] California, United States


Name Other names Description Purported location Depiction
Almas[7][10] Abnauayu, almasty, albasty, bekk-bok,
biabin-guli, golub-yavan, gul-biavan, auli-avan,
kaptar, kra-dhun, ksy-giik, ksy-gyik, ochokochi,
mirygdy, mulen, voita, wind-man, Zana
Non-human ape or hominid Asia/Caucasus
Barmanou[7] Barmanu, Big Hairy One Ape or hominid Middle East/Asia
Beast of Bodmin Moor[23] Large felid Cornwall, England
Beast of Exmoor[13] Big cat England
Bigfoot[24] Sasquatch Large and hairy ape-like creature United States and Canada Pie Grande.jpg
British big cats[23] Alien big cats (ABCs), phantom cats, mystery cats, English lions,
Beast of Bodmin, Beast of Exmoor
Carnivorous mammal Great Britain
Bukit Timah Monkey Man[25] BTM, BTMM Forest-dwelling hominid or other primate Singapore
Chuchunya[26][7] Large hominid Russia
Chupacabra[27] Chupacabras (Spanish for goat-sucker) Puerto Rico (originally),
South and Central America,
Southern North America
Chupacabra (artist's rendition).jpg
Ebu gogo[28] Small primate, possible early hominid Flores, Indonesia
Elwetritsch[29] Mammal Germany
Flatwoods monster[30] Braxton County Monster, Phantom of Flatwoods Flatwoods, West Virginia Flatwoods monster.png
Fresno Nightcrawlers[31] Fresno alien Two legged humanoid Fresno, California
Fouke Monster[citation needed] Jonesville Monster, Southern Sasquatch, Boggy Creek Monster Hominid or other primate Arkansas, United States
Great Spider[citation needed] Jba Fofi, Congolese Giant Spider, Giant Spider Enormous Spider Congo, Uganda, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam, Louisiana, United States, Zimbabwe
Honey Island Swamp monster[32] Letiche, Tainted Keitre Hominid or other primate Louisiana, United States
Le Loyon[33] The Ghoul of Maules Humanoid Sâles, Fribourg
Lizard Man of Scape Ore Swamp[34] Lizard Man of Lee County Bipedal South Carolina, United States
Mapinguari[35][36][37] English: Brazilian bigfoot,[38]
Karitiana: kida harara,[39]
Machiguenga: segamai[40][41]
Alternately described as a hairy humanoid cyclops with a gaping mouth on its belly, or a relict giant ground sloth South America, particularly Brazil
Michigan Dogman[42] Humanoid dog Wexford County, Michigan
Minhocão[7] Big Earthworm Caecilian South America
Mngwa[23] Nunda Carnivorous mammal Tanzania
Mogollon Monster[citation needed] Mug-ee-yun Monster Bipedal primate Mogollon Rim, Arizona, United States
Mongolian death worm[13] Allghoi (or orghoi) khorkhoi Worm-like animal Gobi Desert (Asia)
Monkey-man of Delhi[13] Black Monkey Big black monkey Old Delhi, India
Orang-bati[7] Bipedal Indonesia
Orang Mawas[7] Mawas, Orang Dalam, Hantu Jarang Gigi Primate Malaysia
Ozark Howler[citation needed] Ozark Black Howler Carnivorous mammal Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, United States
Shunka Warakin[citation needed] Carnivorous mammal; wolf-like, boar-like, hyena-like Western United States (especially Montana)
Skunk ape[43] Stink Ape, Myakka Ape, Myakka Skunk Ape Primate Florida, United States The Florida Skunk Ape - panoramio.jpg
Yeren[44][43] Yiren, Yeh Ren, Chinese Wildman Primate (possible hominin) China
Yeti[45] Abominable Snowman Large and hairy human-like entity, various other descriptions Himalayas (Asia) B5bugerbear.jpg
Yowie[46] Large and hairy human-like entity, various other descriptions Australia Yowie-statue-Kilcoy-Queensland.JPG


Name Other names Description Purported location Depiction
Jersey Devil[17] Leeds Devil Winged bipedal horse United States, mainly the South Jersey Pine Barrens, as well as other parts of New Jersey and southeastern Pennsylvania Jersey Devil Philadelphia Post 1909.jpg
Mothman[47] Popularized by John A. Keel's book The Mothman Prophecies Winged bipedal Mason County, West Virginia, United States Mothman Artist's Impression.png
Thunderbird[48] Giant bird North America

See also


  1. ^ Hill, Sharon A. (2017). Scientifical Americans: The Culture of Amateur Paranormal Researchers. McFarland. p. 66. ISBN 9781476630823.
  2. ^ Card, Jeb J. (2016). "Steampunk Inquiry: A Comparative Vivisection of Discovery Pseudoscience". In Card, Jeb J.; Anderson, David S. (eds.). Lost City, Found Pyramid: Understanding Alternative Archaeologies and Pseudoscientific Practices. University of Alabama Press. p. 32. ISBN 9780817319113. Creationists have embraced cryptozoology and some cryptozoological expeditions are funded by and conducted by creationists hoping to disprove evolution.
  3. ^ "Cryptid". Oxford Dictionaries Online. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  4. ^ "Sasquatch". Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  5. ^ Bowles, David (2012). Mexican Bestiary. Donna, Texas: VAO Publishing. ISBN 978-0615571195.
  6. ^ Loren Coleman, Jerome Clark. "Cryptozoology A to Z", p. 36
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "The world's greatest imaginary animals". Salon. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  8. ^ "Australia's terrifying cryptid of the swamp". Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  9. ^ a b Loxton and Prothero (2015:261-295).
  10. ^ a b c Michael Shermer; Pat Linse (November 2002). The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 72. ISBN 9781576076538.
  11. ^ "10 mysterious monsters of Africa". Afrikanza. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  12. ^ "Ireland's hound of deep - Dobhar Chu". Irish Central News. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  13. ^ a b c d "Cryptozoology: What else is out there?". TNT Magazine. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  14. ^ Heuvelmans, Bernard (1959). On the Track of Unknown Animals. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN 0-7103-0498-6.
  15. ^ Gilmore, Tim (9 September 2020). "In search of the St. Johns River Monster". The Jaxson. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  16. ^ "Is this Iceland's Loch Ness monster? Lagarfljot river worm caught on film". The Independent. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  17. ^ a b S.J. Velasquez (31 October 2015). "The monster you should never find". BBC Online. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  18. ^ Heinselman, Craig. "Mugwump of the Lake". Strange Ark. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  19. ^ "Cryptid Profile: Ningen". THE PINE BARRENS INSTITUTE. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
  20. ^ Loxton and Prothero (2015:228-326).
  21. ^ Nickell, Joe (Winter 2016–2017). "Steller's Sea Ape: Identifying an Eighteenth-Century Cryptid". Skeptical Briefs. Vol. 26 no. 4. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry.
  22. ^ Fortean Times. John Brown Pub. 1997. p. 43.
  23. ^ a b c "Fantastic Cryptids And Where To Find Them". Forbes. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  24. ^ Loxton and Prothero (2015:29–70).
  25. ^ "On the hunt for the elusive Bukit Timah Monkey Man". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  26. ^ O'Carroll, Eoin (28 September 2018). "Bigfoot and beyond: Why tales of wild men endure". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  27. ^ Brian Regal (15 October 2009). Pseudoscience: A Critical Encyclopedia: A Critical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-35508-0.
  28. ^ "Maybe Bigfoot believers aren't crazy after all". New York Post. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  29. ^ Press, Clayton. "Oliver Laric Celebrates the Year of the Dog at Metro Pictures". Forbes. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  30. ^ Nickell, Joe (2 November 2000). "The Flatwoods UFO Monster". Skeptical Inquirer. Vol. 24 no. 6. CSICOP. pp. 15–19.
  31. ^ "Bigfoot, Chupacabra, and … Fresno Nightcrawler? Walking pants bring Fresno freaky fame". The Fresno Bee. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
  32. ^ Frances, Leary (December 2003). "The Honey Island Swamp Monster: The Development and Maintenance of Folk and Commodified Belief Tradition" (PDF) (Memorial University of Newfoundland): 4–6. Retrieved 18 March 2021. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  33. ^ "Le Loyon". Astonishing Legends. 2 September 2020. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  34. ^ Laycock, Joseph P. (11 July 2018). "A Search for Mysteries and Monsters in Small Town America". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  35. ^ Eberhart, George M. (2002). Mysterious Creatures: A Guide to Cryptozoology. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-283-5. OCLC 50562074.
  36. ^ Coleman, Loren; Clark, Jerome (2008). The Cryptozoology A to Z: The Encyclopedia of Loch Monsters, Sasquatch, Chupacabras, and Other Authentic Mysteries of Nature. Paw Prints. ISBN 978-1-4395-6477-6. OCLC 259258061.
  37. ^ Coleman, Loren (26 July 2014). "Giant Anteaters Kill Two Hunters in Brazil ~ An anteater "stood on its hind legs"? #Mapinguari?". Twitter. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  38. ^ "Man v. Monster: Brazilian Bigfoot Full Episode | TV Guide". 7 December 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  39. ^ Felipe Ferreira Vander Velden "Sobre caes e indios: domesticidade, classificacao zoologica e relacao humano-animal entre os Karitiana", Revista de Antropología 15 (2009) p. 125-143
  40. ^ Oren, David C. "Does the Endangered Xenarthran Fauna of Amazonia Include Remnant Ground Sloths?", Edentata (June 2001) p. 2-5
  41. ^ Rohter, Larry (8 July 2007). "A Huge Amazon Monster Is Only a Myth. Or Is It?". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  42. ^ "Who's a good boy? Not the Michigan Dogman". Michigan Radio. 30 October 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  43. ^ a b Caleb W. Lack, PhD; Jacques Rousseau, MA (8 March 2016). Critical Thinking, Science, and Pseudoscience: Why We Can't Trust Our Brains. Springer Publishing Company. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-8261-9426-8.
  44. ^ "It's the monstrous new trend sweeping travel – what is cryptid-tourism?". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  45. ^ Loxton, Daniel; Prothero, Donald (2013). Abominable Snowman: Origins of Yeti, Nessie, and other Famous Cryptids. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-52681-4.
  46. ^ Caleb W. Lack, PhD; Jacques Rousseau, MA (8 March 2016). Critical Thinking, Science, and Pseudoscience: Why We Can't Trust Our Brains. Springer Publishing Company. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-8261-9426-8.
  47. ^ Kantrowitz, Lia; Fitzmaurice, Larry; Terry, Josh (16 January 2018). "People Keep Seeing the Mothman in Chicago". Vice. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  48. ^ "The mythic child-stealing Thunderbirds of Illinois". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 11 December 2018.

External links

  • The dictionary definition of cryptid at Wiktionary
  • Media related to Cryptozoology at Wikimedia Commons